Gentemann C.L.,Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2014
The estimation of retrieval uncertainty and stability are essential for the accurate interpretation of data in scientific research, use in analyses, or numerical models. The primary uncertainty sources of satellite SST retrievals are due to errors in spacecraft navigation, sensor calibration, sensor noise, retrieval algorithms, and incomplete identification of corrupted retrievals. In this study, comparisons to in situ data are utilized to investigate retrieval accuracies of microwave (MW) SSTs from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and infrared (IR) SSTs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The highest quality MODIS data were averaged to 25 km for comparison. The in situ SSTs are used to determine dependencies on environmental parameters, evaluate the identification of erroneous retrievals, and examine biases and standard deviations (STD) for each of the satellite SST data sets. Errors were identified in both the MW and IR SST data sets: (1) at low atmospheric water vapor a posthoc correction added to AMSR-E was incorrectly applied and (2) there is significant cloud contamination of nighttime MODIS retrievals at SST <10°C. A correction is suggested for AMSR-E SSTs that will remove the vapor dependency. For MODIS, once the cloud contaminated data were excluded, errors were reduced but not eliminated. Biases were found to be -0.05°C and -0.13°C and standard deviations to be 0.48°C and 0.58°C for AMSR-E and MODIS, respectively. Using a three-way error analysis, individual standard deviations were determined to be 0.20°C (in situ), 0.28°C (AMSR-E), and 0.38°C (MODIS). Key Points A global validation of MODIS and AMSR-E SSTs is completed AMSR-E v7 has biasing at low values of water vapor; a correction is suggested MODIS c5 has cloud contamination in night SST retrievals at surface temperatures <10°C © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Wentz F.J.,Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2015
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began operating in December 1997 and was shut down on 8 April 2015. Over the oceans, the microwave (MW) sensor aboard TRMM measures sea surface temperature, wind speed, and rain rate as well as atmospheric columnar water vapor and cloud liquid water. Improved calibration methods are applied to the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and a 17-yr climate record of these environmental parameters is produced so as to be consistent with the climate records from 13 other MW sensors. These TMI retrievals are validated relative to in situ observations over its 17-yr mission life. All indications point to TMI being an extremely stable sensor capable of providing satellite climate records of unprecedented length and accuracy. © 2015 American Meteorological Society.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2015
Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to identify methods to extract meteorological measurements from Counter-fire Target Acquisition (CTA) radar echoes to provide the radar and counterfire weapon with ballistic trajectory correction estimates and the crew with hazardous weather warnings. This capability is needed when joint meteorological data from the US Air Force is not available due to downed communications, or when the US Air Force's radar coverage isn't available or isn't at the granularity or pedigree required to improve CTA radar performance and improve counter-fire locations. During Phase I, we will analyze and conduct modeling and simulation to determine the feasibility of utilizing see-through-the-sensor technology for ballistic trajectory correction and hazardous weather warning. We will develop an initial concept design and model key elements to conduct proof of concept. During Phase II we will design and develop a see-through-the-sensor prototype and conduct testing to prove feasibility over extended operating conditions.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2013
The objective of this effort is to develop signal waveform characteristics and processing algorithms that will deduce sensor-invariant attributes of a tracked object so that it can be classified, discriminated and evaluated for engagement. Under our proposed effort, we will develop enhanced radio frequency (RF) signal waveforms and associated processing algorithms, using a physics-based approach, to improve Aegis BMD engagement capability in raid environments. Our innovative techniques employ novel RF waveform characteristics such as modulation, timing, and phasing to deduce target characteristics such as its reflective, inertial, and material properties that can significantly enhance radar effectiveness and increase the probability of engagement success. The goal of our new RF waveform design effort is to require minimal changes to the radar hardware and use RF data processing algorithms that can be implemented in existing signal processors. We plan to develop a non-operational model showing how the new RF waveform characteristics can deduce such target characteristics as reflectivity, material construction, and others characteristics.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2013
The objective of the proposed research project is to develop novel algorithms and signal processing techniques that will minimize Aegis-to-3G & 4G and 3G & 4G-to-Aegis interference. We will perform an investigation and research of new RF waveform characteristics that could enhance Aegis BMD coexistence with civilian 3G and 4G communication networks. Under this effort, we will design innovative RF techniques (i.e. modulation, timing and phasing) that can help increase AN/SPY-1 S-band radar compatibility with civilian 3G and 4G communication networks. These new RF waveforms will be largely compatible with the existing AN/SPY-1 S-band radar. The associated processing algorithms that will support the new RF waveforms will be developed, as well. The output of the Phase I will be a proof of concept design / study and identification of designs / models and test capabilities. A feasibility assessment for the proposed model, techniques, and methods proposed will be conducted. We will clearly validate the viability of the proposed solution during the Phase I effort resulting in a clear concept of operations document.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2013
The objective of this effort is to develop track-before-detect algorithms to provide greater signal processing gain for pulsed-Doppler radars. We will develop and demonstrate signal processing techniques to be used in next-generation ground-based radars to detect and track objects of interest. We will complete a feasibility analysis of the proposed techniques on high-speed, low RCS targets which was initiated in Phase I. We will design, develop, and produce a prototype to address the problem of radar range-Doppler straddle. We will demonstrate the prototype and innovative signal processing techniques on a suitable test bed platform provided by the Government. The prototype will be made available to the Government for testing and evaluation; the verification and validation of the technical approach will be achieved through analysis, simulations, and/or other quantitative means. At the completion of the effort, we will deliver a detailed report of this effort and its results.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016
