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Zhang S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Xu P.,Northeast Agricultural University | Wu J.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | Xue A.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 6 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

Zhang, S. Z., Xu, P. F., Wu, J. J., Xue, A. G., Zhang, J. X., Li, W. B., Chen, C., Chen, W. Y., and Lv, H. Y. 2010. Races of Phytophthora sojae and their virulences on soybean cultivars in Heilongjiang, China. Plant Dis. 94:87-91. Phytophthora root and stem rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is an economically important disease of soybean (Glycine max) in Heilongjiang Province, China. The objectives of this research were to determine the race profile of P. sojae in Heilongjiang and evaluate soybean cultivars for reactions to the pathogen races. A total of 96 single-zoospore P. sojae isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from 35 soybean fields in 18 counties in Heilongjiang from 2005 to 2007. Eight races of P. sojae, including races 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 13, 44, and 54, were identified on a set of eight differentials, each containing a single resistance Rps gene, from 80 of the 96 isolates. Races 1 and 3 were predominant races, comprising 58 and 14 isolates, and representing 60 and 7% of the pathogen population, respectively. Races 4, 5, 44, and 54 were identified for the first time in Heilongjiang, and each was represented by two to three isolates only. Sixty-two soybean cultivars commonly grown in Heilongjiang Province were evaluated for their resistance to the eight P. sojae races identified using the hypocotyl inoculation technique. Based on the percentage of plant mortality rated 5 days after inoculation, 44 cultivars were resistant (<30% mortality) to at least one race. These cultivars may be used as sources of resistance in soybean breeding programs. © 2010 Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Government of Canada.

Li Y.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Smulders M.J.M.,Plant Research International | Li W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Soybean (Glycine max) was domesticated in China from its wild progenitor G. soja. The geographic region of domestication is, however, not exactly known. Here we employed the directional evolution of SSR (microsatellite) repeats (which mutate preferentially into longer alleles) to analyze the domestication process and to infer the most ancestral soybean landraces. In this study, the average standardized SSR allele sizes across 42 SSR loci in 62 accessions of G. soja were determined, and compared with those in 1504 landraces of G. max, collected from all over China and representing the diversity in the gene bank. The standardized SSR allele size in the landraces (0.009) was significantly (P = 8.63 × 10-58) larger than those in G. soja (-0.406). Pairwise comparisons between inferred clusters and sub-clusters of Chinese landraces indicated that the average standardized SSR allele size also increased with the further differentiation of landraces populations. Spring-sowed types had the shortest size, followed by summer-sown types, while the sub-cluster of autumn-sown type had the largest length. The spring-sowed landraces located near the middle region along the Yellow River had the smallest allele sizes, indicating that this is the most ancestral population of cultivated soybean. We concluded that soybean was most likely domesticated in the middle region of the Yellow River in central China, initially as a spring-sown type. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Deelstra J.,Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research Bioforsk As | Wei D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science HAAS | Chen X.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science HAAS | Zhou B.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science HAAS | And 3 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2014

This paper summarises environmental monitoring activities and small plot research in agriculture as practiced in the Heilongjiang province located northeast in China and in Norway. For both countries, there is a need to recommend efficient mitigation measures to farmers and monitor the environmental effect of agricultural systems and management practices. Climate change scenarios predict changes in precipitation which potentially can influence agricultural practices as well as lead to changes in run-off and related to land use as well as the environment losses. As such, cooperation in the further development of monitoring programmes and related techniques will be useful in documenting both present and future, climate change-induced changes, related land use as well as the environmental. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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