Sankt Stefan ob Leoben, Austria
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Hollt T.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Beyer J.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Gschwantner F.,is Research Center | Muigg P.,SimVis GmbH | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium 2011, PacificVis 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

Hollt T.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Freiler W.,SimVis GmbH | Gschwantner F.-M.,is Research Center | Doleisch H.,SimVis GmbH | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics | Year: 2012

The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

Assareh M.,Sharif University of Technology | Assareh M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Pishvaie M.R.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghotbi C.,Sharif University of Technology | Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology | Year: 2014

In this work, a new automatic workflow for accurate optimal pseudo-component generation from gas condensate mixtures with a large number of components is presented. This workflow has a good insight into thermo-physical and critical properties and introduces only a small amount of loss of information and EOS flexibility. In this regard, the fuzzy clustering is used to classify the components in the mixture based on the similarities in the critical properties. The mixing rules are then applied to find group properties. Two different approaches for components association in clustering process are investigated with several numbers of groups. The mathematical validity of the groups is controlled with a proper validity index. The fluid phase behaviour is analysed to investigate the proposed workflow under physical feedback for different numbers of groups. The comparison of equilibrium calculations, for the extended and grouped mixtures shows a close agreement. The average absolute deviation percent (AAD%) from the extended analysis for the liquid dropout percent in constant volume depletion reaches to 0.32 for 20 groups and 0.93 for 14 groups. The AAD% for the gas compressibility factor over the pressure steps is 0.00 for 20 groups and 0.04 for 14 groups. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Assareh M.,Sharif University of Technology | Assareh M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Ghotbi C.,Sharif University of Technology | Pishvaie M.R.,Sharif University of Technology | Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2013

The strong bases statistical associated fluid theory (SAFT) equations of state allow modeling for a wide range of scales and applications. The equilibrium calculations are very time-consuming in SAFT-based family of equations of state; therefore the number of components used in describing a fluid mixture must be reduced by grouping. On the other hand, in some applications it is required to retrieve the detailed fluid description from equilibrium calculation performed on the lumped fluid description. The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach for lumping and delumping with equilibrium calculations using the Perturbed Chain (PC)-SAFT equation of state. The methodology proposed by this paper is to calculate some delumping coefficients from flash calculations performed on the lumped system. Later on those delumping coefficients will be used to retrieve the detailed compositions of the fluid phases from the lumped mixture. To prepare the lumped system, the components are classified into groups through a clustering algorithm and the group properties are calculated according to mixing rules. To examine the accuracy and efficiency of the suggested methodology, it is applied to four synthetic gas samples and two real samples, one being a natural gas condensate and the other one is an oil reservoir fluid. It will be shown that based on the proposed method the delumped equilibrium ratios are close to detailed equilibrium ratios. The observed deviations are small and can be accepted. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Amiry M.T.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Heinemann Z.E.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
ECMOR 2010 - 12th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery | Year: 2010

The paper presents a new approach for updating reservoir models beeing history matched previously. The main concern regarding any reservoir model is to maintain the predictive capability. Practical experience shows that this capability is lost very soon. Consequently updating of prior simulation models goes along with significant changes in the model itself. Often this requires not only tuning of the aquifers but also modifications of the reservoir properties. Based on the results it will be decided if the model is still valid or if an entire update is necessary. A newly developed method called Target Pressure and Phase Method (TPPM) provides a mean to significantly improve this process. TPPM does not only speed-up this update procedure but additionally assesses the validity of the model reliably. In the conventional history matching workflow pressures, water-cut and GOR are calculated and the reservoir model will be changed until it fits the history. TPPM considers the pressure measurements and the oil/gas/water production rates as input and determines the aquifer parameters and the well conditions needed in order to match the given historical measurements. The paper will present the basic idea as well as its applicability to a field case.

Egger S.,University of Leoben | Egger S.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Davis J.C.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Heinemann Z.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
IAMG 2010 Budapest - 14th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences | Year: 2010

The "Target Pressure and Phase Method" (TPPM) is being implemented so mismatches between dynamic and static models of oil field reservoirs can be avoided. An initial conditional stochastic model is adjusted by connecting wells that do not correctly match their history during initial simulation to more distant cells that will provide appropriate well performance histories. These cells are then exchanged with cells in the well drainage areas to achieve a history match. In a final step, the model is regenerated by simulated annealing conditional on the new drainage area cells.

Nemeth M.,EON Gasstorage | Davis J.C.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Heinemann Z.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
IAMG 2010 Budapest - 14th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences | Year: 2010

The Maros-1 underground gas storage (UGS) facility occupies part of the reservoir of the Szeged-Algyö gas field. Since its implementation, the UGS has displayed an unusual pattern of reduction in storage volume, necessitating annual increases in injection pressures. Attempts to determine the cause of this behavior or to model the UGS have not been successful. Using a new approach, the Target Pressure and Phase Method (TPPM), it was possible to construct both coarse- and fine-scale models that preserve the geological properties measured at wells. In dynamic simulations, these models produced accurate matches to both gross reservoir and individual well histories and predictions of future performance.

