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Jiao K.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Jiao K.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture | Qin S.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Lyu D.,ShenYang Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2013

This study investigated the effects of forage species and sampling depths on microbial community functional diversity in soil collected between rows of apple trees. Apple orchard soils' intercropping of three different forage species, including native wild grasses, red clover (RC), ryegrass, and clean tillage (CT) at varying depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm), was analyzed using Biolog Eco-PlateTM. The average well color development (AWCD) in samples subject to ELISA indicated that the carbon metabolic capacities of the microbial community in RC soil were greater than those in the remaining three soil treatments, with no significant (P>0.05) differences among the three depths. Diversity and richness indices of the bulk soil samples (except the RC) declined significantly with depth, while the evenness indices of most soil samples only demonstrated a slight change. The diversity and richness indices of the CT of 0-10-cm soil sample were markedly higher than those of 10-20-cm and 20-30-cm soil samples, especially when compared with the remaining three soil treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis showed that the CT soil at 10-20 and 20-30 cm was oriented in the axis-positive direction of the PC2 axis, but was oriented in the axis-negative direction at 0-10 cm. Therefore, we surmise that there exists an extensive microbial diversity among the soil samples. In summary, our results show that planting RC improved microbial community functional diversity to a greater extent than did the other forage species and CT at all the three measured soil depths, except for CT at a 0-10 cm soil depth. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Zhao L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Zhao L.,Laboratory of Agro product Quality and Safety Risk Assessment Harbin | Zhao L.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture | Jin H.,Laboratory of Agro product Quality and Safety Risk Assessment Harbin | And 10 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

Zearalenone (ZEA) occurs naturally in many important crops worldwide with high concentrations. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a promising solution to reduce exposure to dietary mycotoxins. Twenty-seven Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from traditional fermented food were evaluated using HPLC-MS-MS for the ability of these strains to remove ZEA from a MRS medium. Furthermore, the detoxification dynamics of the strains with high degrading abilities as well as the impact of a variety of factors on the abilities of the high degrading strains to remove ZEA from the MRS medium or PBS were carefully studied. The results indicated that strains Lp22, Lp39, and Lp4 cleared 47.80%, 38.06%, and 39.50% of ZEA from the solution, respectively, providing the highest ZEA degrading abilities of the strains studied. Apart from the bacterial cell density, the removal of ZEA also depended on the concentration of toxins, the viability of bacteria and the incubation temperature in the MRS medium. Removal of ZEA by Lactobacillus plantarum was a slow and continuous process, and approximately 45% of ZEA was removed in 48h. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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