Elverum, Norway
Elverum, Norway

Hedmark University College is a høgskole, a Norwegian state institution of higher education, in the county of Hedmark, Norway. The college's four campuses are located in Hamar, Elverum, Åmot and Stor-Elvdal. It was established August 1, 1994, and has approximately 5250 students and 450 employees.The university college is divided into four faculties: the Faculty of Health and Sports, the Faculty of Education and Natural science Design, the Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, and the Faculty of Business Administration, Social science and Computer Science. Wikipedia.

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Wang H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Singhal A.,Hedmark University College
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Latina/o Americans are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and adolescent pregnancies. Needed urgently are innovative health promotion approaches that are engaging and culturally sensitive. East Los High is a transmedia edutainment program aimed at young Latina/o Americans. It embeds educational messages in entertainment narratives across digital platforms to promote sexual and reproductive health. We employed online analytics tracking (2013-2014), an online viewer survey (2013), and a laboratory experiment (El Paso, TX, 2014) for season 1 program evaluation. We found that East Los High had a wide audience reach, strong viewer engagement, and a positive cognitive, emotional, and social impact on sexual and reproductive health communication and education. Culturally sensitive transmedia edutainment programs are a promising health promotion strategy for minority populations and warrant further investigation.

van Beest F.M.,University of Saskatchewan | van Beest F.M.,Hedmark University College | Milner J.M.,Hedmark University College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose.Methodology/Principal Findings:Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer.Conclusions/Significance:This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal behaviour, and subsequently fitness, are expected to intensify as global warming continues. © 2013 van Beest, Milner.

Calogiuri G.,Hedmark University College
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by “feelings about nature” and “social networks”. These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted. © 2016 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Axelsson E.,Uppsala University | Ratnakumar A.,Uppsala University | Arendt M.-L.,Uppsala University | Maqbool K.,Uppsala University | And 8 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Scogings P.F.,University of Zululand | Hjalten J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Skarpe C.,Hedmark University College
Oecologia | Year: 2011

Carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSMs) are assumed to function as defences that contribute to herbivore-avoidance strategies of woody plants. Severe browsing has been reported to reduce concentrations of CBSMs and increase N concentrations in individual plants, causing heavily browsed plants to be characterised by N-rich/C-poor tissues. We hypothesised that concentrations of condensed tannins (CT) and total polyphenols (TP) should decrease, or N increase, in relation to increasing intensity of browsing, rendering severely browsed plants potentially more palatable (increased N:CT) and less N-limited (increased N:P) than lightly browsed ones. We sampled naturally browsed trees (taller than 2 m) of four abundant species in southern Kruger National Park, South Africa. Species-specific relationships between N:CT, CT, TP and P concentrations and increasing browsing intensity were detected, but N and N:P were consistently invariable. We developed a conceptual post-hoc model to explain diverse species-specific CBSM responses on the basis of relative allocation of C to total C-based defence traits (e.g. spines/thorns, tough/evergreen leaves, phenolic compounds). The model suggests that species with low allocation of C to C-based defence traits become C-limited (potentially more palatable) at higher browsing intensity than species with high allocation of C to C-based defences. The model also suggests that when N availability is high, plants become C-limited at higher browsing intensity than when N availability is low. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Oyehaug A.B.,Hedmark University College | Holt A.,Hedmark University College
Chemistry Education Research and Practice | Year: 2013

This longitudinal study aims to provide greater insight into how students' understanding of matter and chemical reactions develops over time and how their knowledge structures are restructured. Four case-study students in a Norwegian primary school were followed for two years from age 10-11 to age 12-13. Researchers were responsible for implementation of science teaching promoting systematic development of students' understanding of the nature of matter and chemical reactions in many contexts across science disciplines. The four case-study students' expressed understanding was recorded and analyzed throughout the period. Results indicate that students develop fragmented and incomplete understanding, and drawing wrong conclusions may be necessary steps in the learning process. Moreover, students seem to develop a somewhat more integrated and cohesive understanding of the nature of matter and chemical reactions, indicating that the students restructure and reorganize their knowledge structures (i.e. differentiation, coalescence and promoting). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Skille E.A.,Hedmark University College
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2011

