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Shi T.,Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering Science
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

Corn paper pot seedling transplanting technology is a new type cultivation method that can effectively increase accumulated temperature, resist drought, prevent disasters and obtain high yields; issues such as low and unstable grain yield due to shortage of water resources, drought and frequent plant diseases and insect pests in spring dry farming conditions. Conventional corn paper pot seedling transplanting operations are conducted on a manual basis, which generates features such as large labor intensity, low working efficiency, poor working quality, low degree of standardization and farming seasons cannot be grasped and so forth; the conventional operations are not beneficial to large area production operation, which seriously restricts the promotion and application of corn paper pot seedling transplanting technology. Therefore, mechanized corn seedling transplanting is an imperative trend. At present, corn paper pot seedling transplanting technology and methods as well as relevant machinery equipment are not available. Existing transplanting machineries in Europe, US, Japan and South Korea are mainly used for flowers, vegetables and economic crops. As per planting methods, transplanting machineries can be divided into: clamp type transplanters, chain clamp type transplanters, hanging cup type transplanters, seedling-guiding tube type transplanters and flexible disc type transplanters. However, all of such transplanters have some defects that cannot be overcome. A new type of full-automatic paper pot corn seedling transplanter was researched and developed based on the research of integrating the advantages of pot seedling and bare-rooted seedling, the principle of flexible disc type transplanting in combination with automation control and hydraulically powered seedling collecting, seedling rejecting and seedling supplying mechanism. The transplanter is composed of a seedling transporting and selecting transmission case, an automatic seeding system, a transplanting unit, a rack and an earthing and watering part. The seedling transporting and selecting transmission mechanism can automatically eliminate paper pots without seedlings or those with weak seedlings and accelerate seedling supplying so as to guarantee the uniformity of seedlings. The rapid automatic seeding device can realize functions such as automatic grabbing, separation and stacking of paper pot seedlings as well as automatic feeding of seedling disc. The function of the transplanting unit is to ditch, erect seedlings and perform transplanting. The earthing and watering part can perform watering and earthing operation to the seedling ditch after transplanting. The driving force for the seedling transporting and selecting case and the transplanting unit is from the friction between the supporting roller and ground; the power for the automatic seeding system is from the hydraulic motor driven by the rear power output shaft of a tractor; the logical relationships for various working parts are driven by the PLC control module. The transplanter realizes full-automatic transplanting by using a full hydraulic power system and an automatic control system with PLC as its core module. The transplanter applies a three-point rear suspension and it is used in combination with roller tractors above 48 kW. The transplanter can be used in both ridge planting and flat planting. The field test results showed that, when the advancing speed of a unit is 2.5-3.0 km/h and the theoretical row spacing is 22 cm, the qualified rate of transplanting depth is 87.5% and, the qualified rate of row spacing is 93.2% and the qualified rate of seedling verticality is 91.2%, which meets the agricultural requirements of corn paper pot seedling transplanting. The transplanter is a mechanized carrier of carrying out the new type agricultural technology of corn paper pot seedling transplanting, and it can enhance the standardization, mechanization and automation degree of corn paper pot seedling transplanting operations in an outstanding way. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Luo L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li W.,Northeast Agricultural University | Dou Y.,Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering Science | Wang X.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xu M.,Northeast Agricultural University
International Agricultural Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

Rice straw was treated with different concentration of urea solution at room temperature. In order to examine the effects of pretreatment, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition were used to investigate the structural changes after pretreatment. The results revealed that urea pretreatment was a promising method to improve the biodegradability of rice straw. Batch anaerobic fermentation with 20% total solids (TS) concentration was conducted at 35°C using untreated rice straw and the urea treated rice straw mixed with biogas slurry, and the results showed that cumulative biogas production of the treated rice straw was 20.67% to 38.20% higher than that of the untreated rice straw. After comprehensive consideration of various factors, the optimal urea concentration for anaerobic fermentation was 4%.


Luo L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li W.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xu M.,Northeast Agricultural University | Li C.,Heilongjiang Nongken Great Northern Wilderness Cattle Industry | Dou Y.,Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering Science
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2012

Under mesophilic temperature (35°C), the component changes of rice straw before and after anaerobic fermentation were compared. Results show that gas production of amination pretreatment straw is the largest, and VS gas production is 356.80 mL/g, 11.70% higher than the control group; the maximum of methane is achieved 70% above, which shows no significant difference between each group. Lignocellulose content presented down trend after anaerobic fermentation, and degradation rate is proportional to the gas production. Compared with the original rice straw, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degradation rates of amination pretreatment straw are 28.49%, 51.73% and 7.13% respectively.


Li W.,Northeast Agricultural University | Luo L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Dou Y.,Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering Science | Xu M.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2013

According to the current problem of materials' singleness and biogas slurry and residue handling difficultly in large and medium-sized biogas engineering, wet and dry coupling anaerobic fermentation combined with dry and wet fermentation was put forward, namely wet fermentation used livestock and poultry manure as raw materials, and dry fermentation used mixture of straw and biogas slurry and residue from wet fermentation as fermentation substrate. The effect of wet and dry coupling ratio-biogas residue straw ratio and leachate recirculation on fermentation properties were studied, and the results show that with the increase of BRSR, start time is shorten and the biogas production increases. TS of leachate from dry fermentation is below 1%, achieves the effect of the solid-liquid separation, is conducive to leachate recycling and spraying, solves the difficult problem of biogas slurry and residue treatment from wet anaerobic fermentation, and realizes the cyclic utilization of biogas slurry.


Yang H.,Northeast Forestry University | Yang H.,Jiamusi University | Jiang M.,Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Mechanical Engineering Science | Wang J.,Jiamusi University
International Agricultural Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

Disc harrow made of 65Mn steel has poor wear resistance. To improve the working life, a novel disc harrow manufacturing process, boronizing and isothermal quenching, was proposed in this work. Microstructures and properties of 65Mn steel obtained by boronizing and isothermal quenching were investigated. The results showed that the boronized 65Mn steel was characterized by typical hard-surface and toughening-core microstructure after the isothermal quenching, which consisted of high-hardness and wear resistant boride layer of surface and lower bainite with good combination of strength and toughness in core. The main phase of boronized layer was transformed from FeB to Fe2B after isothermal quenching. With the phase changing, the brittleness decreased rapidly and the hardness and wear resistance reduced slightly. Disc harrow after the boronizing and isothermal quenching process exhibited the excellent wear resistance and whole impact resistance in the sandy soil and its working life was more than twice the length of the genera treatment disc harrow.

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