the Heinrich Pette Institute

Hamburg, Germany

the Heinrich Pette Institute

Hamburg, Germany
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PubMed | the Heinrich Pette Institute, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, the European XFEL GmbH, From the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2016

Bacteriophages produce endolysins, which lyse the bacterial host cell to release newly produced virions. The timing of lysis is regulated and is thought to involve the activation of a molecular switch. We present a crystal structure of the activated endolysin CTP1L that targets Clostridium tyrobutyricum, consisting of a complex between the full-length protein and an N-terminally truncated C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). The truncated CBD is produced through an internal translation start site within the endolysin gene. Mutants affecting the internal translation site change the oligomeric state of the endolysin and reduce lytic activity. The activity can be modulated by reconstitution of the full-length endolysin-CBD complex with free CBD. The same oligomerization mechanism applies to the CD27L endolysin that targets Clostridium difficile and the CS74L endolysin that targets Clostridium sporogenes. When the CTP1L endolysin gene is introduced into the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis, the truncated CBD is also produced, showing that the alternative start codon can be used in other bacterial species. The identification of a translational switch affecting oligomerization presented here has implications for the design of effective endolysins for the treatment of bacterial infections.


PubMed | the Heinrich Pette Institute, University of Hamburg, University of Zürich, Institute for Hematopathology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2015

Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer.


PubMed | University of Oulu and the Heinrich Pette Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2015

The human MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the inner mitochondrial membrane protein MPV17. Although more than 30 MPV17 gene mutations were shown to be associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, the function of MPV17 is still unknown. Mice deficient in Mpv17 show signs of premature aging. In the present study, we used electrophysiological measurements with recombinant MPV17 to reveal that this protein forms a non-selective channel with a pore diameter of 1.8 nm and located the channels selectivity filter. The channel was weakly cation-selective and showed several subconductance states. Voltage-dependent gating of the channel was regulated by redox conditions and pH and was affected also in mutants mimicking a phosphorylated state. Likewise, the mitochondrial membrane potential (m) and the cellular production of reactive oxygen species were higher in embryonic fibroblasts from Mpv17(-/-) mice. However, despite the elevated m, the Mpv17-deficient mitochondria showed signs of accelerated fission. Together, these observations uncover the role of MPV17 as a m-modulating channel that apparently contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis under different conditions.

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