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Steidl P.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Steidl P.,Siemens AG | Haberer T.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Durante M.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | And 2 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Gating is one option for radiotherapy of tumours that move intrafractionally due to respiration. Delays of the motion monitoring system can lead to a shift of the gating window and thus slightly shifted dose distributions. We studied the delay of two motion monitoring systems which use the motion of the chest wall as surrogate for tumour motion. Delays and their dosimetric influence were determined against a precise motion acquisition system in a phantom study. The measurement data were supplemented by dedicated simulations of the experimental setup. Finally, the dosimetric influence for patient treatments was estimated for a lung tumour case using the extreme situation of a radiosurgery setting with a single field. We determined delays of 132 ± 18 ms and 103 ± 22 ms for the two systems. There was no significant difference between beam start and beam stop delay. Even for delays of 200 ms the dosimetric influence in a single-field radiosurgery setting is moderate (V95 = 96.5%, V107 = 8.5%, D5-D95 = 13%). We conclude, that the delay of the motion monitoring system should be part of the commissioning process for gated treatments. The dosimetric impact should be studied in detail prior treatments with a scanned ion beam. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


Combs S.E.,University of Heidelberg | Welzel T.,University of Heidelberg | Habermehl D.,University of Heidelberg | Rieken S.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2013

Purpose. To evaluate early treatment results and toxicity in patients with meningiomas treated with particle therapy. Material and methods. Seventy patients with meningiomas were treated with protons (n = 38) or carbon ion radiotherapy (n = 26). Median age was 49 years. Median age at treatment was 55 years, 24 were male (34%), and 46 were female (66%). Histology was benign meningioma in 26 patients (37%), atypical in 23 patients (33%) and anaplastic in four patients (6%). In 17 patients (24%) with skull base meningiomas diagnosis was based on the typical appearance of a meningioma. For benign meningiomas, total doses of 52.2-57.6 GyE were applied with protons. For high-grade lesions, the boost volume was 18 GyE carbon ions, with a median dose of 50 GyE applied as highly conformal radiation therapy. Nineteen patients were treated as re-irradiation. Treatment planning with MRI and 68-Ga-DOTATOC-PET was evaluated. Results. Very low rates of side effects developed, including headaches, nausea and dizziness. No severe treatment-related toxicity was observed. Local control for benign meningiomas was 100%. Five of 27 patients (19%) developed tumor recurrence during follow-up. Of these, four patients had been treated as re-irradiation for recurrent high-risk meningiomas. Actuarial local control after re-irradiation of high-risk meningiomas was therefore 67% at six and 12 months. In patients treated with primary radiotherapy, only one of 13 patients (8%) developed tumor recurrence 17 months after radiation therapy (photon and carbon ion boost). Conclusion. Continuous prospective follow-up and development of novel study concepts are required to fully exploit the long-term clinical data after particle therapy for meningiomas. To date, it may be concluded that when proton therapy is available, meningioma patients can be offered a treatment at least comparable to high-end photon therapy. © 2013 Informa Healthcare.


Adeberg S.,University of Heidelberg | Bostel T.,University of Heidelberg | Konig L.,University of Heidelberg | Welzel T.,University of Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective: Long-term survival is rare in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We set out to determine prognostic factors for patients with favorable and poor prognosis in regard of tumor localization to the subventricular zone (SZV).Methods: We reviewed the clinical records, pre-operative and post-operative MRI imaging of 50 LTS long-term survivors (LTS) (> 3 years) and 50 short-term survivors (STS) (< 1 year) with glioblastoma. These groups were matched for clinical characteristics being consistently associated with prolonged or shortened survival. All patients had undergone initial surgery or biopsy to confirm GBM diagnosis followed by radio- or chemoradiotherapy.Results: LTS had a median progression-free survival PFS of 25, 4 months (2, 3-97, 8 months) and overall-survival (OS) of 55, 9 months (38, 2-98, 6 months) compared to STS who had a significantly lower PFS of 4, 2 months (1, 4-10, 2 months) and OS of 6, 6 months (2, 2-11, 6 months) (each p < 0,001).Survival analysis showed that age under 60 years (p < 0,001), total resection status (p < 0,001) and tumor localization without SVZ contact (p = 0,05) were significant factors for prolonged survival.Conclusion: Our findings underline that survival in GBM patients is heterogeneous and influenced by multiple factors. This study confirms that tumor location with regard to the SVZ is significantly associated with survival. © 2014 Adeberg et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Combs S.E.,University of Heidelberg | Jakel O.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Jakel O.,German Cancer Research Center | Haberer T.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Debus J.,University of Heidelberg
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2010

