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Zoeterwoude, Netherlands

van Zyl H.,HEINEKEN | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

This paper is an update on a study investigating the effect of culture and language on reported emotions and confirms that both culture and language are important in studying emotions evoked by beverages. In addition, sub-categories of products, such as beverage types have different emotion associations in different cultures. A list of emotions developed for beverages in the UK, US, Mexico and Spain was translated into Portuguese for Brazil and Portugal. An on-line questionnaire combining the emotions selected by the focus groups was then completed by 600 respondents each in Brazil and Portugal where people were asked which emotions applied to their favourite beverage, beer and their least liked alcoholic beverage. Data from the two studies were combined.Respondents from English speaking countries showed very similar emotional reactions for individual beverage types. Respondents from Mexico and Brazil were more similar to English speaking respondents than to those from Spain and, with the exception of wine, respondents from Portugal were similar to those of Brazil and Mexico in their emotional reactions. Respondents from Spain and Portugal were similar in their emotional reaction to wine. We confirm our conclusion that for products, but certainly for beverages, culture will affect emotion language usage, but even within the same category, the pattern of differences may be different for different products. In designing emotion lists it is therefore important to take both culture and language into consideration and to realize that a list developed in one country for a specific product type is not necessarily suitable in another country or for a different product. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Silva A.P.,Wageningen University | Silva A.P.,Catholic University of Portugal | Jager G.,Wageningen University | van Bommel R.,Wageningen University | And 5 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and compared to beer and wine conceptualisations in the Netherlands and Portugal. A qualitative study was performed using a focus group approach with moderate consumers of both countries (n= 56). Content analysis followed by correspondence analysis were used to explore conceptualisations. This study showed similar conceptualisations of the beverages in both countries. NAB has a limited conceptual content, which is mostly functional as a substitute. Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional content. Wine is associated with positive low arousal emotional responses, such as calm and loving. Beer is associated with positive high arousal emotional responses, such as adventurous and energetic. NAB evokes neutral and negative emotional responses, such as rational, conscious, and disappointed. The difference in conceptualisations of NAB versus beer/wine might be why NAB is not adopted more widely as a substitute as it does not deliver a comparable emotional response to consumers. NAB should be treated as a beverage in its own right and it might be wise to avoid direct conceptual comparisons with beer. Should the image of NAB be communicated and understood with positive and high arousal associations, such as energetic and convivial, in communication and advertisements, a higher level of congruency between expectation and experience could be achieved. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


van Zyl H.,HEINEKEN | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effect of culture and language on reported emotions. Cross cultural studies of language need to look both between different languages and within the same language as spoken in different countries. Starting with a list of emotions in English, translation resulted in different lists for Spain and Mexico due to differences in the use of Spanish. Spanish lists were somewhat longer than the English list, as one English word could result in two Spanish words with similar meanings. A qualitative study was conducted in multiple locations in the UK, US, Mexico and Spain to identify which emotions were relevant to beverages.An on-line questionnaire combining the emotions selected by the focus groups was then completed by 600 respondents in four English speaking countries (US, UK, Australia, New Zealand) and two Spanish speaking countries (Spain, Mexico) where people were asked which emotions applied to their favourite beverage, beer and their least liked alcoholic beverage. There were more similarities among the four English speaking countries than between Spain and Mexico and more similarities between Mexican respondents and English speaking respondents than between Mexican and Spanish respondents. Spanish respondents did not consider certain emotions to be very relevant to their favourite beverage. Respondents from all countries found beverages without alcohol to be different from beverages with alcohol regarding the emotions they evoke. In addition, in English speaking countries positive emotion terms were more discriminating for both favourite and least liked beverages, while in Spanish speaking countries, both positive and negative emotions were more equally discriminating. These results demonstrate that cross cultural differences exist within the same language as well as across languages. Individuals and entire cultures do not all verbally express their emotions in the same manner. Recommendations are presented for producing emotion lists which will work in multiple countries and for conducting cross cultural emotion research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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