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Li X.-J.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Li X.-J.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Li Z.-G.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Wang X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69 min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68 μg/mL and 45.46 μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yu Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Yu Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Wu G.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Yuan H.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | And 10 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. Results: In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK). From the CK, AS, AS2, and NSS libraries, a total of 118, 119, 122, and 120 known Lus-miRNAs and 233, 213, 211, and 212 novel Lus-miRNAs were isolated, respectively. After assessment of differential expression profiles, 17 known Lus-miRNAs and 36 novel Lus-miRNAs were selected and used to predict putative target genes. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed target genes that were involved in responses to stimuli, including signaling and catalytic activity. Eight Lus-miRNAs were selected for analysis using qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the miRNA-seq results. The qRT-PCR results showed that changes in stress-induced expression profiles of these miRNAs mirrored expression trends observed using miRNA-seq. Degradome sequencing and transcriptome profiling showed that expression of 29 miRNA-target pairs displayed inverse expression patterns under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. From the target prediction analysis, the miR398a-targeted gene codes for a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and the miR530 has been shown to explicitly target WRKY family transcription factors, which suggesting that these two micRNAs and their targets may significant involve in the saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stress response in flax. Conclusions: Identification and characterization of flax miRNAs, their target genes, functional annotations, and gene expression patterns are reported in this work. These findings will enhance our understanding of flax miRNA regulatory mechanisms under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses and provide a foundation for future elucidation of the specific functions of these miRNAs. © 2016 Yu et al.


Ma X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Ma X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Wu Z.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Chen L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2014

Samples of black soil were collected from long-term experimental plots in Gongzhuling to study the content and changing trends of soil phosphorus (P) under different fertilization practices (nonfertilization, chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and chemical plus organic fertilization). Results showed that contents of total P and available P in soil under no fertilizer treatment were lower than the other fertilization treatments. The application of organic fertilizer increased the content of total P and available P in 0-40 cm soil depth and content of total P and available P decreased with increasing soil depth, until no changes were found at 60 cm. Soil P had positive and significant correlations with soil total organic carbon and soil total nitrogen content because nitrogen and P were applied simultaneously. It also had negative and significant correlations with soil pH. Efficient use of phosphorus in organic manure and fertilizer require a balanced application of phosphorus. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Yu Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Yu Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Huang W.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Chen H.,Northeast Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Hao X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Hao X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Zhou B.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Ma X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Gao Z.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2015

With a cropping area of 7.0 million hm2, the black soil (Typic hapludoll) region of Northeast China plays a crucial role in food security to the regional and whole country. In fact, the application of chemical fertilizer is an effective and fast way to increase crop production in a relatively short time. Recently, organic manure application has almost disappeared because its application in cropping system is both labor-demanding and uneconomical. However, there is limited information on crop yields under long-term fertilization of organic and inorganic fertilizers in this rotation system. Nutrient input/output and balance in farmland is critical for nutrient management, scientific distribution and application of fertilizer resources, and improving nutrient use efficiency, etc. The study was conducted to reveal the difference of grain yield and nutrient balance based on the average crop yields, the variation trends of crop yields and apparent balance of soil nutrients under different long-term fertilization conditions in black soil, and to provide scientific references for establishing effective long-term fertilization mode and promoting the sustainable development of crop production. A long-term experiment with various fertilizations was carried out during 1979-2014 in a rotation system with wheat (Triticum Aestivium L.)-soybean (Glycine max Merr.)-maize (Zea mays L.) in black soil area of Northeast China. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments: non-fertilization (CK), conventional chemical fertilizer (wheat: N 150 kg/hm2, P2O5 75 kg/hm2, soybean: N 75 kg/hm2, P2O5 150 kg/hm2, corn: N 150 kg/hm2, P2O5 75 kg/hm2, K2O 75 kg/hm2, NPK), conventional horse manure (18600 kg/hm2, M), conventional horse manure plus chemical fertilizer(the amount of chemical fertilizer was same as NPK, and the amount of horse manure was same as M), and 200% of the MNP (horse manure and chemical fertilizer, the amount was 2 times that of MNP, M2N2P2). The results showed that: 1) Compared with the treatment CK, long-term application of chemical fertilizers (NPK) or long-term application of chemical fertilizers combined with horse manure (MNPK, M2N2P2) increased average crop yield (from 1980 to 2014) by 82.5%-91.6% (wheat) and 35.6%-40.9% (maize), respectively. In respect of average crop yield of 35 years, the treatments displayed an order of M2N2P2 >MNPK > NPK >M, but no significant differences were observed between M2N2P2, MNPK and NPK. 2) The yields of wheat and maize in CK decreased by 13.93 and 42.61 kg/(hm2·a) respectively, while the yield of soybean in CK increased by 7.409 kg/(hm2·a) with the experiment going. It showed the yield trend of wheat, soybean and maize in the treatment with fertilization overall increased with the experiment going. 3) Under the conditions of our experiment, surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus appeared in soil in the treatments of NPK and MNPK, and the increasing amounts were 29.7 and 17.5 kg/hm2 for nitrogen, and 33.4 and 61.2 kg/hm2 for phosphorus, respectively. Potassium deficit of 30.4-73.0 kg/hm2 was observed in all treatments. Compared with NPK, the supplement of nitrogen and potassium could be improved by the combined application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer (MNPK) by 12.2 and 27.6 kg/hm2, respectively. 4) Crop yield was significantly positively correlated with the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, accumulated precipitation and daily mean temperature in the growth period (P<0.05). 5) Based on the characteristics of nutrient balance, we proposed the method of fertilizer application, i.e. keeping application amount of nitrogen stable, reducing phosphorus amount and increasing potassium amount under rotation system of wheat, soybean and corn in black soil area. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All right reserved.


