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Stuttgart, Germany

Rosahl S.K.,HELIOS Klinikum | Rosahl S.K.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Rosahl S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Background: Auditory brainstem implants have failed to produce consistent clinical results comparable to those with the cochlear implant, both with surface and penetrating electrodes. Objective: To determine neuromorphological constraints of the auditory brainstem implant interface. Methods: The size, shape, surface depth, and spatial orientation of 33 human cochlear nuclei in 20 brainstem specimens obtained at autopsy were systematically analyzed in 792 slices each with a thickness of 8 μm. Three-dimensional renderings of the cochlear nucleus complex were obtained from a true-to-scale model, and the resulting photographic views were arranged according to the axes of the brainstem. Results: The dimensions of the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes correlated linearly with each other. There were no significant side differences. Maximum dimensions of the whole cochlear nuclear complex were 8.01 × 1.53 × 3.76 mm. The appearance of the ventral and dorsal nuclei combined resembles a distorted X shape from a lateral view and an angulated wedge shape when viewed from above. Slanted into the depth of the brainstem above the facial nerve entrance, the superior boundary of the ventral nucleus is located more than 7 mm off the surface of the brainstem on average. Conclusion: In the absence of appropriate surface landmarks and imaging guidance, to gain tonotopic access to the human cochlear nucleus with surface and depth electrode remains a major challenge. Due to its location close to the surface, the dorsal cochlear nucleus is vulnerable to surgical manipulation and to tumors. © 2012 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Source

Byrne R.A.,TU Munich | Neumann F.-J.,Universitats Herzzentrum | Mehilli J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Pinieck S.,TU Munich | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background: The best way to manage restenosis in patients who have previously received a drug-eluting stent is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of paclitaxel-eluting balloons (PEB), paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and balloon angioplasty in these patients. Methods: In this randomised, open-label trial, we enrolled patients older than 18 years with restenosis of at least 50% after implantation of any limus-eluting stent at three centres in Germany between Aug 3, 2009, and Oct 27, 2011. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1; stratified according to centre) to receive PEB, PES, or balloon angioplasty alone by means of sealed, opaque envelopes containing a computer-generated sequence. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation, but events and angiograms were assessed by individuals who were masked. The primary endpoint was diameter stenosis at follow-up angiography at 6-8 months. Primary analysis was done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00987324. Findings: We enrolled 402 patients, of whom 137 (34%) were assigned to PEB, 131 (33%) to PES, and 134 (33%) to balloon angioplasty. Follow-up angiography at 6-8 months was available for 338 (84%) patients. PEB was non-inferior to PES in terms of diameter stenosis (38·0% [SD 21·5] vs 37·4% [21·8]; difference 0·6%, one-sided 95% CI 4·9%; p non-inferiority=0·007; non-inferiority margin of 7%). Findings were consistent in per-protocol analysis (pnon-inferiority= 0·011). PEB and PES were superior to balloon angioplasty alone (54·1% [25·0]; psuperiority<0·0001 for both comparisons). Frequency of death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis did not differ between groups. Interpretation: By obviating the need for additional stent implantation, PEB could be a useful treatment for patients with restenosis after implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Funding: Deutsches Herzzentrum. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Untch M.,HELIOS Klinikum | Loibl S.,German Breast Group | Bischoff J.,Universitats Frauenklinik | Eidtmann H.,Universitats Frauenklinik | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: We compared the efficacy and safety of the addition of lapatinib versus trastuzumab to anthracycline-taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: In the GeparQuinto randomised phase 3 trial, patients with untreated HER2-positive operable or locally advanced breast cancer were enrolled between Nov 7, 2007, and July 9, 2010. Patients were eligible if their tumours were classified as cT3/4a-d, or hormone receptor (HR)-negative, HR-positive with clinically node-positive and cT2 disease (cT2 cN+), or HR-positive and pathologically node-positive in the sentinel lymph node for those with cT1 disease (cT1 pN SLN+). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive neoadjuvant treatment with four cycles of EC (epirubicin [90 mg/m 2 intravenously] plus cyclophosphamide [600 mg/m 2 intravenously], every 3 weeks), and four cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m 2 intravenously every 3 weeks) with either trastuzumab (6 mg/kg intravenously, with a starting loading dose of 8 mg/kg, for eight cycles, every 3 weeks) or lapatinib (1000-1250 mg per day orally) throughout all cycles before surgery. Randomisation was done by dynamic allocation with the minimisation method of Pocock and patients were stratified by participating site, HR status, and extent of disease (cT1-3 cN0-2 vs T4 or N3). The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (defined as ypT0 and ypN0) and was analysed in all patients who received at least one cycle of EC. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Pathologists in centres assessing surgery outcomes were masked to group assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00567554. Findings: Of 620 eligible patients, 309 were randomly assigned to chemotherapy with trastuzumab (ECH-TH group) and 311 to chemotherapy with lapatinib (ECL-TL group). Two patients in the ECH-TH group and three patients in the ECL-TL group did not start treatment because of withdrawal of consent or immediate surgery. 93 (30·3%) of 307 patients in the ECH-TH group and 70 (22·7%) of 308 patients in the ECL-TL group had a pathological complete response (odds ratio [OR] 0·68 [95%CI 0·47-0·97]; p=0·04). Chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with more oedema (119 [39·1%] vs 88 [28·7%]) and dyspnoea (90 [29·6%] vs 66 [21·4%]), and ECL-TL with more diarrhoea (231 [75·0%] vs 144 [47·4%]) and skin rash (169 [54·9%] vs 97 [31·9%]). 43 (14·0%) patients discontinued in the ECH-TH group and 102 (33·1%) in the ECL-TL group. 70 serious adverse events were reported in the ECH-TH group and 87 in the ECL-TL group. Interpretation: This direct comparison of trastuzumab and lapatinib showed that pathological complete response rate with chemotherapy and lapatinib was significantly lower than that with chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Unless long-term outcome data show different results, lapatinib should not be used outside of clinical trials as single anti-HER2-treatment in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, and Sanofi-Aventis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Schmeer C.W.,University Hospital Jena | Wohl S.G.,University Hospital Jena | Wohl S.G.,Witten/Herdecke University | Isenmann S.,HELIOS Klinikum | Isenmann S.,Witten/Herdecke University
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012

