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Luo Y.,Northeast Forestry University | Zhang M.,Northeast Forestry University | Liu Z.,Northeast Forestry University | Li Z.,Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Resource partitioning is thought to be differential use of multiple resources, such as food and space. Knowledge about habitat relationships among sympatric herbivores is important to examine resource use. Habitat selection of sympatric blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) was studied in the Helan Mountains on the border between Ningxia Moslemism and Inner Mongolia Autonomic region from September to December 2007 and 2008. We collected data by direct observation and examination of fresh sites used by blue sheep and red deer in 15 drainages distributed throughout the study area. Eighteen ecological factors from 177 sites used by blue sheep and 154 sites used by red deer were measured on 21 transects established along the ridge in the whole study area. During rutting seasons, habitat use of blue sheep and red deer differed in most ecological factors, i. e., vegetation type, landform type, dominant tree, aspect, slope location, shrub density, shrub height, coverage, slope, altitude, distance to water resource, distance to human disturbance, distance to bare rock, hiding cover, and tree height. Compared with habitat selected by red deer, blue sheep selected montane steppe dominated by Ulmus glaucescens, steeper slope, taller trees, less shrubs, taller shrubs, less vegetation cover, lower altitude, sunnier aspects, lower hiding cover, closer to water resource and bare rock. In semi-arid and rugged regions like Helan Mountains, distinct phenology promoted the utilization of different habitats by ungulates. Canonical scores indicated that habitats used by blue sheep were most separated from red deer during rutting periods. The Wilk's lambda exhibited a highly significant difference in blue sheep and red deer habitat selection during rutting periods (Wilk's λ = 0. 123,χ2 = 679. 172,df = 10,P < 0.001). The Fisher linear function discriminated blue sheep habitats is: 3. 638 × trees height + 0. 242 × distance to the nearest trees + 7. 766 × shrub height + 0. 663 × distance to the nearest shrubs +0. 232 × vegetation coverage +0. 191 × slope +0. 001 × distance to water resource + 0. 008 × distance to bare rock + 0. 307 × hiding cover -31. 078. The Fisher discriminant function of red deer habitat is: 4. 850 × trees height +0. 321 × distance to the nearest trees + 12. 024 × shrubs height + 0. 929 × distance to the nearest shrubs +0. 192 × vegetation coverage +0.482 × slope +0. 002 × distance to water resource - 0. 001 × distance to human disturbance - 0. 003 × distance to bare rock + 0. 511 × hiding cover - 50. 787. Discriminating variables that improved a stepwise discriminant model included (in order of importance) slope, distance to human disturbance, hiding cover, distance to bare rock, trees height, distance to the nearest trees, distance to water resource, shrubs height, distance to the nearest shrubs, and vegetation coverage. Predicted accuracy of the model in classifying blue sheep and red deer habitats was 99. 7%. These results suggested that differences in habitat selection were likely to have contributed to the coexistence of blue sheep with red deer during rutting periods (a period of food scarcity).


Wang L.-J.,East China Normal University | Wang L.-J.,Hainan Normal University | Liu Z.-S.,East China Normal University | Liu Z.-S.,Northeast Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

In order to understand the species diversity and faunal characteristics of amphibians and reptiles in Helan Mountains, field surveys were conducted by transects from 2007 to 2008. A total of 19 species belonging to 12 genera, 8 families, and 2 orders were recorded, among which, Elaphe carinata and E. mandarina were new species records to Ningxia. The Shannon' s diversity index (H) and evenness index (E) of the amphibians and reptiles in Helan Mountains were 2. 250 and 0. 563, and the family and species numbers of the amphibians and reptiles accounted for 72.7% and 67.9% of those in Ningxia, and 66.7% and 50.0% of those in Inner Mongolia; respectively. In Helan Mountains, Bufo raddei, Rana chensinensis, Phrynocephalus przewalskii, P. frontalis, Eremias argus, and E. multiocellata were dominant species, Psammophis lineolatus, Coluber spinalis, and Rhabdophis tigrinus were common species, and others were rare species. Among the 19 species, 14 species belonged to the Palaearctic realm, and 5 species were widespread species. Species of Mongolia-Xinjiang Region were dominant, accounting for 42. 6% of'the total. This study showed that the amphibians and reptiles in Helan Mountains had the typical faunal characteristics of Western Desert Sub-region of the Mongolia-Xinjiang Region.


Zhang M.,East China Normal University | Li Z.,Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia | Hu T.,Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia | Wang J.,Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia | Wang X.,East China Normal University
Acta Theriologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Using 107 active points and 572 points (active and feces points) obtained in 2009 in Ningxia Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve we estimated the distribution area of red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 95% FKE (Fixed kernel estimation) and 100% MCP (Minimum convex polygon). We found the FKE and more GPS points resulted in a more accurate estimation. This method indicated that the distribution area of red deer was 642.33 km2, between Xiaoshuigou and Yushugou (38°23'33″-38°56'22″N, 105°33'36″-106°12'22″E); this area represents 33% of the total area of the reserve. Chaqikou and Dashuigou are the two highest density areas for red deer. Of the 37 line transects conducted, 19 line transects lie in the distribution area. Red deer were not encountered in Huangqikou and Xiaokouzi and these areas have the highest levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Using Distance 6.0 (model: Uniform+Simple polynomial), we estimated the population size to be 1420 (880-2300) in the reserve. Red deer inhabited different elevations in different seasons and the lowest elevation was inhabited in winter. It was difficult to detect red deer in spring, summer and autumn because of vegetation cover and higher elevation areas. Red deer maintained small group sizes (3.50±2.76, range: 1-13, n=107), but group size varied with season; bigger groups formed (4.26±3.09) in winter. Red deer inhabited forest with less anthropogenic disturbance. Our findings show that reserve managers should minimize human disturbance in certain areas to attract more red deer.

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