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Wuppertal, Germany

Varga-Szabo D.,Helios Klinikum Wuppertal | Braun A.,University of Wurzburg | Nieswandt B.,University of Wurzburg
Cell Calcium | Year: 2011

Physiological platelet activation and thrombus formation are essential to stop bleeding in case of vascular injury, whereas inadequate triggering of the same process in diseased vessels can lead to fatal thromboembolism and tissue ischemia of vital organs. A central step in platelet activation is agonist-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. This happens on the one hand through the release of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores and on the other hand through Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space. In platelets, the major Ca 2+ influx pathway is the so-called store operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE), induced by store depletion. Studies in the last five years discovered the molecular background of platelet SOCE. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orai1, two so far unknown molecules, got in the focus of research. STIM1 was found to be the Ca 2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, whereas Orai1 was identified as the major store operated Ca 2+ (SOC) channel in the plasma membrane. These two molecules and their role in platelet function and thrombus formation are the topic of the present review with a special focus on apoptosis and apoptosis-like processes in platelet physiology. © 2011. Source

New therapeutics for the treatment of chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism, such as calcium and aluminium-free phosphate binders, calcimimetic agents and active vitamin D metabolites may decrease the need for parathyroidectomy. The calcimimetic cinacalcet does not induce a longer lasting regression of renal hyperparathyroidism and autonomous growing of parathyroids and the therapeutic effect is limited to the period of treatment. The classical indications for surgery, hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, severe osteopathy, drug-resistant hyperphosphatemia and calciphylaxis are still valid if patients do not respond to medical therapy under the condition that adynamic bone disease is excluded. Individual operative risk factors and improvement of quality of life are important supplementary factors for the indication for parathyroidectomy. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Kastrati A.,TU Munich | Neumann F.-J.,Herz Zentrum | Schulz S.,TU Munich | Massberg S.,TU Munich | And 13 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: The combination of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and heparin has not been compared with bivalirudin in studies specifically involving patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the two treatments in this patient population. Methods: Immediately before PCI, we randomly assigned, in a double-blind manner, 1721 patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to receive abciximab plus unfractionated heparin (861 patients) or bivalirudin (860 patients). The study tested the hypothesis that abciximab and heparin would be superior to bivalirudin with respect to the primary composite end point of death, large recurrent myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization, or major bleeding within 30 days. Secondary end points included the composite of death, any recurrent myocardial infarction, or urgent target-vessel revascularization (efficacy end point) and major bleeding (safety end point) within 30 days. Results: The primary end point occurred in 10.9% of the patients in the abciximab group (94 patients) and in 11.0% in the bivalirudin group (95 patients) (relative risk with abciximab, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.32; P = 0.94). Death, any recurrent myocardial infarction, or urgent target-vessel revascularization occurred in 12.8% of the patients in the abciximab group (110 patients) and in 13.4% in the bivalirudin group (115 patients) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.25; P = 0.76). Major bleeding occurred in 4.6% of the patients in the abciximab group (40 patients) as compared with 2.6% in the bivalirudin group (22 patients) (relative risk, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.07; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Abciximab and unfractionated heparin, as compared with bivalirudin, failed to reduce the rate of the primary end point and increased the risk of bleeding among patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were undergoing PCI. (Funded by Nycomed Pharma and others; ISAR-REACT 4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00373451.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Friedrich F.,Krankenhaus Eckernfoerde | Hedderich J.,University of Kiel | Schulz T.,Helios Klinikum Wuppertal | Caliebe A.,University of Kiel
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: In spite of the widespread use of laparoscopic appendectomy, there is an ongoing debate on the advantages of this method when compared to open appendectomy. In the evaluation of a postoperative procedure, long-term quality of life is essential. Patients and methods: From 1999 to 2001, 493 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis were operated in a German general district hospital and included in an observational study. In a median postoperative interval of 7 years, these patients were re-evaluated regarding their quality of life after surgery. A Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire was applied to evaluate the general parameters of quality of life after surgery. This questionnaire was supplemented by an additional self-developed module referring to the appendectomy. The primary outcome was the recommendation of the experienced operating procedure to relatives and friends. Results: A total of 243 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure: 132 patients were re-evaluated (recovery rate 54%). In the open group, 250 patients were operated: 121 patients were re-evaluated (recovery rate 48%). The median interval from operation to evaluation was 7 years in the laparoscopic group and 7.7 years in the open group. For the primary outcome, patients with laparoscopic appendectomy would significantly more often recommend the procedure than patients with the open operation method. For secondary outcomes, the cosmetic results were judged significantly more favourably in the laparoscopic group. The eight scaled scores of the SF-36 questionnaire did not differ significantly between the two groups. Four patients of the open group and nine patients of the laparoscopic group (including one converted procedure) needed a reoperation because of incisional hernia, adhesions and late infections. Conclusion: Patients after laparoscopic appendectomy show a higher degree of satisfaction with their body and their scar than patients after open appendectomy. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Despite new technologies and progress in parathyroid gland imaging, missed parathyroid adenomas are still a problem. In reoperations most adenomas were found in eutopic positions. Adenoma in atypical positions were mostly situated in the thymus or in the esophageal-tracheal groove. Positive parathyroid imaging can be helpful but does not necessarily result in a better success rate than conventional bilateral exploration by an experienced surgeon, which is > 95 %. The knowledge of anatomy and embryological development of parathyroid glands is most important. Intraoperative determination of parathyroid hormone levels can help localize the site of the adenoma. Thyroid resection should only be performed if preoperative or intraoperative ultrasound indicates a tumor in the thyroid gland. The most important factor for a successful parathyroid operation is an experienced surgeon. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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