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Sun P.L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Jiang L.Z.,Northeast Agricultural University | Sun Z.L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xie T.M.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | Cao Y.,Northeast Agricultural University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The high-emulation meat with 60% ∼ 80% moisture content made use of high humidity extrusion technology was prepared with soybean protein isolate, defatted soybean meal and wheat gluten as main raw materials. The effect of extrusion system parameters (extrusion temperature, screw rpm, moisture content and soybean protein isolate content) on product textured degree was studied. Results showed that: the influence of the moisture content on the product textured degree was the most important, and screw speed was less influential. The textured degree of high moisture content fibriform imitated meat increased first and then decreased with the increasing of extrusion temperature, screw rpm, moisture content and soybean protein isolate content. So, better textured degree could be received by increasing the parameters to advisable numerical value, and the product would have an obvious fibroid structure. The conclusion could also be used as a value reference in the production of high-emulation meat of livestock and poultry. At present, we are committed to produced emulation meat with soy protein. High moisture extraction [1] is jointly developed by Clextral Co. France and Pro. Co.Ltd was one way of producing simulation meat. This technology, with special cooling die head twin-screw extruder for main equipment, prepared textured soy protein production at the moisture content of material higher than 45%. It had been discovered that with the increase of moisture content of textured soy protein the textured rate of production would be increased. The elastic, resiliency and fibroid structure would be much more like the animal meat. At present, extrusion of material moisture higher than 60% could not be achieved in the domestic. The twin-screw extruding technology on soy protein with moisture content 60%∼80% was studied in this subject. Production condition of high moisture content fibrous imitated meat would be established and technical features would be supplied to domestic extruding equipment through the influence of extruding temperature, material moisture content, screw speed and material composition on soy protein molecular recombination and fibrosis.

Qin J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin J.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Yang R.Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Jiang C.X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | And 5 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

With 3 figures and 5 tablesIn this study, we extended in silico mapping for single trait to analyse data from multiple environments by calculating intraclass correlations and to mapping pleiotropic QTL for multiple traits by defining new statistic to measure the correlation between multiple traits and the marker. Data sets include phenotypes of eight agronomic traits obtained from six different ecologic environments and years, and genotypic information from 477 polymorphic markers on 14 ancestral lines in the pedigree of 'Suinong14'. With in silico mapping, a total of 39 markers distributed on 14 linkage groups are detected as QTL responsible for eight agronomic traits and 10 QTL are identified as having pleiotropic effects. Tracing transmission of functional QTL in the pedigree indicated that certain QTL, such as Sat_036 on linkage group D1a, Satt182 on linkage group L, and Satt726 on linkage group B2 may be responsible for the contribution of exotic germplasm to the improved cultivars. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zhang D.-J.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | Liu D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

Polymorphism in Estrogen Receptor a (ESRα), Prolactin Receptor (PRLR), Luteinizing Hormone β (LHβ) and the Ryanodine Receptor I (RYRI) genes, which play important roles in litter size of pigs, were analysed in four pig populations (Min, Landrace, York-shine, Duroc) using PCR-SSCP. There was one SNP in ESRα (Arg/His 488), two SNPs in PRLR (one silent mutation and Val/Ala 555) and two silent mutations each in LHβ and RYRI. PRLR was highly polymorphic locus (0.59≥PIC≥0.46), LBβ and RYRI were moderately polymorphic loci (0.36≥PIC≥0.15) and ESRβ was very low polymorphic locus (0.07≥PIC≥0.00). © GSP, India.

Jin J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Mi L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Increasing yield is a high priority in most breeding programs. Approximately 600 soybean cultivars had been released by the end of the last century in Northeast China. Understanding the agronomic and physiological changes is essential for planning further plant breeding strategies in soybean. In this study, 45 representative soybean cultivars, from maturity groups 00 and 0, released from 1950 to 2006 in Northeast China were compared in field conditions for 3 consecutive years. A positive correlation between seed yield and year of cultivar release was indicated with a 0.58% average annual increase. Seed number per plant was the most important contributor to yield gain, with a 0.41% increase per year. Pod number per plant and seed size varied slightly with the year of cultivar release. Although variation in protein was from 37.0% to 45.5%, and oil concentration was from 16.7% to 22.0%, their concentrations were not consistently related to year of cultivar release. A 33% increase in the photosynthetic rate, 10.6% increase in plant dry weight and 19.0% increase in harvest index (HI) were found, while leaf area index (LAI) decreased by 17.3%. Modern cultivars have higher photosynthetic rates than their predecessors. The reduced plant height gave increased resistance to lodging, with the lodging score dropping from 3.2 in 1951 to 1.0 in 2006. Seed resistances to disease and pest infestation were also improved. Yield stability was enhanced over years, which could be attributed to the stable pod production across different environments. A flow diagram to explain the contributors to genetic improvement of soybeans in Northeast China was developed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jin L.,China Agricultural University | Jin L.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | Hu K.,China Agricultural University | Deelstra J.,Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research Bioforsk As | And 3 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2014

Water scarcity and nitrate contamination in groundwater are serious problems in the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of farmer's practice and optimal water and nitrogen management on nitrate leaching, and water and nitrogen use efficiencies (WUE, NUE) during winter wheat season in the NCP. A winter wheat experiment with four treatments (traditional irrigation plus traditional fertilizer, W1N1; traditional irrigation plus optimal fertilizer, W1N2; optimal irrigation plus traditional fertilizer, W2N1; optimal irrigation plus optimal fertilizer, W2N2) was conducted from October 1999 to June 2001 in Beijing suburban. The soil-plant system, water and solute transport model was calibrated and validated based on the data collected from the experimental field, then the model was used to simulate the water movement, nitrogen (N) transport, and crop growth process. The results showed that the simulated soil water content, nitrate concentration in the soil profile, leaf area index, crop N uptake, and grain yield were all in good agreement with the measured data. The simulated results indicated that the improved management of water and fertilizer practice could increase crop yield, and reduce water drainage, nitrate leaching, and gaseous N loss compared to farmers' practice. WUE and NUE under improved practice were 1.36 kg m-3 and 34.9 kg kg-1N-1 in 2000, 1.07 kg m-3 and 31.5 kg kg-1N-1 in 2001, respectively. Compared to farmers' practice, the optimal management practice can save water about 4-19%, water drainage decreased 50-65%, N leaching reduced over 90% and gaseous N loss decreased about 70%, at same time leading to an increase in WUE and NUE by 10.6% and 10.3% in 2000, 64.5% and 98.3% in 2001, respectively. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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