The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second-oldest university, after the Technion. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one in Rehovot. The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus.The first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, and Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University. In the last decade, seven researchers and alumni of the University received the Nobel Prize and one was awarded the Fields Medal.According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Hebrew University is the top university in Israel, overall the 59th-best university in the world, 16th in mathematics, 27th in computer science and 44th in business/economics.In 2013, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Hebrew University 21st in the world and the top in Israel in its World University Rankings, while another survey ranked it as the 9th best university to work in, and the 2nd best outside of the United States. Wikipedia.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2016-09-12
The present invention relates to a poly(lactic glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle associated with therapeutic agents for a variety of therapeutic applications.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-02-03
A method of treating cancer in a subject is disclosed. The method comprises administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a Casein kinase I alpha (CKIalpha) inhibitor, wherein the cancer is not associated with an Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation. Additional uses of CKI inhibitors are also disclosed.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-04-08
Provided are liposomes encapsulating mupirocin, with particular benefit for systemic therapeutically effective delivery. Also provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions including the liposomes and methods of using them. The liposomes include a lipid membrane and an intraliposomal compartment, the intraliposomal compartment encapsulating mupirocin, at least one cyclodextrin compound and a pH dependent ionizable anion, e.g. acetate.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Hoffmann-La Roche | Date: 2016-09-08
Uses of a compound of any of Formulas I-VI as a cytotoxic inhibitor of undifferentiated cells are disclosed herein, as well as pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of any of Formulas I-VI, and methods for identifying a lead candidate for inhibiting undifferentiated cells. Further disclosed are uses of an SCD-1 inhibitor as a cytotoxic inhibitor of undifferentiated cells.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Nanyang Technological University | Date: 2015-03-10
Provided is a spectrally selective solar thermal coating, formed as a continuous uniform layer, combining a light-absorbing coating and an infrared (IR) reflecting layer positioned on top of the absorber coating. The coating is adapted for use in a plurality of applications, including amongst many control of stray light and absorptivity in thermosolar devices.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-04-30
Provided are Pt (IV) lipophilic derivatives for improved drug performance in cancer therapy, as well as nanocarriers including the same.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2016-10-13
The present invention is directed to phenyl substituted cyclohexenyl compounds, compositions comprising them and uses thereof for the preparation of medicaments for the treatment of obesity and any disease or disorder associated therewith, for reduction in food consumption, and for the treatment of inflammation and disorders associated therewith.
Hadasit Medical Research Services & Development Li Mited and Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2016-11-29
Provided is a device for iontophoretic delivery of a drug to or into a tissue, including an arrangement that prevents operation of the device at a current density that is higher than a predetermined value, the arrangement including first means responsive to a first data item, indicative of the surface area through which the current is to pass, as to set the maximal current allowed at the surface area indicated by the data item. Also provided is a method for iontophorectivally administering drug to or into a tissue, including determining a maximal allowed level of current density and preventing application of current density above the maximal allowed level.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-05-20
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-05-03
The invention provides a process for treating a soil contaminated with a pollutant selected from the group consisting of petroleum products and aromatic hydrocarbons, comprising bringing into contact with said soil an aqueous solution in which hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide source are combined.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2016-11-27
Articles-of-manufacturing comprising an object having a surface and at least a first layer of a first therapeutically active agent being deposited onto at least a continuous portion of the surface, wherein at least 50 weight percents of the first layer is the first therapeutically active agent in a crystalline form are disclosed. Methods utilizing such articles-of-manufacturing for treating medical conditions are also disclosed. Processes of preparing the articles-of-manufacturing by contacting a surface of the object with a solution containing the therapeutically active agent, without cooling the surface to a temperature below a temperature of the solution, are also disclosed.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and YEDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Co. | Date: 2015-03-03
A method of and device for detecting and diagnosing Pseudomonal aeruginosa in a gaseous, liquid or solid sample, employing Lux-R-like receptor-driven reporter cells.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-04-02
The present invention relates to kits, arrays, compositions and methods for predicting, assessing and evaluating responsiveness and success of interferon treatment as well as for monitoring disease progression and pathophysiology in a subject treated with interferon, using OAS2, HERC5, UPS18, UBE2L6 and optionally of ISG15 genes as biomarkers.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Qlight Nanotech Ltd. | Date: 2015-03-31
A polarized light source configured for use in display device and backlight unit is described. The polarized light source comprising: at least one optically active structure comprising a plurality of nanorods configured to emit light of one or more wavelengths in response to exciting pumping field, said plurality of nanorods comprising nanorods aligned with a predetermined alignment axis so as to produce a desired polarization direction of the emitted light; and a light directing assembly comprising one or more optical elements in optical path of light emitted from the light emitting structure, said light directing assembly being configured to enhance output of the emitted light from the emitting structure while substantially maintaining the polarization of the emitted light passing therethrough. Preferably, layers associated with the polarized light source are aligned with parallel principal axes.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2015-04-02
