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Elverum, Norway

Hedmark University College is a høgskole, a Norwegian state institution of higher education, in the county of Hedmark, Norway. The college's four campuses are located in Hamar, Elverum, Åmot and Stor-Elvdal. It was established August 1, 1994, and has approximately 5250 students and 450 employees.The university college is divided into four faculties: the Faculty of Health and Sports, the Faculty of Education and Natural science Design, the Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, and the Faculty of Business Administration, Social science and Computer Science. Wikipedia.

Wang H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Singhal A.,Hedmark University College
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Latina/o Americans are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and adolescent pregnancies. Needed urgently are innovative health promotion approaches that are engaging and culturally sensitive. East Los High is a transmedia edutainment program aimed at young Latina/o Americans. It embeds educational messages in entertainment narratives across digital platforms to promote sexual and reproductive health. We employed online analytics tracking (2013-2014), an online viewer survey (2013), and a laboratory experiment (El Paso, TX, 2014) for season 1 program evaluation. We found that East Los High had a wide audience reach, strong viewer engagement, and a positive cognitive, emotional, and social impact on sexual and reproductive health communication and education. Culturally sensitive transmedia edutainment programs are a promising health promotion strategy for minority populations and warrant further investigation. Source

Axelsson E.,Uppsala University | Ratnakumar A.,Uppsala University | Arendt M.-L.,Uppsala University | Maqbool K.,Uppsala University | And 8 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Scogings P.F.,University of Zululand | Hjalten J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Skarpe C.,Hedmark University College
Oecologia | Year: 2011

Carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSMs) are assumed to function as defences that contribute to herbivore-avoidance strategies of woody plants. Severe browsing has been reported to reduce concentrations of CBSMs and increase N concentrations in individual plants, causing heavily browsed plants to be characterised by N-rich/C-poor tissues. We hypothesised that concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) and total polyphenols (TP) should decrease, or N increase, in relation to increasing intensity of browsing, rendering severely browsed plants potentially more palatable (increased N:CT) and less N-limited (increased N:P) than lightly browsed ones. We sampled naturally browsed trees (taller than 2 m) of four abundant species in southern Kruger National Park, South Africa. Species-specific relationships between N:CT, CT, TP and P concentrations and increasing browsing intensity were detected, but N and N:P were consistently invariable. We developed a conceptual post-hoc model to explain diverse species-specific CBSM responses on the basis of relative allocation of C to total C-based defence traits (e.g. spines/thorns, tough/evergreen leaves, phenolic compounds). The model suggests that species with low allocation of C to C-based defence traits become C-limited (potentially more palatable) at higher browsing intensity than species with high allocation of C to C-based defences. The model also suggests that when N availability is high, plants become C-limited at higher browsing intensity than when N availability is low. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Monness E.,Hedmark University College
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Foresters have long sought distribution functions capable of modeling a tree distribution that have good fit, yield flexible models, and are easy to use. The power-normal (PN) distribution originates from the inverse Box-Cox transformation and might be proven to fulfill these requirements. The PN has similarities with Johnson's system-bounded (SB) distribution and can be seen as a contender. The PN is used in this study to fit the frequency distributions of tree diameter and height. PN is flexible in describing different shapes of observed distributions as indicated by the certain areas in the skewness × kurtosis shape plane. The estimation of the parameters using maximum likelihood is straightforward and the resulting numerical properties are desirable. The shapes achieved by PN are very diverse, even though only three parameters are used. Johnson's SB has four parameters and estimation is often susceptible to numerical problems when fitted by maximum likelihood estimation. Our results indicate that the performance of PN is superior to that of Johnson's SB, as shown by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and visual inspection, particularly for fitting tree height distributions. Source

van Beest F.M.,University of Saskatchewan | van Beest F.M.,Hedmark University College | Milner J.M.,Hedmark University College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose.Methodology/Principal Findings:Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer.Conclusions/Significance:This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal behaviour, and subsequently fitness, are expected to intensify as global warming continues. © 2013 van Beest, Milner. Source

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