Heinemann Z.E.,University of Leoben | Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2012

Kazemi et al. (SPE Reserv Eng 7(2):219-227, 1992) suggested an empirical matrix-fracture transfer function, verified based on experimental data of Mattax and Kyte (Trans AIME 225(15):177-184, 1962), to model fluid flow in naturally fractured dual porosity petroleum reservoirs using a dual-porosity numerical simulator. Their generalized shape factor should be valid for all possible irregular matrix blocks. The factor is calculated based on the volume of the matrix block, the surface open to flow in all directions and the distances of these surfaces to the centre of the matrix block. The summation is done over all open surfaces of a matrix block. Kazemi et al. (1992) showed that for rectangles and cylinders the formula reduces to the well-known forms of the shape factor. By the time, many authors indicated the validity of the formula, but no theoretical proof was offered for that so far. This study derives the Kazemi et al. (1992) shape factor using control volume finite difference discretization on the fracture-matrix dual continuum. The matrix blocks are handled as Voronoi polyhedra. The derivation is given for both isotropic and tensorial matrix permeability. Based on this derivation the authors conclude that the Kazemi et al. (SPE Reserv Eng 7(2):219-227, 1992) formula is exact under pseudo-steady-state conditions within the dual continuum mathematical concept of natural fractured dual porosity systems. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Abrahem F.A.S.,Zuetine | Heinemann Z.E.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
72nd European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2010: A New Spring for Geoscience. Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2010 | Year: 2010

This work presents an automatic history matching approach called Target Pressure and Phase Method or TPPM. In a conventional history matching approach the model wells are fixed and one seeks for a reservoir model, in which the historical rates, well pressures, WC and GOR are provided over the entire time. The presented method does the opposite. The reservoir model is given and the computer automatically places wells, which can do what they should do - namely correctly reproduce the measured data. These pseudo wells are perhaps at different locations and connect to other layers as the real wells but the overall material transfer will be correct for the entire time period. If such wells cannot be placed, then the static model is fundamentally wrong and must be replaced. Stochastic realisations can be screened at this level already. Supplementary, water is added into the model boundaries, ensuring that the average pressure in any chosen region closely follows the historical pressure. After the global match has succeeded, the pseudo wells are shifted towards the real ones and the reservoir and perforation properties will be tuned step by step, partly automatically partly manually. The history match is completed after all pseudo wells have been replaced by the model wells. The method is implemented in PRS, a fully developed not commercial user friendly tool. It can be used standalone but also as a pre-processor to ECLIPSEc. The tool needs some command lines added to the ECLIPSE input only. PRS writes out a modified SCHEDULE file containing the actual settings of the pseudo wells and the parameters for the Fetkovich and Carter-Tracy analytical aquifer models (replacing the boundary injections) for the next ECLIPSE run. The paper describes the concept, the corresponding algorithms. The applicability is demonstrated on a small scale example and additionally with a successful field case. © 2010, European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers.

Gherryo Y.S.,Gulf | Ben Shatwan M.B.,Gulf | Abrahem F.A.S.,University of Leoben | Heinemann Z.E.,Heinemann Oil GmbH | Mittermeir G.M.,Heinemann Oil GmbH
North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition 2010, NATC 2010 - Energy Management in a Challenging Economy | Year: 2010

The reservoir, located in the Sirte Basin, Libya was discovered in the early 1960s. Since then, more than 65 wells have been drilled. By the end of the year 2008, more than 160 MMstb undersatured oil have been produced from the Upper Cretaceous. Water cut has risen to 65% and average reservoir pressure is still 1000 psi above bubble point. The individual well production history is highly influenced by water coning. The field is geologically complex; heterogeneous, contains numerous large and smaller normal faults sometimes associated with fractures, leading to local permeability enhancements. Average gross thickness is about 300 ft. Recovery is mainly (80%) by the strong edge water influx and by expansion (20%). The objective of the History Match (HM) was to accurately determine the distribution of the reminder movable oil, in order to enable reliable performance predictions of existing and future wells. To meet this goal, the total amount of produced fluids on a well-by-well basis as well as the average local pressure must be matched within close limits. Conventional HM techniques failed due to the complex geology and production history. Especially the highly variable water cut could not be matched satisfyingly. For this reason, a new HM method and workflow, called Target Pressure and Phase Method (TPPM), was applied. TPPM ensures, that the calculated average reservoir pressure and the calculated amount of produced liquids match the corresponding measured values at every point in time. This is achieved by regulation of water influx from artificial boundaries and automatic distribution of the inflow along the well trajectories. Thus, the engineer can immediately concentrate on matching the well-by-well performance leading to a considerable reduction in project duration. Additionally, TPPM gave excellent results in HM. Thus reliable future field operation scenarios can be designed and calculated. The presented workflow and method is generally applicable, especially for reservoirs under strong water influx. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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