The invention relates to methods and kits for determining and optimizing a personalized treatment regimen for a subject suffering from a pathologic disorder based on calculating the value of M, that indicates the ability of said subject to eliminate said disorder. The invention specifically relates to optimization of interferon treatment of viral disorders.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2016-08-03
A method and a system for identifying indication for activity in a topic or a sentiment associated to, of an entity in a textual document are provided herein. The method may include the following stages: obtaining a plurality of textual documents describing a plurality of entities; identifying a relationship between entities and verbs at least on a sentence level, based on a semantic analysis of the verbs; determining at least one of: a topic, and a sentiment associated to the verbs identified in textual documents; and using the identified relationship between entities and verbs and a respective determined topic or sentiment associated with the verbs to determine for each of the plurality of entities: a sentiment level associated thereto, and a level of activity at the at least one topic associated thereto.
Oneday Biotech And Pharma Ltd. and Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2017-01-25
The present invention relates to potent compounds having combined antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-radiation and metal chelating properties. Specifically, the present invention relates to short peptides having said properties, and to methods and uses of such short peptides in clinical and cosmetic applications.
Mittler R.,University of Nevada, Reno |
Mittler R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Blumwald E.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2010
Abiotic stress conditions such as drought, heat, or salinity cause extensive losses to agricultural production worldwide. Progress in generating transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses has nevertheless been slow. The complex field environment with its heterogenic conditions, abiotic stress combinations, and global climatic changes are but a few of the challenges facing modern agriculture. A combination of approaches will likely be needed to significantly improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops in the field. These will include mechanistic understanding and subsequent utilization of stress response and stress acclimation networks, with careful attention to field growth conditions, extensive testing in the laboratory, greenhouse, and the field; the use of innovative approaches that take into consideration the genetic background and physiology of different crops; the use of enzymes and proteins from other organisms; and the integration of QTL mapping and other genetic and breeding tools. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Schapiro I.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion |
Ruhman S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2014
Light induced isomerization of the retinal chromophore activates biological function in all retinal protein (RP) driving processes such as ion-pumping, vertebrate vision and phototaxis in organisms as primitive as archea, or as complex as mammals. This process and its consecutive reactions have been the focus of experimental and theoretical research for decades. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how the experimental and theoretical research efforts can now be combined to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the excited state process on the molecular level. Using the Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin as an example we will show how contemporary time-resolved spectroscopy and recently implemented excited state QM/MM methods consistently describe photochemistry in retinal proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
MERCK PATENT GmbH, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Qlight Nanotech Ltd. | Date: 2012-05-09
A light emitting device is presented. The device comprises an array of pixels and an electrode arrangement, wherein said array of pixels comprises pixels of first and second groups comprising first and second pluralities of light emitting nanorods aligned along first and second predetermined axes respectively, the axes being substantially perpendicular to each other, and the pixels of said array are associated with a plurality of electrode elements of said electrode arrangement thereby enabling modulation of optical emission of one or more pixels separately from one or more other pixels of said pixel array by controllable application of an electric field, the device being therefore configured and operable as an active pixel emitter.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2011.1.4-4 | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2012
The main goal of this proposal is to bring novel technology of biocompatible, low bio-fouling, high electrochemical performance carbon nanomaterials to in-vivo preclinical applications and at the same time to use this materials to develop a highly advanced concept of intimate intracellular contact, based on bottom - up technology of, engulfing the micro-electrode by neural cells. Such bionic interfaces resemble true intrinsic physiological properties of neural somas and form a tight, extremely low-invasive bidirectional coupling for both motor and sensory functions. Advantage of our approach is unperfected fidelity of signals and resolution of single neuron fibers to be coupled to one protruding electrode. The research targets are devices ranging from cuff or lead electrodes to novel bidirectional interfaces for both sensory and motor functions for cybernetic mind-controlled prosthetics. Instead of re-targeting to an entire muscle, our research comes thus with a technique how to couple neurons by an intracellular way to form a single microelectrode-axon stimulating device and at the same time to provide sensory input , being on the front edge of research on bionic interfaces for novel neuroprosthetics. The proposed technology takes advantage of unique properties of well established nanodiamond thin films, with their unique and the simple carbon chemistry allowing integration with antibactericidal and anti-inflammatory surfaces. MERIDIAN will demonstrate devices in in-vivo studies and in preclinical tests on humans and benchmark fabricated devices with the current state of the art bionic system on the market.
Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 285.10K | Year: 2012
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite spread between people by mosquitoes. In sub-Saharan Africa, it causes an estimated 800,000 deaths per year, most of whom are children under the age of five. The disease is proving very difficult to control in many parts of Africa using tools that are currently available. These include bed nets, insecticides and antimalarial drugs. It is thought that, even if these tools are widespread, elimination may not be possible in some areas. Consequently, new strategies are being considered that will complement existing ones. One such strategy is the use of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes. Strategies using GM mosquitoes can be grouped into two categories - those aiming to reduce mosquito population size, and those aiming to replace mosquito populations with varieties unable to transmit diseases. The former strategy has been tested in the Cayman Islands, Malaysia and Brazil to control dengue fever. The latter strategy is being considered for malaria control because it is more promising on a wider scale. Here, mosquitoes would be engineered with a gene that prevents them from transmitting malaria. This would be linked to a gene that favors its inheritance across generations. Mosquitoes have a short generation time - just a few weeks - and so the antimalarial gene could quickly increase in frequency, spreading into one population and then into another. This is promising for wide-scale malaria control, but draws into question the ability to conduct a confined field trial. In this project, Dr John Marshall, a researcher in the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at Imperial College London, will develop a computer simulation to determine the optimal strategy for conducting a field trial of GM mosquitoes for malaria control. One major requirement for a field trial is that transgenes remain confined to their release site while also causing a significant reduction in local malaria transmission. Field trials are being considered on islands off the coast of Africa, including the Comoros Islands, Bioko Island, and Sao Tome and Principe. Dr Marshall will tailor his models to these locations using available mosquito and malaria prevalence data. He will then use his model to determine whether transgenes can be confined to these field sites, and under what release scenarios they will cause a maximal reduction in malaria transmission. If a confined field trial is eventually successful, this will provide an important mandate for more invasive GM mosquito strategies with the potential to control malaria on a much wider scale. The malaria modelling group at Imperial College London, led by Professor Azra Ghani, has developed a model of malaria transmission covering the African continent. Dr Marshall will use this model to explore the role that GM mosquitoes could play as part of a combined, Africa-wide malaria control program. GM mosquitoes hold great promise for malaria control because they can spread beyond their release site and reduce disease transmission without requiring human compliance. This modelling work will allow the public health impact of GM mosquitoes to be predicted and compared against other combinations of malaria interventions.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 12.40M | Year: 2009
Europe has a very long and distinguished history in Marine Biology and its coastal marine biological stations are the oldest in the world. For example, Stazione Zoologica in Naples (SZN), Station Biologique in Roscoff (SBR) and Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Fiskebckskil (KMRS) were all established in the late 19th Century. They began an enviable tradition as marine biological research stations that acted, even at that time, as international infrastructure sites to serve, enhance and develop collaborative marine research worldwide. Now, however, they have become a new breed of marine research station, developing and applying new technologies and facilities that allow a higher quality of service, not only to the marine biologist community but also to the increasing numbers of scientists that are turning to marine organisms as models with which to investigate fundamental questions in biology. Building upon this enviable tradition ASSEMBLE seeks to create a network of key marine biological research stations around the European coastline including the sub-tropical station at Eilat (IUI). Uniquely, we also include a Pacific site in Chile (PUC) that provides access to one of the most important upwelling sites in the world. We aim to develop an integrated infrastructure that will make possible for biologists in Europe to study a range of unique coastal ecosystems and a wide variety of marine organisms using the most advanced approaches in modern biology. It will be based on the existing hosting capacities, sea-going facilities and research background of these marine stations, which, as noted above, already have a long experience in hosting students and visiting scientists. This infrastructure will focus on key marine ecosystems and biological models, making possible both the enhancement of existing infrastructures and the introduction and development of new technologies. These include, for example, indoor and outdoor equipment for the cultivation/raising/study o
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2015
