Liu Q.,Technical University of Delft |
Schlangen E.,Technical University of Delft |
Van De Ven M.,Technical University of Delft |
Van Bochove G.,Heijmans |
Van Montfort J.,SGS Intron
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the induction healing effect of steel wool reinforced porous asphalt concrete. The four point bending fatigue resistance of the beams was first studied. It was found that the fatigue resistance of these steel wool reinforced beams was quite good compared with the references in the literature. Then, fatigue life extension ratio and flexural stiffness recovery of the beams were used to show their healing effect. The fatigue life extension ratio was measured after introducing induction heating and letting the fatigue damaged beams rest. It was found that induction heating increases the healing rate of the beams and that the healing is highly microstrain-dependent with higher healing rate under high microstrain level. It was also found that the optimal heating temperature is 85 °C to obtain the best healing effect. Heating too much can cause swelling in the specimens, which will decrease the total healing produced. The fatigue damaged beams obtained extra stiffness recovery when induction heating was applied to them. Finally, it was also found that fatigue life of porous asphalt concrete can be significantly extended by applying multiple induction heating. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the self healing effect of porous asphalt concrete can be increased by induction heating the material. Additionally, the durability of porous asphalt pavement will also be improved with induction healing. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heijmans | Date: 2014-04-23
The present invention relates to a road marking comprising a profile comprising a luminescent component, which is to be installed in the road surface, in which profile one or more light sources are present and the aforesaid luminescent component is located above said one or more light sources. The profile is made of an elastic material, wherein the part of the profile present at the surface of the road surface is translucent.
News Article | February 18, 2015
You peer warily out of the single window in your zombie-proof steel box. The street seems deserted—except for a lone figure who is staring at you from a distance. Is it 2079, in the years after the Great Drought Plague!? No, it's 2015 in Royal Oak, Michigan, and that zombie is a curious local Fox reporter. Royal Oak is just the latest American town to get a house made from shipping containers, which offer something unique to consumers with a taste for apocalyptic adventures. While designers are developing smarter ways to build temporary housing and disaster shelters, developers and real estate agents are using the same technology to sell trendy and high-end homes. What results is a bizarre kind of hybrid style that pairs our worst fears with our biggest hopes for the future—utopia and dystopia overlap. Call it disaster chic. Shipping containers are far from the only mode of emergency shelter that's been co-opted for non-emergency use. Technological innovations developed for use during crises have been leaking into everyday life for years. Houses are smaller and more nimble, in some cases, even mobile. You can now pay for a 3D printed home—even a mansion. Companies open pop-up stores instead of expensive flagships. Even the aesthetics of emergency, in the corrugated metal siding of a new condo building or a shipping container wedged into an office, are chic. Why is disaster chic so alluring? Is it the constant threat of imminent chaos—climate chaos, statehood chaos, economic chaos—rearing its ugly head? Is it that people enjoy seeing themselves as survivors, in one way or another? Or is it that this tech is a kind of status symbol in some future Elysium-style world where only the wealthy have access to savior technology? It's hard to say, but it's worth looking at a look at some specific examples. For the past few years, everything slow has been good, from food to fashion. The idea of of slow architecture just hasn't caught on in the same way, and instead, city-building tech is only speeding up. Last month, a Chinese company called WinSun unveiled what appeared to be a cookie-cutter mansion at a housing expo in China. A closer look at the building revealed that its stone facade and the mansard roof weren't made out of stucco, but thin striations of something else— specifically, a proprietary mixture of construction waste and cement which had been squeezed through the nozzle of a enormous 3D printer. The entire thing had been 3D printed. And then painstakingly styled after an aristocrat's manse in 18th century France. WinSun says it will change how emergency shelters are made, and it says it's already moving to use the technology this way. The company reports that its tech has already been purchased by the Egyptian government to create 20,000 homes to ease the country's housing shortage, though inquiries to WinSun about the mansion project weren't answered. Another player in this industry, Contour Crafting, was founded by an engineer from a particularly earthquake-prone region of Iran to improve housing in crisis zones. "Victims of emergency situations such as war and natural disaster should not have to wait months to regain a suitable quality of life," the company writes. Wasp, an Italian 3D printing company, has plans to build affordable houses out of mud "ink." But the dream of an instant, well-appointed home is also clearly part of the allure. While the WinSun's printed mansion is inexpensive compared to building a new home conventionally, it's not cheap: It will cost around $161,000, and WinSun says 10 have already been ordered. Meanwhile, in New York, an architect named Adam Kushner is building an entire "estate" using a 3D printer. Motherboard's DJ Pangburn writes that Kushner plans to start with the hot tub, but expand to print a house, cabana, car port, and more. "Kushner hopes his effort helps trigger a paradigm shift in the way things, from buildings to underwater structures, are built," says Pangburn. Yes, structural printing could clearly transform the way emergency shelters are made. But we're seeing it appear in the homes of the wealthy, too. Around the same time WinSun unveiled its rapid-prototyped mansion, a Dutch construction company called Heijmans was showing off a project designed for, in its words, "The well-educated: between 25 and 35 years old, first job, single, the world at their feet." What help does this privileged demographic need? Heijmans explains that since housing in cities is so expensive and poor quality, it designed a prefabricated house called ONE—a reference to the single status of its intended user. The home is transported via truck to underused spaces in cities and assembled in 24 hours or less, then rented out to young people for around $860 a month, according to Inhabitat. "In 