Development of a low-cost marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) measurement system which could serve as a core element of a buoy-based data collection network for the offshore renewable energy industry is needed. A commercially viable, buoy-based remote sensing technology for MABL characterization for offshore wind applications is needed. Key requirements are that measurements must support profiles of wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and atmospheric stability up to heights of 200 m, with data sampling and communication rates appropriate for advanced rapid refresh weather modeling. In addition, the sensor package size, weight and power consumption should be suitable for deployment on existing met-ocean buoy platforms. The measurement technology should serve as a lower-cost alternative to existing measurement technologies. How This Problem is Being Addressed: The objective of this research and development effort is to develop a low cost, low power, fully coherent, marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) Doppler radar measurement system which can serve as a core element of a buoy-based data collection network for the offshore renewable energy industry. Since the radar provides only wind related data products, additional measurement techniques to measure temperature, humidity and atmospheric stability are proposed. The heart of our proposed MABL measurement system is a compact wind profiling radar measurement instrument that provides buoy-based MABL characterization for offshore wind applications, including profiles of wind speed and direction to heights of over 200 m and communication rates appropriate for advanced rapid refresh weather modeling. The atmospheric measurement package size, weight, and power consumption are projected to be suitable for deployment on existing met-ocean buoy platforms. Phase I Work Plan: The Phase I work plan encompasses the following tasks: (1) developing requirements in consultation with DOE scientists and engineers, and then (2) conducting functional analyses/trade studies/allocation studies, (3) synthesizing alternative concepts, (4) conducting bench testing of critical technologies such as antenna technology and high dynamic range receiver components, and (5) determining the feasibility of our design to meet DOE requirements, including weight, power, and measurement quality. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The paucity of adequate measurements needed to characterize the kinematic and thermodynamic state of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been a perennial problem facing meteorologists and atmospheric scientists. The complex interactions of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) with the Earth’s surface tend to make this layer of the atmosphere highly variable in time and spatially inhomogeneous. Diagnostic and prognostic equations conventionally used in the lower free atmosphere are difficult to apply in the ABL, which makes the need for measurements all the more necessary. Application of the technology to be developed promises to provide a lower-cost and more complete alternative to existing measurement technologies leading to significant cost savings in the offshore wind farm industry. Key Words: Marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) measurement system; Wind profiling radar; Wind speed and direction measurement; Buoy-based atmospheric sensing; Buoy-based data collection network for the offshore renewable energy industry; Measurements that support profiles of wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and atmospheric stability
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to research applicable technologies related to Doppler weather radar, processing data from the radar sensor, and delivering the data over the DoD IT infrastructure. The Doppler weather radar will be designed for use by the Air Force Weather Agency and will detect 1 in/hr precipitation from 5-180 nmi, winds up to 50 kt from 5-50 nmi, have a 2-4 degree beamwidth, provide 360 deg azimuth and up to 60 degree elevation coverage, and be two man transportable. As part of Phase I, we will conduct antenna trade studies between mechanical and electronic scan, single versus dual polarization, single versus dual frequency, single versus multiple faces, and multi-functionality to include air surveillance versus single weather detection. During Phase II, we will design, develop, deliver, and demonstrate a physical and electronic brassboard-level prototype of a Doppler radar solution, defined in Phase I. Assembly, disassembly and transport will be demonstrated through production representative article physical mock-up. We will work closely with the Air Force to provide feedback on operational suitability.BENEFIT:The technology from this SBIR effort will become instrumental in the development of a variety of Department of Defense and commercial radar applications. Small, portable, light weight radars suitable for weather monitoring, combined with counter-airborne vehicle detection and track promises to be of significant interest to many agencies including the Air Force, Army, Navy, Marines, and Special Forces. In addition, with the growing use of UASs in the world, this capability promises to have many applications for local UAS operation, both commercially and for additional Federal agencies such as Department of Homeland Security and Department of Energy.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2015
Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to develop and estimate the performance of innovative improvements to radar systems that will help defeat advanced countermeasures. Novel signal processing techniques for detecting and filtering objects will provide for improved radar tracking in dense raid environments. The proposed techniques will allow for rapid filtering of debris and advanced countermeasure objects in a threat complex, and will correctly identify credible objects within the complex and enhance tracking of those objects. Our Phase II effort will extend our Phase I proof of concept study; we will identify designs, models, and test capabilities in greater detail than during Phase I. Our plan is to integrate debris mitigation technology into a high fidelity simulation to allow performance evaluation against representative missile defense raid scenarios, and to demonstrate significant track and discrimination enhancement opportunities. Our Phase II work will validate the viability of the proposed solution and the concept of operations will be clearly documented. Approved for Public Release 15-MDA-8169 (20 March 15)
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015
Helios Remote Sensing Systems, Inc. proposes to develop a new Submarine Imaging Mast Direction Finding (DF) capability for the Next Generation Submarine Electronic Warfare (EW) System. During Phase I, Helios will define and develop concepts for a submarine imaging mast DF capability. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept in meeting Navy needs and will establish that the concept can be developed into a useful product for the Navy. Feasibility will be established by analytical modeling. During Phase II, Helios will develop a DF prototype for evaluation. The prototype will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting performance goals and Navy requirements for a Next Generation EW Digital DF for submarines. System performance will be demonstrated through prototype evaluation and modeling or analytical methods over the required range of parameters including numerous deployment cycles. Evaluation results will be used to refine the prototype into a design that will meet Navy requirements.