The IMPRESS European Training Network will provide a new generation of researchers with the multidisciplinary skills and competences needed to oversee new stocking strategies for Europes most important and threatened freshwater fish species (Atlantic salmon, European eel and sturgeons) thus enabling conservation and growth in a sector of significant economic and societal importance. Freshwater fish populations bring many benefits to Europes citizens through leisure activities, and enhance rural employment through fishing and tourism. The species included in IMPRESS are sentinel species of clean, healthy freshwater ecosystems and of major historical, cultural and economic importance. Over-exploitation and anthropogenic activities have critically endangered wild populations of these fish groups, especially sturgeons. As the main flaw of past stock enhancement is high post-release mortality, the researcher training in IMPRESS will build upon recent scientific advances, especially in fish genomics and enriched hatchery techniques, to develop innovative production regimes resulting in increased survival rates of released fish. This paradigm shift in stock enhancement strategies will require changes at every level of the production cycle, from broodstock management and gamete quality to hatchery design. New in vitro and -omics technologies will be developed to solve current bottlenecks in the production cycle of sturgeons. IMPRESS will also verse young researchers on the social dimensions of this complex issue, including the need to foster closer dialogue with the important stakeholders responsible for national and regional stocking programmes. Further, through dissemination and public engagement, all IMPRESS fellows will work actively to increase public awareness on the importance of these key fish species to freshwater biodiversity, and on the major societal benefits of healthy fish populations, both for recreational activities and for supporting rural employment.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2013
The FlowTrans Initial Training Network is a unique environment for career development, built on joint challenges of Industry and University partners in a newly emerging supra-disciplinary field, spanning from Physics to Earth Sciences and aiming to understand Flow in Transforming Porous Media. Training will be hosted by 8 Universities in synergy with 2 full and 4 associated industry partners with the objective of delivering highly-trained mobile researchers to the European market. The objective of FlowTrans is the creation of a unique research training environment and a new inter-sectoral supra-interdisciplinary field to de-fragment European knowledge and combine industry and universities to harness understanding of basic scientific questions for tackling future challenges in Exploration of Geological Resources. Our research training objectives focus on teaching ESRs and ERs the necessary interdisciplinary skills needed to study Flow in Transforming Porous Media. The characterization and the understanding of flow of fluids within rocks and granular media has become an ever-increasing problem in Earth Sciences, Physics, and in many industrial applications, including CO2 sequestration, hydrocarbon migration, ore deposit development, and radioactive waste disposal. One of the main problems is the understanding of flows in transforming porous media (PM), where the rocks and fluid pathways evolve spatially and temporally, for example due to chemical interactions with the flow, or due to compaction of the solid matrix. We propose to study the feedback mechanisms and their impact on the porous media through an interdisciplinary approach between Earth Scientists and Physicists. State of the art analytical and experimental methods will be used on natural systems and rock analogues, and will be complemented by multi-scale dynamical simulations, to develop new basic understanding and new methods that can be directly used in industrial applications.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.4-1 | Award Amount: 15.92M | Year: 2010
Type 1 diabetes is a serious chronic disease with major health risks and heavy burden on patients and society. It is caused by massive immune-mediated loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas that can so far not be locally corrected. A cellular allotransplant in the liver can install a new beta cell mass but the size is insufficient and the procedure faces limitations of donor shortage, inaccessibility of the implants, risks of associated immunosuppression. Our consortium of research, clinical and bioindustry teams is focused on overcoming these obstacles and implementing a roadmap for translation to preclinical models and clinical trials. We will pursue three interacting tracks. First, our ability to induce beta cell progenitors and stimulate beta cell proliferation in vivo should lead us to cells and compounds that activate this process in a diabetic pancreas, thus activating endogenous beta cell regeneration. Second, we will produce human beta (progenitor) cells in vitro by derivation from stem cells as well as from reprogrammed autologous cells; their therapeutic potential will be compared to that of primary human beta cells following implantation in rodents using a site that is accessible to modulation and monitoring. Third, we will design an antibody-based therapy for inducing immune tolerance to regenerated beta cells and to a beta cell implant. Efficacy, safety and regulatory criteria will be determined for clinical implementation. Clinical protocols will be prepared by adjusting associated therapy and by adopting an accessible and controlled implant site. Clinical trials will benefit from state-of-the art biologic markers for comparative analysis of the developed forms of beta cell therapy. This program should provide proof of principle for strategies that make beta cell transplantation and beta cell regeneration realistic for large numbers of type 1 diabetic patients, and probably also for some categories of type 2 diabetes.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 4.61M | Year: 2009