2050 we will count no less than 700,000 of these 'young and high potentials,'" the company explains. ONE uses decades of research about prefab housing to benefit a generation of people who want to live in cities but can't really afford it. Prefab housing goes back for more than a century—it's been used in housing crises, war-time shelters, and a plethora of over problems, including New York City's own housing shortage. It's also increasingly being uses as a solution to the problem of skyrocketing real estate prices in the world's most expensive cities. In NYC, former Mayor Bloomberg initiated a project called adAPT NYC that asked architects to design "micro-apartments" for young professionals in the city. The winner of the competition, Monadnock, is building 55 of these tiny units, which start at 270 square feet, to show off the technology. The prefab units will be assembled in the Brooklyn Navy Yard and driven to Manhattan, where they will be installed in the East Village. In a way, they are emergency shelter—if you consider outrageous real estate prices an emergency. There's no more constant feature of the instant city than the shipping container, so it's surprisingly difficult to find out when shipping containers were first used as ad hoc shelter—it seems like it's been going on virtually since they were invented in the 1950s. But because containers are often used to ship supplies and weapons to war zones—the US government had more than 92,000 containers in Afghanistan in 2013—leftover containers have been used as protection or storage as least since the Gulf War. Architects have been fascinated by containers for even longer—a phenomenon that's been brilliantly christened "container urbanism" by Mitchell Schwarzer. In the urban chaos of post-World War II cities in Japan and the UK, technocractic architects imagined rebuilding their cities as ever-changing grids, where a home was a brick that could be moved around as the user wished. In the face of economic and urban chaos, the idea of house that could be packed up in minutes and shipped to a new location was incredibly attractive. Today they're used as temporary worker housing, as well as housing for refugees and displaced peoples in crisis regions. In Japan, they were used to create temporary housing after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) containers, in Nusseirat refugee camp, central Gaza Strip in 2010. AP Photo/Khalil Hamra. The thing is, shipping containers aren't usually a great solution for permanent architecture. They are only strong enough to support weight at their corners. They are fairly difficult to alter and have no insulation, windows, or doors. Sometimes they are contaminated with toxins or lead. They simply don't seem to make great living spaces, as people who have tried to do it will tell you. Yet they are seemingly everywhere: Dwell will tell you how to buy one. Google uses them as meeting-pods in its whimsical offices. They are often used to stage "pop-up" stories by brands like Puma, Freitag, and the apparel-maker Aether. There are hundreds of high-end homes built using containers. Shipping containers seem to hit a trifecta for many homeowners: Re-use, security, and trendiness. It's almost like the language of the global shipping economy is fashionable, and with it, the idea that your home could be packed up and go with you to sea. If you ever should need it to. Of course, it's not surprising to see interesting ideas cross-pollinate—3D printing, containerization, and pop-up dwellings are all really cool concepts, and there's no reason they should be shrouded in break-in-case-of-emergency glass. What's interesting is how similar our ideas about crisis engineering and future chic really are. In the city of the future, everything is instant, whether for a good reason or a bad one. The cities of our dreams have a lot in common with those of our nightmares.
News Article | April 22, 2014
Luminescent powder in paint has given a glow to 500 meters of Dutch highway, resulting in a trial section of glow-in-the-dark road. Designer Daan Roosegaarde, who won best future concept for the idea at the Dutch Design Awards in 2012, is collaborating with Heijmans, a Dutch civil engineering firm, to create such interactive highways. Almost two years later, the project is coming to fruition with some adjustments, according Slate. "The government is shutting down streetlights at night to save money," Roosegaarde said in an interview with the BBC. " This road is about safety and envisaging a more self-sustainable and more interactive world." The Smart Highway Project originally included glowing weather symbols, such as snowflakes, that would light up at a certain temperature, but the first stretch of lit-up road only has illuminated hash marks and edge lines. The trial run is on a stretch of highway N329 in the town of Oss, located in the country's southeast region, according to Global News. The green-lit paint markings charge in the daylight and can glow for up to eight hours, Global News reported. But some transportation officials have already raised concerns about the technology's durability in bad weather. “The cost [of glow-in-the-dark technology] is usually relatively high in comparison to conventional markings,” Ajay Woozageer, a spokesperson for the ministry of transportation in Ontario, Canada, told Global News. “The durability of this product is unknown. For example, does the product perform on short winter days and long nights or under overcast and cloudy conditions?” Woozageer added, however, that the ministry is interested in the concept of glowing roads.
News Article | November 13, 2014
Although its smart highway didn't have all the features intended, the Netherlands-based Studio Roosegarde did manage to implement its most power-saving idea: glow-in-the-dark road markings. These were crafted from road paint mixed with a photoluminescent powder that charges with sunlight during the day, staying bright for up to 10 hours once night falls. This concept, it seems, isn't just appropriate for utilitarian roads: the studio has now also applied it to a bicycle path in Eindhoven, embedding it with thousands of glowing stones in homage to Vincent Van Gogh's The Starry Night. The Van Gogh Bicycle Path, constructed by Heijmans Infrastructure, runs for 600 metres along the Brabant site where the artist lived from 1883 and 1885. Using the company's light-emitting technology, glowing rocks have been embedded in the asphalt. During the daytime, they charge with sunlight; during the night, they glow in the darkness. "I wanted to use something that people are familiar with and give it a twist," said designer Daan Roosegarde. "This is how you get the first kilometre of art, though one which you can actually touch." The path has been opened as part of the international year of Van Gogh in 2015, the 125th anniversary of the artist's death, which will be commemorated with a cultural programme devised by Van Gogh Europe.