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Kuhn K.M.,Naval Hospital Guam | Riccio A.I.,Naval Medical Center San Diego | Saldua N.S.,Naval Medical Center San Diego | Cassidy J.,Helen DeVos Childrens Hospital
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2010

Acetabular retroversion (AR) alters load distribution across the hip and is more prevalent in pathologic conditions involving the hip. We hypothesized the abnormal orientation and mechanical changes may predispose certain individuals to stress injuries of the femoral neck. We retrospectively reviewed the anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 54 patients (108 hips) treated for a femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) and compared these radiographs with those for a control group of patients with normal pelvic radiographs. We determined presence of a crossover sign (COS), femoral neck abnormalities, and neck shaft angle. The prevalence of a positive COS was greater in patients with stress fractures than in the control subjects (31 of 54 [57%] versus 17 of 54 [31%], respectively) and higher than for control subjects reported in the literature. Thirteen patients had radiographic changes of the femoral neck consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). These radiographic abnormalities were seen more commonly in retroverted hips. A greater incidence of AR was noted in patients with FNSF. Potential implications include more aggressive screening of military recruits with AR and the new onset of hip pain. Finally, we present an algorithm we use to diagnose and treat these relatively rare FNSFs. Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2009 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

Shafferman A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Birmingham J.D.,Helen DeVos Childrens Hospital | Cron R.Q.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Pediatric Rheumatology | Year: 2014

We report an 11-week-old female who presented with Kawasaki disease (KD) complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The infant presented to the hospital with persistent fever, cough, diarrhea, and emesis, among other symptoms. Her condition quickly began to decompensate, and she developed classic features (conjunctivitis, rash, cracked lips, distal extremity edema) prompting a diagnosis of acute KD. The patient was treated with standard therapy for KD including three doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), aspirin, and high dose glucocorticoids with no change in her condition. Due to a high suspicion for MAS, high dose anakinra therapy was initiated resulting in dramatic clinical improvements. She also received one dose of infliximab for concern for coronary artery changes, and over the course of several months, anakinra and high dose glucocorticoids were tapered. Nearly complete reversal of echocardiogram changes were observed after 8 months, and the infant is now off all immunosuppressive therapy. In this case report, we briefly review the importance of early recognition of MAS in pediatric patient populations with rheumatic diseases, and we suggest early initiation of anakinra therapy as a rapid and effective treatment option. © 2014 Shafferman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bergenstal R.M.,International Diabetes Center at Park Nicollet | Tamborlane W.V.,Yale University | Ahmann A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Buse J.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Recently developed technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus include a variety of pumps and pumps with glucose sensors. METHODS: In this 1-year, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, we compared the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy (pump therapy) with that of a regimen of multiple daily insulin injections (injection therapy) in 485 patients (329 adults and 156 children) with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes. Patients received recombinant insulin analogues and were supervised by expert clinical teams. The primary end point was the change from the baseline glycated hemoglobin level. RESULTS: At 1 year, the baseline mean glycated hemoglobin level (8.3% in the two study groups) had decreased to 7.5% in the pump-therapy group, as compared with 8.1% in the injection-therapy group (P<0.001). The proportion of patients who reached the glycated hemoglobin target (<7%) was greater in the pump-therapy group than in the injection-therapy group. The rate of severe hypoglycemia in the pump-therapy group (13.31 cases per 100 person-years) did not differ significantly from that in the injection-therapy group (13.48 per 100 person-years, P = 0.58). There was no significant weight gain in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In both adults and children with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes, sensor-augmented pump therapy resulted in significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin levels, as compared with injection therapy. A significantly greater proportion of both adults and children in the pump-therapy group than in the injection-therapy group reached the target glycated hemoglobin level. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00417989.) Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Halanski M.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Cassidy J.A.,Helen DeVos Childrens Hospital
Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: To compare the routine use of posterior-based (Ponte) osteotomies to complete inferior facetectomies in thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Hypokyphosis is common in thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The use of pedicle screw fixation in deformity correction can exacerbate this hypokyphosis. We hypothesized that by utilizing posterior-based Ponte osteotomies rather than facetectomies, we could improve coronal plane correction and decrease the loss of kyphosis during curve correction. METHODS:: The radiographs and clinical charts of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (Lenke types I, II) who underwent isolated thoracic posterior spinal fusion utilizing primarily pedicle screw constructs from January 2008 to August 2010 were reviewed. Maximum preoperative Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis (T5-T12), levels instrumented, number of posterior-based osteotomies, operative time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative residual coronal Cobb angle and kyphosis were recorded. Operative time per level, blood loss per level, percent main curve correction, and change in thoracic kyphosis was calculated. Patients having undergone complete inferior facetectomies and those with multilevel Ponte osteotomies were then compared. RESULTS:: Eighteen patients underwent posterior spinal fusion with osteotomies and 19 patients had complete inferior facetectomies during this time period. The osteotomy cohort had a larger preoperative Cobb angle [59±10 vs. 52±8 (mean±SD); P=0.03]. No difference was observed in the preoperative kyphosis (22±15 vs. 25±12) or in levels fused (9±1 vs. 8±1). Patients with routine osteotomies had them performed at 76% of the levels instrumented. No significant difference was found in terms of percentage of coronal plane correction (84% in both groups), average postoperative kyphosis 28±8 versus 25±7, or the change in kyphosis 6±14 versus 0±2 degrees, in the osteotomy and the facetectomy groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss per level was significantly higher in the osteotomy group (97±42 mL vs. 66±25 mL; P=0.01) as was time per level 31±5 versus 23±3 minutes/level (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: This study shows a significantly higher blood loss and operative time associated with the use of routine posterior osteotomies in the thoracic spine without a significant improvement in coronal or sagittal correction. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Walia R.,West Virginia University | Kunde S.,Helen DeVos Childrens Hospital | Mahajan L.,Cleveland Clinic
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Purpose of review The use of transplanted fecal material for the treatment of diarrheal illness dates back to the fourth-century China. While fecal microbiota transplant has gained increasing popularity over the past 50 years for the treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs) in adults, it has only been recently utilized in children. The purpose of this article is to review the use of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric RCDIs. Recent findings Minimal pediatric data, including few case reports and series, document the successful use of FMT for treatment of RCDI in the past 2 years. Patients in these reports included otherwise healthy children, those with inflammatory bowel disease as well as significantly immunocompromised children. Donor fecal infusion via nasogastric tube, gastroscope or colonoscope in children aged 16 months and older demonstrated a high rate of symptom resolution and organism eradication. No complications to date have been reported in children who have undergone FMT. Summary FMT is emerging as a well-tolerated and effective treatment for RCDI in not only adults but also children. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health-Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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