Chromatin packages a few meters of DNA into a nucleus measuring a few microns. This tight folding occurs by assembling DNA with histones into so-called nucleosomes, thus ensuring the mechanical stability of our genome. On the flipside, this makes nucleosomes a formidable obstacle to the machines that read, copy or repair its DNA message. One of the fundamental questions in biology is to understand how nucleosome structure is established, maintained and manipulated. Our Marie Curie Initial Training Network will carry out multidisciplinary, collaborative research projects focused on deciphering nucleosome structure and function in space and time (Nucleosome4D). Our main objective is to provide our young researchers with world-class research & training in nucleosome biology. We will use cutting-edge, interdisciplinary methods and collaborative projects to determine how nucleosomes are remodeled during transcription, when genes are silenced, as cell divide, as stem cells differentiate, during organismal development and in human disease. We utilize state-of-the-art approaches in structural biology, biophysics, cell biology, live-cell imaging, biochemistry, genetics, genomics and bioinformatics. We will implement a comprehensive training plan for scientific and career development using the best local approaches to research & training, by promoting exchanges, using the advise of our industrial partners and three Visiting Scientists, by sharing reagents and expertise, as well as through a structured set of scientific workshops and complementary skills training courses. Together, our effort will ensure the multidisciplinary and intersectorial training of a new cohort of young European researchers. This will allow our trainees to take the opportunities and meet the challenges of a successful career in the life science sector through excellent training, effective communication, great teamwork and proven project management skills.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.1.1-5 | Award Amount: 15.72M | Year: 2008
The European Drug Initiative on Channels and Transporters, EDICT, allies for the first time, partners with world-class expertise in both the structural and functional characterisation of membrane channels and transporters. State-of-the-art facilities and personnel for X-ray crystallography, Electron Microscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the latest throughput technology, will provide infrastructure for scientists characterising channel and transport functions in man and pathogenic microorganisms. Our experts in the analyses of all the databases of these membrane proteins and molecular modelling will work with our industrial partners on specific targets chosen for their potential to improve the health of European citizens, increase the competitiveness of European health-related industries and businesses and address global health issues. EDICT will increase knowledge of biological processes and mechanisms involved in normal health and in specific disease situations, and transpose this knowledge into clinical applications. By combining computational and experimental analyses, existing detailed molecular models of channel and transporter proteins, and novel structures derived by our partners, will be analysed to identify the critical regions constituting drug targets. These basic discoveries will be translated via in silico and experimental strategies with our industrial partners into the design of novel drugs that modify activities of the membrane proteins for the benefit of the patients. The range of human proteins covered includes potassium channels, anion and cation transporters, neurotransmitter transporters, cation-transporting ATPases and mitochondrial transporters. Structures of bacterial homologues to the human proteins are exploited to inform the studies of their human counterparts
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.2.1 | Award Amount: 9.55M | Year: 2012
Summary: In Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), tools go through narrow openings and manipulate soft organs that can move, deform, or change stiffness. There are limitations on modern laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical systems due to restricted access through Trocar ports, lack of haptic feedback, and difficulties with rigid robot tools operating inside a confined space filled with organs. Also, many control algorithms suffer from stability problems in the presence of unexpected conditions. Yet biological manipulators, like the octopus arm and the elephant trunk, can manipulate objects while controlling the stiffness of selected body parts and being inherently compliant when interacting with objects.\n\nContributions: We will design, build and operate an innovative soft robotic arm that can squeeze through a standard MIS port (e.g. 12 to 15 mm diameter Trocar port or 20 mm diameter umbilical single port), reconfigure itself and stiffen by hydrostatic actuation to perform compliant force control tasks while facing unexpected situations. We will address the complete system: the design and fabrication of the soft manipulator with a gripper at the tip, distributed sensing, biologically inspired actuation and control architectures, learning and developing cognition through interaction with a human instructor, and manipulating soft objects in complex and uncertain environments.\nWe will advance the state of the art of embodied cognition through real world experiments on manipulators that can selectively control their stiffness and degrees of freedom morphing from a complete soft state to an articulated one. This variable stiffness robot arm will have many applications in MIS including NOTES (Natural Orifices Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery). With the support of KARL STORZ ENDOSCOPES, the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) and three internationally-leading medical institutes (see support letters), we will test the soft arm in a minimally invasive robotic surgery application to demonstrate its feasibility.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.72M | Year: 2013
