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Trondle D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Schroder S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Kassemeyer H.-H.,State Viticulture Institute Freiburg | Kiefer C.,Heidelberg Institute of Plant science | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Premise of the study: This work represents the first molecular phylogeny of the economically important genus Vitis, an important genetic resource for breeding in grapevine, Vitis vinifera. Methods: A molecular phylogeny of Vitis using a combined data set of three noncoding regions of the plastid DNA genome was constructed from 47 accessions covering 30 species of Vitis. The data for the trnL-F marker were combined with previously published data across the Vitaceae. Key results: The molecular phylogeny demonstrated monophyly of the genus Vitis. Based on the combined analysis of three genes, Vitis is split into three clades that mirror the continental distribution of these accessions. The diversity is highest in the Asian clade, but the general genetic distances across taxa from different continents are relatively small. Conclusions: The findings support a relatively recent and intense gene flow between East Asia and North America and the possible impact of hybridization on the evolution of the genus Vitis. Taxon identity in important stock collections should be screened carefully because roughly 10% of the accessions analyzed in the present study had been misidentified. © 2010 Botanical Society of America.

Couvreur T.L.P.,University of Osnabruck | Couvreur T.L.P.,Wageningen University | Couvreur T.L.P.,New York Botanical Garden | Franzke A.,Heidelberg Institute of Plant science | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Brassicaceae is an important family at both the agronomic and scientific level. The family not only inlcudes several model species, but it is also becoming an evolutionary model at the family level. However, resolving the phylogenetic relationships within the family has been problematic, and a large-scale molecular phylogeny in terms of generic sampling and number of genes is still lacking. In particular, the deeper relationships within the family, for example between the three major recognized lineages, prove particularly hard to resolve. Using a slow-evolving mitochondrial marker (nad4 intron 1), we reconstructed a comprehensive phylogeny in generic representation for the family. In addition, and because resolution was very low in previous single marker phylogenies, we adopted a supermatrix approach by concatenating all checked and reliable sequences available on GenBank as well as new sequences for a total 207 currently recognized genera and eight molecular markers representing a comprehensive coverage of all three genomes. The supermatrix was dated under an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock using a direct fossil calibration approach. Finally, a lineage-through-time-plot and rates of diversification for the family were generated. The resulting tree, the largest in number of genera and markers sampled to date and covering the whole family in a representative way, provides important insights into the evolution of the family on a broad scale. The backbone of the tree remained largely unresolved and is interpreted as the consequence of early rapid radiation within the family. The age of the family was inferred to be 37.6 (24.2-49.4) Ma, which largely agrees with previous studies. The ages of all major lineages and tribes are also reported. Analysis of diversification suggests that Brassicaceae underwent a rapid period of diversification, after the split with the early diverging tribe Aethionemeae. Given the dates found here, the family appears to have originated under a warm and humid climate approximately 37 Ma. We suggest that the rapid radiation detected was caused by a global cooling during the Oligocene coupled with a genome duplication event. This duplication could have allowed the family to rapidly adapt to the changing climate.

Koch M.A.,Heidelberg Institute of Plant science | Karl R.,Heidelberg Institute of Plant science | Kiefer C.,Heidelberg Institute of Plant science | Al-Shehbaz I.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

The circumscription of the genus Arabis underwent many and drastic changes within the past. Using DNA sequence information from the nuclear ribosomal RNA and parts of the plastid genome (trn L- trn LF), as well as a critical evaluation of herbarium material from East Asia and North America, we circumscribe the various Arabis taxa of North America. The American and East Asian Arabis species are closely related and, contrary to what was previously believed, they are not closely related to the Eurasian A. hirsuta. Using cpDNA, we found five North American lineages of Arabis with distinct distribution patterns, of which only the purple/red-flowered lineage consists of proven diploids that evolved directly from East Asian progenitors. All other four lineages evolved via ancient hybridization either on the Asian continent prior to migration to North America or showed significant evidence for hybridization and reticulation while diversifying on the American continent. We also provide the first evidence for the systematic circumscription of East Asian Arabis taxa, which together with the North American taxa, form one clade distantly related to European A. ciliata and Eurasian A. hirsuta. The findings also represent the first record of A. pycnocarpa for the floras of China, Japan, and Russian Far East. © 2010 Botanical Society of America.

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