In order to shed light on the possibilities for using sport as a vehicle for the realization of social goods-understood as sport having a wider social role-this paper scrutinizes Norwegian sport clubs. The study is guided by the concept of convention, which refers to individuals' cognitive structures, and to social structure. Three sport clubs were investigated and three qualitative methods, including document analysis, observation and interviews, were employed. First, in the results section, the main sport convention is identified as being competitiveness. Secondly, it is argued that as a consequence of the main convention for sport there are limited possibilities for the realization of social goods such as health. The possibilities of sports clubs combining the convention of competitiveness with others is discussed, considering the former as substantial for practice and discussing whether the latter is mere rhetoric. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Monness E.,Hedmark University College
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Foresters have long sought distribution functions capable of modeling a tree distribution that have good fit, yield flexible models, and are easy to use. The power-normal (PN) distribution originates from the inverse Box-Cox transformation and might be proven to fulfill these requirements. The PN has similarities with Johnson's system-bounded (SB) distribution and can be seen as a contender. The PN is used in this study to fit the frequency distributions of tree diameter and height. PN is flexible in describing different shapes of observed distributions as indicated by the certain areas in the skewness × kurtosis shape plane. The estimation of the parameters using maximum likelihood is straightforward and the resulting numerical properties are desirable. The shapes achieved by PN are very diverse, even though only three parameters are used. Johnson's SB has four parameters and estimation is often susceptible to numerical problems when fitted by maximum likelihood estimation. Our results indicate that the performance of PN is superior to that of Johnson's SB, as shown by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and visual inspection, particularly for fitting tree height distributions.

Calogiuri G.,Hedmark University College | Chroni S.,Hedmark University College
BMC public health | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: An understanding of how the living environment influences physical activity (PA) is of great importance for health promotion. Researchers have reported increased PA when there is a greater availability of nature within people's living environment. However, little has been said about underlying motivational processes. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on the relationship between the natural environment (NE) and PA, integrating it into a conceptual model that depicts the motivational process underlying this relationship.METHODS: Through a systematic literature search in line with PRISMA guidelines, peer-reviewed articles were sought using PubMed (search updated to October 2013) and scrutiny of reference lists. In addition, we contacted experts within our network. We reviewed papers in which the research question(s) concerned: 1) Effects of PA in NE on individuals' feelings and beliefs; 2) Relationships between PA and availability of NEs; and 3) Motivational processes underlying visits to NEs in association with PA. Analysis and integration of the 90 selected studies were performed using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB).RESULTS: People's experiences in using the NE can enhance attitudes toward PA and perceived behavioural control via positive psychological states and stress-relieving effects, which lead to firmer intentions to engage in PA. Individual and environmental barriers, as expressions of social support and actual behavioural control, impact the process via subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Instrumental beliefs such as a desire to enjoy nature and the expected health benefits also influence the process via attitudes. Different patterns have been identified for neighbourhood-based PA and outdoor recreations that take place in a NE.CONCLUSIONS: The availability of a NE and attractive views of nature within an individual's living environment are important contributors to PA, yet attention should focus on personal characteristics and environmental barriers. Policy and infrastructural interventions should aim to guarantee access and maintenance of the NE, as well as information and programming of social activities. Social campaigns via media and health institutions should highlight how nature can be a source of motivation for maintaining a PA routine, reducing stress and achieving aesthetic and health goals.

Bergqvist C.,University of Stockholm | Greger M.,Hedmark University College
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation in 124 plant species collected from different habitats and speciation in 6 of these plant species, was determined. The data show that submerged plants have a higher accumulation than emergent and terrestrial plants. The As concentration in terrestrial and emergent plants were correlated with the [As] soil, while the accumulation factor correlated negatively with [As] soil. Gymnosperms had a high [As] shoot:[As] root ratio. The inorganic As species, arsenate and arsenite were found in plants from all habitats and methylarsonic acid (MMA) in all but one plant species. Arsenate predominated in submerged plants. The results suggest that the habitat and the [As] soil have a strong influence on the As accumulation in plants and that submerged plants and/or gymnosperms might be suitable for phytoremediation of As. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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