Cellulose, the primary structural component of plants, is the most ubiquitous and abundant organic compound on the planet. When cellulose fibrils are processed under carefully controlled conditions, it is possible to release highly crystalline nano-particles known as nano crystalline cellulose (NCC). Recently, NCC-FOAM partners have developed a unique technique for self-assembling NCC into highly ordered puff-pastry-like layered cellular structures, i.e. foams. This self-assembly process is controllable, and the final cell structure can be modified to produce open or closed cell geometries depending on the requirements of the end application. Furthermore, the constituent NCC nanofibres are sustainably sourced from paper mill or forestry waste. The controlled patterning of the nano-structure during the self-assembly process facilitates the infusion of resins for stiffening / strengthening and the production of foams with customised internal structures and directional strength. The inherent strength of the NCC skeleton means that only minimal quantities of reinforcing resin are needed, resulting in lightweight and cost-effective foams. Within NCC-FOAM, the overall objective is to develop an NCC foam/resin composite that enables the design, development and processing of sustainable structural foam materials. The use of infused resins has yet to be developed, the challenge being to produce foams that are simultaneously structural, durable and renewably-sourced. If successful, this would represent a true breakthrough for rigid foam technology. Furthermore, NCC-FOAM aims to bring the production techniques closer to industrialisation by developing the methods and equipment to produce foams with meaningful practical dimensions (at least 1 m x 0.5 m x 20 mm). Such samples will allow the feasibility of future industrialisation to be assessed, as well as permitting a full characterisation of the materials.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-3-2015 | Award Amount: 19.05M | Year: 2015
The life sciences are undergoing a transformation. Modern experimental tools study the molecules, reactions, and organisation of life in unprecedented detail. The precipitous drop in costs for high-throughput biology has enabled European research laboratories to produce an ever-increasing amount of data. Life scientists are rapidly generating the most complex and heterogeneous datasets that science can currently imagine, with unprecedented volumes of biological data to manage. Data will only generate long-term value if it is Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (FAIR). This requires a scalable infrastructure that connects local, national and European efforts and provides standards, tools and training for data stewardship. Formally established as a legal entity in January 2014, ELIXIR - the European life science Infrastructure for Biological Information - is a distributed organisation comprising national bioinformatics research infrastructures and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). This coordinated infrastructure includes data standards, exchange, interoperability, storage, security and training. Recognising the importance of a data foundation for European life sciences, the ESFRI and European Council named ELIXIR as one of Europes priority Research Infrastructures. In response ELIXIR have developed ELIXIR-EXCELERATE. The project will fast-track ELIXIRs early implementation phase by i) coordinate and enhance existing resources into a world-leading data service for academia and industry, ii) grow bioinformatics capacity and competence across Europe, and iii) complete the management processes needed for a large distributed infrastructure. ELIXIR-EXCELERATE will deliver a step-change in the life sciences. It will enable cost-effective and sustainable management and re-use of data for millions of users across the globe and improve the competitiveness of European life science industries through accessible data and robust standards and tools.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2016
In this ambitious and multi-disciplinary proposal, we aim to develop new technologies that will allow us to visualize in single cells, in parallel and at the systems level, DNA, mRNAs and proteins with nanoscale resolution. We will refer to these novel technologies as the CellViewer: a unique cutting-edge high-throughput super-resolution (SR) microscopy approach (including new hardware and software development) to collect at high-resolution a large amount of spatial and dynamic information in single cells. CellViewer will allow us to study the mechanisms of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal and differentiation upon application of specific stimuli, as a specific test case. We will analyse in single cells with high throughput, DNA remodelling at multiple specific gene loci and their corresponding production, distribution and kinetics of mRNA and protein products. We will collect a large amount of dynamic and nanoscale spatial information that will lead us to build predictive models of the phenotypic output from specific input stimuli. In turn, we will be able to develop a mechanistic understanding of how mESCs maintain their stemness or commit to differentiation. The partners of CellViewer are internationally recognized experts from academia and industry in the fields of stem cell and chromatin biology, super-resolution microscopy, quantitative modelling of biological systems, and hardware and software development. This team as a whole is uniquely suited to bring Systems Biology into the era of single cell analysis, which will be a paradigm shift in the way cellular systems will be studied.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-2-2015 | Award Amount: 975.52K | Year: 2015