Visual impairment severely affects the quality of life of patients and their families and is also associated with a deep economic impact. The most common pathologies responsible for visual impairment and legally defined blindness in developed countries include age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. These conditions share common pathophysiological features: dysfunction and loss of retinal neurons. To date, two main approaches are being taken to develop putative therapeutic strategies: neuroprotection and cell replacement. Cell replacement is a novel therapeutic approach to restore visual capabilities to the degenerated adult neural retina and represents an emerging field of regenerative neurotherapy. The discovery of a population of proliferative cells in the mammalian retina has raised the possibility of harnessing endogenous retinal stem cells to elicit retinal repair. Furthermore, the development of suitable protocols for the reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent state further increases the therapeutic potential of stem-cell-based technologies for the treatment of major retinal diseases. Stem-cell transplantation in animal models has been most effectively used for the replacement of photoreceptors, although this therapeutic approach is also being used for inner retinal pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the development of cell-replacement approaches for the treatment of currently incurable degenerative retinal diseases. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Eggemann H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Ignatov A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Smith B.J.,Hannover Medical School | Altmann U.,Justus Liebig University | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

To determine the impact of adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AI) on the survival of men with breast cancer. We analyzed 257 male patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer from numerous German population-based cancer registries treated with tamoxifen (N = 207) or aromatase inhibitors (N = 50). The median follow-up was 42.2 (range 2-115) months. Median age at diagnosis was 68 (range 36-91) years. Thirty-seven (17.9 %) patients treated with tamoxifen and 16 (32.0 %) patients treated with AI died (log rank p = 0.007). After the adjustment for the patient's age, tumor size, node status, and tumor grading, the AI treatment was linked to a 1.5-fold increase in risk of mortality compared to tamoxifen (HR 1.55; 95 % CI: 1.13-2.13; p = 0.007). The overall survival in male breast cancer was significantly better after adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen compared to an aromatase inhibitor. Tamoxifen should be considered as the treatment of choice for hormone-receptor-positive male breast cancer. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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