Hao X.-Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Hao X.-Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Zhou B.-K.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Ma X.-Z.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Gao Z.-C.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from agricultural production is an important source of atmospheric GHG. It is crucial to explore corresponding measures and their effect on mitigating GHG emissions. To gain high crop yield without increasing GHG emissions, it is necessary to propose new nitrogen (N) fertilizer management strategies. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer management (conventional fertilization, decreasing within 20% of the conventional N application rate, nitrification inhibitor and controlled release fertilizer) on greenhouse gases emissions from spring maize field in black soil using the static chamber-gas chromatograph method. The results showed that: the peak of N2O emission flux occurred within 1~3 days after basal fertilization and top-dressing from maize field in black soil. 28.8%~41.9% of total N2O emissions during maize growth period were emitted within the first 16days after basal fertilization and top-dressing. Decreasing within 20% of the conventional N application rate significantly decreased the total N2O emissions. Compared with the conventional fertilization with higher rates of N fertilizer (185 kg N/ha), the total N2O emissions and annual global warming potential (GWP) were decreased by 17.6%~46.1% and 30.7%~67.8% respectively under improved N management practices, whereas greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were decreased by 29.1%~67.0%. Nitrification inhibitor addition showed the lowest total N2O emissions, GWP and GHGI compared with other treatments. Higher CO2 emission fluxes occurred from elongating to milky-riping stage. The maize field was a weak sink of atmospheric CH4 in black soil. The emission fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were not affected by N application rate (148~185 kg N/hm2) and nitrification inhibitor, respectively. Nitrification inhibitor and controlled release fertilizer had no significant influence on the yield of maize. Under the conditions of our experiment, decreasing N rate by 20% at the basic level of 185 kg N/hm2 combined with nitrification inhibitor can maintain the stable yield of maize, therefore could be served as an appropriate practice for mitigating GHG emissions with reduction of cost in black soil area. ©, 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Ma X.-Z.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Ma X.-Z.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Hao X.-Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Hao X.-Y.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 4 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2016

Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was applied to analyze the chemical and structural properties of biochars produced under different temperatures. Results showed that average carbon content (SEM C aver.) and maximum carbon content (SEM C max.) of miscanthus (MS) biochar increased as temperature increasing. There were significant and positive relationships between SEM C max., SEM C aver. and highest treatment temperature (HTT) (r were 0.76 and 0.86). SEM C max., SEM C aver. and dry combustion total carbon content had significant and positive relationships (r were 0.83 and 0.91), SEM C max. which was better than SEM C aver. So the carbon content of MS biochar which had good correlationship with temperature analyzed by SEM-EDX, SEM C max. could be used for composition analysis of biochar, scanning results could analyze structural properties of biochar effectively. This method is rapid, simple and stable. It also could analyze structure and composition of biochar simultaneously. It is a promising method that would be useful to study the structure and composition of biochar and other materials. © 2016, Peking University Press. All right reserved.


PubMed | Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme, U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses.In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK). From the CK, AS, AS2, and NSS libraries, a total of 118, 119, 122, and 120 known Lus-miRNAs and 233, 213, 211, and 212 novel Lus-miRNAs were isolated, respectively. After assessment of differential expression profiles, 17 known Lus-miRNAs and 36 novel Lus-miRNAs were selected and used to predict putative target genes. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed target genes that were involved in responses to stimuli, including signaling and catalytic activity. Eight Lus-miRNAs were selected for analysis using qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the miRNA-seq results. The qRT-PCR results showed that changes in stress-induced expression profiles of these miRNAs mirrored expression trends observed using miRNA-seq. Degradome sequencing and transcriptome profiling showed that expression of 29 miRNA-target pairs displayed inverse expression patterns under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. From the target prediction analysis, the miR398a-targeted gene codes for a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and the miR530 has been shown to explicitly target WRKY family transcription factors, which suggesting that these two micRNAs and their targets may significant involve in the saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stress response in flax.Identification and characterization of flax miRNAs, their target genes, functional annotations, and gene expression patterns are reported in this work. These findings will enhance our understanding of flax miRNA regulatory mechanisms under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses and provide a foundation for future elucidation of the specific functions of these miRNAs.


Wang S.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science Postdoctoral Programme | Wang S.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | Sun L.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | Wei D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain X10-1T, was isolated from saline-alkaline soil inDaqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1T was determined to be a Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pHrange for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Itsmajor isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1T is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to B. saliphilus DSM15402T (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721T (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1T (=NBRC 109404T = CGMCC 1.12295T). © 2014 The Microbiological Society of Korea and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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