EMBRC is a distributed infrastructure of marine biology and ecology, encompassing aquaculture and biotechnology, exploiting the latest omics, analytical and imaging technologies, and providing on site and remote scientific and technical services to the scientific community of the public and private sector. EMBRC successfully completed a preparatory phase in early in 2014 with the production of a business plan and a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed by 9 countries. A host for its headquarters has been chosen and and an ERIC application is in preparation. Since only institutions from 5 MoU signatory countries went through the preparatory phase, the present proposal has as objectives: 1) to harmonize the access mechanism to the operational EMBRC-ERIC across all the partners, putting all the practical tools in place, including host contracts and single point online access platform, to enable EMBRC-ERIC to commence its access program; 2) to put in place practical guidelines towards the full implementation of the new European and international legislation and commitments on access and fair benefit sharing of the use of marine biological resources, thus providing clarity to future users of EMBRC-ERIC about their legal rights over obtained biological resources, and positioning itself globally as a broker between users and the supplying countries ; 3) to focus the smart specialization of the regions onto the opportunities marine biological resources offer for blue-biotech development and innovation, thus demonstrating the member states that EMBRC is a tool towards economic development of their maritime regions, and enticing them to sign the EMBRC-ERIC, and prioritize its sustained support, particularly from regions which are now underrepresented in EMBRC (Black and Baltic Seas). These activities will ensure that the beneficiary research communities can exploit the results obtained at EMBRC-ERIC facility from the start with the highest efficiency.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2017
TREATMENT is a Marie Sklodowska Curie Innovative Training Network proposal directly addressing the need for high-level training and career paths in risk evaluation of drug induced metabolic dysfunctions, a relevant aspect, so far unexplored by traditional toxicology studies, but urgently needed to challenge current severe limitations of health care interventions in mental disorders. These patients require life-long medications that subsequently trigger metabolic diseases with a strong negative impact on their health and well-being. To achieve this, and improve adherence to treatments, we will evaluate how short-term antipsychotic drug responses impact long-term metabolic control to identify and validate biomarkers with clinically predictive value for targeting drug induced metabolic dysfunctions. This effort will have added commercial value by enabling the design of predictive marker kits for testing adverse secondary metabolic effects of drugs to be used in pharmacological and medical practice. TREATMENT will provide multidisciplinary knowledge, capabilities and tools to implement this ambitious strategy by the training of young scientists in a program that combines pharmacology, metabolism and mental health research with strategies for product and tool design and validation. Our ultimate goal is to empower the intersectorial and trans-national employability of young scientists across academic, public and private sectors to foster the development and implementation of personalized medicine tools that will provide effective treatment regimens for life long health-care interventions and decrease the risk for development of chronic metabolic diseases.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2017
CircRTrain focuses on circular RNAs (circRNAs), a new large class of single-stranded RNAs with covalently closed ends. CircRNAs have only very recently attracted high general interest and become the focus of an increasing number of publications: recent discoveries through sequencing technology and computational analyses have revealed the widespread existence of circRNAs in animal cells. Particularly in neural tissues, circRNA expression is high, dynamic, and evolutionarily conserved. In aging animal brains the expression of certain circRNAs is strongly elevated, suggesting connections to age-related diseases. The study of circRNAs thus emerges as a novel topic with highest importance for the understanding of such diverse conditions as neurodegenerative diseases, aging, and cancer. Moreover, the highly stable expression and their presence in human blood and exosomes make circRNAs attractive biomarker candidates. The overall aims of circRTrain are to 1. Elucidate the biogenesis and function of circRNAs; 2. Define their role in diseases; 3. Exploit their potential as biomarkers and for medical applications; and 4. Combine cutting-edge technologies and disciplines. Understanding circRNAs and exploring their medical relevance requires to integrate various technologies (sequencing, single-molecule and whole-organism imaging, RNA knockdown/delivery, CRISPR/CAS9), disciplines (biochemistry, computational biology, genetics), model systems (worm, fly, mouse, human) and medical applications (biomarkers, new therapeutic strategies). CircRTrain will combine these diverse approaches and industrial technologies by training 15 early stage researchers (ESR) at two SMEs and seven academic partners, which are all leaders in their respective fields. Additionally, cooperation with four partner organizations, circRNA devoted conferences, winter- and summer schools will extend training for the ESRs, sustaining the critical number of young talented professionals in the field.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2016 | Award Amount: 870.02K | Year: 2016
