Makelainen P.,University of Helsinki |
Esteban R.,Conservation Information and Research on Cetaceans |
Foote A.D.,Copenhagen University |
Kuningas S.,University of St. Andrews |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2014
Here we present a comparison of saddle and eye patch patterns of killer whales from Norwegian, Icelandic, British, Spanish and Greenlandic waters. We found only a small amount of variation in saddle patch shapes, which may reflect a recent phylogenetic divergence from the most recent common ancestor. Eye patch shapes were more variable than saddle patches in small details. Most individuals had eye patches with parallel orientation, with the exception of a small group of killer whales from the Hebrides, which, as previously reported, had sloping eye patches that sloped downward at the posterior end. This differentiation in pigmentation patterns of the Hebridean killer whales from neighbouring populations could reflect one or more of several evolutionary processes, including a deeper phylogenetic divergence, low gene flow with other local populations and drift. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2014.
Booth C.G.,University of St. Andrews |
Embling C.,University of Exeter |
Gordon J.,Marine Ecological Research Ltd. |
Calderan S.V.,Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust |
Hammond P.S.,University of St. Andrews
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013
The west coast of Scotland is comprised of complex coastlines and topography, and a range of physical processes influence its coastal marine environment. The region is host to one of the highest densities of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify habitat preferences driving the distribution of harbour porpoise, to gain a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the species in the region, as well as to assess the consistency of such patterns across time and space. Visual and acoustic line-transect surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2010. Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with Generalised Estimating Equations (GEEs) were used to robustly determine relationships between the relative density of harbour porpoises and temporally and spatially variable oceanographic covariates. Predictive models showed that depth, slope, spring tidal range and distance to land were consistently important in explaining porpoise distribution. Consistent preferences for water depths between 50 and 150 m and highly sloped regions were observed across the temporal models. Predicted distributions revealed a consistent inshore presence for the species throughout the west coast of Scotland and confirmed that predictable oceanographic features could help inform the establishment of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) for the species. © Inter-Research 2013.
Foote A.D.,University of Aberdeen |
Simila T.,Wild Idea |
Vikingsson G.A.,Iceland Marine Research Institute |
Stevick P.T.,Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2010
Movement, site fidelity and connectivity have important consequences for the evolution of population structure and therefore the conservation and management of a species. In this study photographs of naturally marked killer whales collected from sites across the Northeast Atlantic are used to estimate fidelity to sampling locations and movement between locations, expressed as transition probabilities, pt, using maximum likelihood methods. High transition probabilities suggest there is high inter-annual site fidelity to all locations, and large-scale movement between the spawning and wintering grounds of both Norwegian and Iceland stocks of Atlantic herring. There was no evidence of movement between the Norwegian herring grounds and Icelandic herring grounds, or between the mackerel fishing grounds and the herring fishing grounds. Thus the movement of predictable and abundant prey resources can lead to intrinsic isolation in this species We also find movement between the Northern Isles, Scotland and East Iceland. An association network indicates that killer whales predating seals around the Northern Isles, Scotland are linked to the community of killer whales that follow the Icelandic summer-spawning herring. This adds support to existing evidence of a broad niche width in some populations. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Embling C.B.,University of St. Andrews |
Gillibrand P.A.,Scottish Association for Marine Science |
Gordon J.,University of St. Andrews |
Shrimpton J.,Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust |
And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2010
The harbour porpoise is a highly mobile species and thus represents a considerable challenge in the context of using marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation. The shelf waters off the west coast of Scotland have been identified as an area of year-round presence, high density in comparison to surrounding areas, and a high young to adult ratio in summer and are thus a suitable area for exploring the location of possible special areas of conservations (SACs) under the EU Habitats Directive. We carried out dedicated surveys over three summers in the southern Inner Hebrides and used generalised additive models (GAMs) to predict areas of high relative density for harbour porpoises for each year. After compensating for survey effects, static bathymetric and persistent hydrographic variables were used in a step-wise model selection procedure. In all years harbour porpoise distribution was best explained by maximum tidal current, with higher densities predicted in areas of low current, and the same high density areas predicted year-on-year. Perimeter-to-area ratio was used to identify which areas should be considered as a basis for designating SACs for harbour porpoise in this area, to form part of the Natura 2000 network. The method used here combines spatial modelling and perimeter-to-area ratio for selecting protected areas, a methodology which is suitable for the protection of other animal species. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
News Article | December 3, 2014
A new report out from Sina Tech out of China today delivered bad news for Microsoft. According to their report "Chinese tech giant Huawei has said neither they nor any company ever made money producing Microsoft's Windows phones." Ouch, that's a zinger. The comment that the Chinese report was referring to actually came from a Seattle Times report published last week. Huawei's head of international media affairs Joe Kelly stated at the time that Huawei had produced two models running Microsoft's smartphone OS before it said it was putting its plans for future Windows Phones on hold. Kelly noted that "We didn't make any money in Windows Phone. Nobody made any money in Windows Phone."And with prospects of only capturing 5% of the market by 2018, there's no incentive to enter that market. The Chinese report added that Huawei canceled its development plans for Windows Phone equipment in August, saying that it wasn't worth the effort. This was not the first negative statement made about Microsoft's mobile phone system. Developing a phone using a Windows platform independently was not easy because of the high cost of equipment compared to the cost in sales, said Shao Yang, chief marketing officer. Huawei wasn't going to compete in the low-profit budget phone market. They prefer to move into the high-end market, even if it means decreased sales during the transformation, Kelly said. Currently, Huawei makes around 30% of the handsets in the US and will put more effort into exploring the market. Recently Huawei was dislodged from their third place standings in the smartphone market by Xiaomi. It seems you can't go a day without running into a new Xiaomi story of how their gaining momentum in the market. At the end of day, Microsoft got slapped around by another former smartphone OEM partner. That doesn't bode well for them. Both Microsoft and Intel are playing at the peripheries of the smart device revolution while desperately trying to buy their way into the market. Whether it's acquiring a phone company like Nokia or subsidizing tablets in China or throwing money at backing Google Glass. Microsoft's efforts in trying to mimic Apple's business model of focusing on hardware and software has yet to make any sense for them, never mind dollars. They're committed to this track that Steve Ballmer put them on and it's just going to have play out before they either give up on hardware or strike a vein of technology gold with one smash hit. There wasn't a hit to speak of for them in 2014 and so only time will tell how this story ends. If you have a prediction about that, send in your comments below. About Making Comments on our Site: Patently Apple reserves the right to post, dismiss or edit any comments. Comments are reviewed daily from 4am to 7pm PST and sporadically over the weekend.