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Little Rock, AR, United States

Fullerton T.M.,University of Texas at El Paso | Resendez I.M.,Heifer International | Walke A.G.,University of Texas at El Paso
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2015

This study analyzes residential electricity demand in the state of Arkansas using an error-correction approach that examines both long-run and short-run dynamics. As in prior studies, results indicate that higher electricity prices reduce consumption in the long-run, but not in the short-run. With respect to variations in household income, residential electricity is treated as a normal good. The long-run income elasticity estimate is about twice as large as the short-run estimate. It is suggested that the muted short-run responses to price and income variables may reflect limited capacity to adjust the stock of electricity-consuming household devices over the short-term. More surprisingly, households are found to treat electricity as a normal good in the short-run, but have an upward sloping demand curve associated with it. The overall results suggest that increasing generating capacity in Arkansas will be feasible using the standard approach of incremental rate increases. © 2015, Econjournals. All rights reserved. Source

Byker C.,Montana State University | Clark S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Enoch J.R.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock | Montgomery T.,Heifer International | Serrano E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2012

This study examines Heifer International's alternative break and its impact on dietary and sustainable food system change for participants. The program teaches college participants about ending poverty and hunger while caring for the earth through incorporating sustainable practices into daily life. Although increases in local/organic foods were observed, there were no significant changes in dietary quality. Significant increases in local/organic food consumption for individuals who consumed less than 50% of their calories from sustainable foods at baseline were observed, based upon paired t-tests (P <.05). Dietary changes varied in significance based upon previous sustainable food consumption exposure and habits. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ayza A.,Madawalabu University | Yilma Z.,Heifer International | Nurfeta A.,Hawassa University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The study was conducted in and around Boditti town, Southern Ethiopia with the objective of characterizing milk production systems in the area. A total of 120 households were randomly selected from four Kebeles, two in Boditti town and the rest from surrounding. Two major dairy production systems, namely urban and rural or mixed crop/livestock production systems were identified. Average cattle holding per household in the area was 3.4 with 1.1 lactating cows. Husbandry practices such as feeding, watering, housing, breeding, milking, calf rearing, waste management, and record keeping were different in the two production systems. Overall, about 3.25 liters of milk was produced daily per household. Major constraints for dairy development in the area include: animal feeds, land and water scarcity, discouraging market, low rate of genetic improvement, etc. Rapid urbanization coupled with increase in human population and standard of living of the urban dwellers and conducive climate of the area can be considered as an opportunity for the development of dairy in the area. Therefore, market opportunity and linkages are the major issues for smallholder dairy development in addition to provision of the required services and resources, provision of credit, extension and training. Source

Miller L.C.,Tufts University | Joshi N.,Heifer Nepal | Lohani M.,Heifer International | Rogers B.,Tufts University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2014

Background. More than 50% of children in Nepal are malnourished. Economic growth and poverty reduction are not always sufficient to improve the health and nutritional status of children. Heifer Nepal uses livestock training as a tool for community development and poverty alleviation but does not directly address child health and nutrition. Objective. To systematically assess the effects of Heifer activities on child health and nutrition. Methods. The study was a 2-year, longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial in six communities in Nepal (both Terai and hills), pair-matched for specific characteristics, randomly assigned to receive Heifer community development activities at baseline (intervention) or 1 year (control). At 6-month intervals over a period of 2 years, child anthropometric and comprehensive household surveys were performed. Results. Four hundred fifteen households were enrolled containing 607 children 6 months to 5 years of age. The intervention and control communities were equivalent for baseline socioeconomic status, household size, ownership of land and animals, and child nutrition and health. At 12 months (prior to animal donations), the Terai intervention group had improved child weight (p =.04), improved child height (p =.05), and reduced sick days (p =.03), as well as increased household income (p =.004), increased ownership of animals (p =.04) and land (p =.04), and improved sanitation practices (p <.01). In all districts, longer participation in Heifer activities corresponded to more improvement in child height-for-age z-scores. Conclusions. Heifer interventions resulted in improved socioeconomic status and household income per family member. Children under 60 months of age in the intervention group had greater incremental improvement in height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores than children in the control group, and longer participation in Heifer activities was associated with better growth. Poverty alleviation programs, such as Heifer, may indirectly benefit child growth. © 2014, The Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation. Source

Miller L.C.,Tufts Medical Center | Miller L.C.,Tufts University | Joshi N.,Heifer Nepal | Lohani M.,Heifer International | And 8 more authors.
Paediatrics and International Child Health | Year: 2016

Background: Brain development in early childhood is a key determinant of later cognition, social achievement and educational success. Head circumference (HC) measurements are a simple method to assess brain growth, yet reports of these measurements are uncommon in nutritional surveys of undernourished children. Objective: To evaluate HC measurements in a population of rural Nepali children and relate these measurements to demographics, health and diet. Methods: An observational study of head growth was nested within a longitudinal evaluation of a livestock-based agricultural intervention in rural Nepal. Between 538 and 689 children (aged 6 months to 8 years) were measured (height, weight, HC) at each of six survey visits. A total of 3652 HC measurements were obtained. Results were converted to Z-scores (WHO Anthro). Results: Mean head circumference Z-scores (HCZ) diminished progressively over the first 4 years of life; a decline of 30% occurred between 3 and 4 years of age (−1.73 to −2.45, P < 0.0001). Overall, 56% of HCZ were <−2. Gender-adjusted HCZ (but not other measurements) were significantly lower for girls than boys [mean (SD) −2.31 (1.0) vs −1.99 (0.094), P < 0.0001]; girls more often had microcephaly (61% vs 50%, P < 0.0001). For children <3 years of age, HCZ were better in those who had eaten two or more animal-source foods (ASFs) within the previous 24 h [−1.69 (.05) vs −2.08 (0.10), P = 0.001] than in those who had eaten none or only one; HCZ correlated with the number of ASFs consumed (P < 0.001). Regression analyses demonstrated that the main determinants of HCZ were age, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) and gender; 43% of the variance in HCZ in younger children was explained by WAZ and ASF consumption. Conclusion: HCs reflect brain size in young children; brain size is linked to cognitive function. Poor head growth represents another facet of the ‘silent emergency’ of child undernutrition. Routine HCZ assessments may contribute to better understanding of the links between poverty and cognitive development. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source

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