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Sabine V.S.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Crozier C.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Brookes C.L.,University of Birmingham | Drake C.,Ontario Cancer Institute | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Deregulation of key PI3K/AKT pathway genes may contribute to endocrine resistance in breast cancer (BC). PIK3CA is the most frequently mutated gene in luminal BC (∼ 35%); however, the effect of mutations in helical versus kinase domains remains controversial. We hypothesize that mproved outcomes occur in patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER positive) BC receiving endocrine therapy and possessing PIK3CA mutations.Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from 4,540 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded BC samples from the Exemes-tane Versus Tamoxifen-Exemestane pathology study. Mutational analyses were performed for 25 mutations (PIK3CAx10, AKT1x1, KRASx5, HRASx3, NRASx2 and BRAFx4).Results: PIK3CA mutations were frequent (39.8%), whereas RAS/RAF mutations were rare (< 1%). In univariable analyses PIK3CA mutations were associated with significantly improved 5-year distant relapse-free survival (DRFS; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.91; P =.003). However, a multivariable analysis correcting for known clinical and biologic prognostic factors failed to demonstrate that PIK3CA mutation status is an independent prognostic marker for DRFS (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.12; P =.4012). PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in low-risk luminal BCs (eg, grade 1 node v3, node-negative v-positive), confounding the relationship between mutations and outcome.Conclusion: PIK3CA mutations are present in approximately 40% of luminal BCs but are not an independent predictor of outcome in the context of endocrine therapy, whereas RAS/RAF mutations are rare in uminal BC. A complex relationship between low-risk cancers and PIK3CA mutations was identified. Although the PI3K/AKT pathway remains a viable therapeutic target as the result of a high mutation frequency, PIK3CA mutations do not seem to affect residual risk following treatment with endocrine therapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Bartlett J.M.S.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Bartlett J.M.S.,University of Edinburgh | Bloom K.J.,Clarient | Piper T.,University of Edinburgh | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Some postmenopausal patients with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer remain at high risk of relapse despite endocrine therapy and, in addition, might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The challenge is to prospectively identify such patients. The Mammostrat test uses five immunohistochemical markers to stratify patients regarding recurrence risk and may inform treatment decisions. We tested the efficacy of this panel in the Tamoxifen versus Exemestane Adjuvant Multicenter (TEAM) trial. Patients and Methods: Pathology blocks from 4,598 TEAM patients were collected, and tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed. The cohort was 47% node-positive, and 36% of patients in the cohort were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Triplicate 0.6- mm2 TMA cores were stained, and positivity for p53, HTF9C, CEACAM5, NDRG1, and SLC7A5 was assessed. Cases were assigned a Mammostrat risk score, and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Results: In multivariate regression analyses, which were corrected for conventional clinicopathologic markers, Mammostrat provided significant additional information on DRFS after endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) -positive node-negative patients (n = 1,226) who did not receive chemotherapy (P = .004). Additional analyses in all patients not exposed to chemotherapy, irrespective of nodal status (n = 2,559) and in the entire cohort (n = 3,837) showed Mammostrat scores provided additional information on DRFS in these groups (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively; multivariate analyses). No differences were seen between the two endocrine treatment regimens. Conclusion: The Mammostrat score predicts DRFS for patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with tamoxifen followed by exemestane irrespective of nodal status and chemotherapy. The ability of this test to provide additional outcome data after treatment provides additional evidence of its use in risk stratification of ER-positive postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Kleiter I.,University of Regensburg | Schroder M.,University of Regensburg | Lurding R.,University of Regensburg | Schuierer G.,University of Regensburg | And 5 more authors.
Multiple Sclerosis | Year: 2010

Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy has become a growing concern in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients. Here, we describe a 35-year-old patient who was treated with 34 infusions of natalizumab before complaining about visual deterioration. MRI was non-diagnostic and JC virus testing initially was negative. Electroencephalography showed severe slowing of the right hemisphere, and neuropsychological testing revealed right frontal and temporal deficits. The diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy was established 2 months later by typical MRI presentation and detection of JC virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. Functional neurological deficits may precede imaging features and should prompt early consideration of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. © The Author(s) 2010.

Hohenberger P.,The Surgical Center | Ronellenfitsch U.,Helios Medical Center | Oladeji O.,The Surgical Center | Pink D.,Helios Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: This study assessed the outcomes of patients with a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) that ruptured before or during resection. Methods: The records of 23 patients (8 women, 15 men; median age 54 years) with ruptured primary non-metastatic GIST were retrieved from a database of 554 patients. The written surgical and pathology reports were analysed. Review pathology was performed in all 23 cases, and mutational analysis of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor α (PDGFRA) genes was performed in 21 patients. Median follow-up was 52 months. Results: Tumour rupture was spontaneous in 16 patients, following abdominal trauma in two and occurred during resection in five. Primary tumour location was the stomach in six patients, duodenum in one and small bowel in 16. Mean tumour size was 102 (range 4-28) cm. According to the Miettinen and Lasota risk classification, the distribution of very low-, low-, intermediate- and high-risk cases was one, two, five and 15 respectively. One patient remained disease-free at 83 months. Fifteen of 16 patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy developed tumour recurrence after a median of 19 months. Median recurrence-free survival in patients with KIT mutations involving codons 557-558 was 11 months. Conclusion: Patients with a rupture of GIST into the abdominal cavity have a risk of recurrence of nearly 100 per cent. In patients with deletion mutations involving codons 557-558, recurrence-free survival was less than 1 year. All patient groups are clear candidates for adjuvant drug therapy. Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

Bartlett J.M.S.,University of Edinburgh | Bartlett J.M.S.,University of Birmingham | Bartlett J.M.S.,Leiden University | Bartlett J.M.S.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 123 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial included a prospectively planned pathology substudy testing the predictive value of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression for outcome of estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) early breast cancer treated with exemestane versus tamoxifen. Patients and Methods Pathology blocks from 4,781 TEAM patients randomly assigned to exemestane versus tamoxifen followed by exemestane for 5 years of total therapy were collected centrally, and tissue microarrays were constructed from samples from 4,598 patients. Quantitative analysis of hormone receptors (ER and PgR) was performed by using image analysis and immunohistochemistry, and the results were linked to outcome data from the main TEAM trial and analyzed relative to disease-free survival and treatment. Results Of 4,325 eligible ER-positive patients, 23% were PgR-poor (Allred < 4) and 77% were PgRrich (Allred ≥ 5). No treatment-by-marker effect for PgR was observed for exemestane versus tamoxifen (PgR-rich hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.05; PgR-poor HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.19; P=.88 for interaction). Both PgR and ER expression were associated with patient prognosis in univariate (PgR HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65; P < 01; ER HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.86; P=.002), and multivariate analyses (P < .001 and P=.001, respectively). A trend toward a treatment-by-marker effect for ER-rich patients was observed. Conclusion Preferential exemestane versus tamoxifen treatment benefit was not predicted by PgR expression; conversely, patients with ER-rich tumors may derive additional benefit from exemestane. Quantitative analysis of ER and PgR expression provides highly significant information on risk of early relapse (within 1 to 3 years) during treatment. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

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