The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) offers treatment of particle therapy with variety of ion species for over 1300 patients yearly. In November 2009, patient treatment has begun. The aim of the center is to provide high-end radiotherapy, and to define the role of particle therapy through clinical trials. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Adeberg S.,University of Heidelberg | Konig L.,University of Heidelberg | Bostel T.,University of Heidelberg | Harrabi S.,University of Heidelberg | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2014

Methods and Materials: 607 patients (376 male and 231 female) with a median age of 61.3 years (range, 3.0-87.9 years) and primary GBM treated with radiation therapy (RT) from 2004 to 2012 at a single institution were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative images and follow-up examination results were assessed to evaluate tumor location. Tumors were classified according to the tumor location in relation to the SVZ.Results: The median PFS of the study population was 5.2 months (range, 1-91 months), and the median OS was 13.8 months (range, 1-102 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tumor location in close proximity to the SVZ was associated with a significant decline in PFS and OS (4.8 and 12.3 months, respectively; each P<.001). Furthermore, in cases where tumors were involved with the SVZ, distant cerebral progression (43.8%; P=.005) and multifocal progression (39.8%; P=.008) were more common. Interestingly, opening of the ventricle during the previous surgery showed no impact on PFS and OS.Conclusion: GBM in close proximity to the SVZ was associated with decreased survival and had a higher risk of multifocal or distant progression. Ventricle opening during surgery had no effect on survival rates.Purpose: We evaluated the influence of tumor location and tumor spread in primary glioblastoma (GBM), with respect to the subventricular zone (SVZ), on recurrence behavior, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Schlaich F.,University of Heidelberg | Brons S.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Haberer T.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Debus J.,University of Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Characterization of combination effects of chemotherapy drugs with carbon ions in comparison to photons in vitro.Methods: The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line WiDr was tested for combinations with camptothecin, cisplatin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. In addition three other human tumour cell lines (A549: lung, LN-229: glioblastoma, PANC-1: pancreas) were tested for the combination with camptothecin. Cells were irradiated with photon doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy or carbon ion doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy. Cell survival was assessed using the clonogenic growth assay. Treatment dependent changes in cell cycle distribution (up to 12 hours post-treatment) were measured by FACS analysis after propidium-iodide staining. Apoptosis was monitored for up to 36 hours post-treatment by Nicoletti-assay (with qualitative verification using DAPI staining).Results: All cell lines exhibited the well-known increase of killing efficacy per unit dose of carbon ion exposure, with relative biological efficiencies at 10% survival (RBE10) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7 for the different cell lines. In combination with chemotherapy additive toxicity was the prevailing effect. Only in combination with gemcitabine or cisplatin (WiDr) or camptothecin (all cell lines) the photon sensitivity was slightly enhanced, whereas purely independent toxicities were found with the carbon ion irradiation, in all cases. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes displayed the generally observed dose-dependent G2-arrest with little effect on S-phase fraction for all cell lines for photons and for carbon ions. Only paclitaxel showed a significant induction of apoptosis in WiDr cell line but independent of the used radiation quality.Conclusions: Combined effects of different chemotherapeutics with photons or with carbon ions do neither display qualitative nor substantial quantitative differences. Small radiosensitizing effects, when observed with photons are decreased with carbon ions. The data support the idea that a radiochemotherapy with common drugs and carbon ion irradiation might be as feasible as respective photon-based protocols. The present data serve as an important radiobiological basis for further combination experiments, as well as clinical studies on combination treatments. © 2013 Schlaich et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Combs S.E.,University of Heidelberg | Zipp L.,University of Heidelberg | Rieken S.,University of Heidelberg | Habermehl D.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of carbon ion radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells in vitro.Methods and Materials: The human glioblastoma (GBM) cell line U87 was irradiated with photon radiotherapy (RT) doses of 2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy. Likewise, irradiation with carbon ions was performed with single carbon doses of 0.125, 0.5, 2 and 3 Gy. Four chemotherapeutic substances, camptothecin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel and cisplatinum, were used for single and combination experiments. The assessment of the effect of single and double treatment on cell viability was performed using the clonogenic growth assay representing the radiobiological gold standard.Results: The RBE of carbon ions ranges between 3.3 and 3.9 depending on survival level and dose. All chemotherapeutic substances showed a clear does-response relationhips. in their characteristic concentrations. For subsequent combination experiments, two dose levels leading to low and medium reduction of cell survival were chosen. Combination experiments showed additive effects independently of the drugs' mechanisms of action. Paclitaxel and campthothecin demonstrated the most prominent cytotoxic effect in combination with carbon ion radiotherapy.Conclusion: In conclusion, combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with chemotherapies of different mechanisms of action demonstrates additive effects. The most dominant effect was produced by paclitaxel, followed by camptothecin, as espected from previously published work. The present data serve as an important radiobiological basis for further combination experiments, as well as clinical studies on combination treatments. © 2012 Combs et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jensen A.D.,INF | Nikoghosyan A.,INF | Ellerbrock M.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Ecker S.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | And 2 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Treatment of surgically unresectable recurrence in the head and neck region remains a therapeutic problem with the only curative option being a second course of radiation with a tumouricidal dose. We report initial toxicity and efficacy of charged particle therapy in this situation. Methods: Treatment-related side-effects of patients treated with charged particle beams for recurrent tumours of the head and neck were prospectively collected and patient data was retrospectively analysed with regard to toxicity and efficacy of the treatment according to CTCAE v. 4.03 and RECIST. Results: Treatment was tolerated well without any severe acute toxicity. In non-chordoma/chondrosarcoma patients, overall response rate was 53.3% at 8 weeks post RT. 4/5 chordoma/chondrosarcoma patients showed no signs of further tumour progression. Conclusion: Initial experience of re-irradiation with scanned particle beams in recurrent tumours of the head and neck seems feasible and encouraging. Further follow-up is needed to investigate potential late effects. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jensen A.D.,INF | Ecker S.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Ellerbrock M.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Nikoghosyan A.,INF | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2011

Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare odontogenic tumors. Treatment usually consists of surgical resection and sometimes adjuvant radiation. We report the case of a 71 year-old male patient undergoing carbon ion therapy for extensive local relapse of ameloblastic carcinoma. Treatment outcome was favourable with a complete remission at 6 weeks post completion of radiotherapy while RT-treatment itself was tolerated well with only mild side effects. High dose radiation hence is a potential alternative for patients unfit or unwilling to undergo extensive surgery or in cases when only a subtotal resection is planned or the resection is mutilating. © 2011 Jensen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Abdollahi A.,United Medical Systems | Abdollahi A.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Abdollahi A.,Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center | Folkman J.,Childrens Hospital Boston
Drug Resistance Updates | Year: 2010

Within three decades, anti-angiogenic therapy has rapidly evolved into an integral component of current standard anti-cancer treatment. Anti-angiogenic therapy has fulfilled a number of its earlier proposed promises. The universality of this approach is demonstrated by the broad spectrum of malignant and benign tumor entities, as well as non-neoplastic diseases, that are currently treated with anti-angiogenic agents. In contrast to tumor cell targeting therapies, the development of acquired drug resistance (e.g., via mutations in growth factor receptor signaling genes) has not been described yet for the principal target of anti-angiogenic therapy-the tumor endothelium. Moreover, the tumor endothelium has emerged as a critical target of conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The presumption that tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis-dependent implies that the number of potential targets of an anti-cancer therapy could be reduced to those that stimulate the angiogenesis process. Therefore, the set of endogenous angiogenesis stimulants might constitute an "Achilles heel" of cancer. Direct targeting of tumor endothelium via, e.g., endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors poses another promising but clinically less explored therapeutic strategy. Indeed, the majority of current anti-angiogenic approaches block the activity of a single or at most a few pro-angiogenic proteins secreted by tumor cells or the tumor stroma. Based on our systems biology work on the angiogenic switch, we predicted that the redundancy of angiogenic signals might limit the efficacy of anti-angiogenic monotherapies. In support of this hypothesis, emerging experimental evidence suggests that tumors may become refractory or even evade the inhibition of a single pro-angiogenic pathway via compensatory upregulation of alternative angiogenic factors. Here, we discuss current concepts and propose novel strategies to overcome tumor evasion of anti-angiogenic therapy. We believe that early detection of tumors, prediction of tumor evasive mechanisms and rational design of anti-angiogenic combinations will direct anti-angiogenic therapy towards its ultimate goal-the conversion of cancer to a dormant, chronic, manageable disease. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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