Following previous TEN years of successful implementation of European Researchers Night in Israel we will have: o Venues covering the whole country. o Involvement of the academic community including Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (MOST), all major research universities, leading collages and three science museums. o Awareness campaign at national level managed and funded by the Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space. o Groups of junior-high and high-school students (ages 12-18) will be invited by each partner to take part in each venue. We are ready and proud to implement European Researchers Night 2016 & 2017. All of the partners involved in the project have the experience of running successful European Researchers Nights events. With the successive increase in number of visitors along the years and the reputation of the event we are expecting more than 55,000 visitors each year. Same management as in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 successful events. Proposal covers both 2016 & 2017 European Researchers Night events.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: Sesar-05-2015 | Award Amount: 599.80K | Year: 2016
The provision of ATM services has for a long time been a national monopoly, with the important role attributed to the nation state (by ICAO) of managing air traffic safely in its national airspace. In addition, provision of air traffic services (ATS) has traditionally been considered a natural monopoly due to the large infrastructure investments. These elements are now both changing. The European Union is increasingly entering the air traffic management world, opposing the national character of the industry and increasing the scale at which air traffic services could be provided. In addition, technological changes are more and more reducing the need for large scale ground-based infrastructure and expensive equipment, putting into question the natural monopoly character of the industry. Therefore today is the right time to study the liberalization and introduction of competition in the ATM sector. However, competition can be introduced at various levels and in different ways. The overall goal of COMPAIR is to investigate how to introduce competitive incentives in the ATM sector so as to best contribute to the achievement of the European high-level policy objectives for aviation. The project will pursue the following objectives: 1. propose a set of new institutional market designs for the introduction of competition in the European ATM sector; 2. define a framework allowing a comprehensive assessment of the impact of different institutional market designs on ATM stakeholders and society at large; 3. develop a variety of economic and network simulation models allowing the evaluation of the proposed regulatory approaches along the dimensions identified as relevant in the assessment framework; 4. assess the feasibility and acceptability of proposed institutional changes for various market actors; 5. propose a vision and derive policy recommendations for the implementation of those new institutional structures identified as most beneficial for the European ATM system.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Rambam Health Corporation | Date: 2014-07-10
The invention generally provides implants comprising polymers and contrast agents for marking and monitoring medical conditions.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Qlight Nanotech Ltd | Date: 2014-07-01
This invention generally relates to metal chalcogenide nanostructures, methods for their preparation and methods of use. A method is disclosed that transforms zinc chalcogenide nanowires into nanorods or quadrilateral nanostructures in an anneal step. Particular embodiments comprise ZnO nanostructures.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Qlight Nanotech Ltd. | Date: 2016-04-04
Compositions of matter comprising a seeded semiconductor nanoparticle material and a non-quantum confined phosphor particle material for use in light conversion and light conversion layers comprising such compositions. In various embodiments, spherical core/shell seeded nanoparticles (SNPs) or nanorod seeded nanoparticles (RSNPs) are combined with a phosphor material to provide a composition of matter with small re-absorbance of the phosphor emission in both green and red wavelength regions and small re-absorbance of the SNP emission, In some embodiments, the SNPs or RSNPs are encapsulated in a first host material before being mixed with the phosphor particles. In various embodiments, a SNP/RSNP-phosphor mixture or encapsulated SNP/RSNP-phosphor mixture is incorporated in host matrix.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and QLight Nanotech Ltd. | Date: 2015-07-15
Optical conversion layers based on semiconductor nanoparticles for use in lighting devices, and lighting devices including same. In various embodiments, spherical core/shell seeded nanoparticles (SNPs) or nanorod seeded nanoparticles (RSNPs) are used to form conversion layers with superior combinations of high optical density (OD), low re-absorbance and small FRET. In some embodiments, the SNPs or RSNPs form conversion layers without a host matrix. In some embodiments, the SNPs or RSNPs are embedded in a host matrix such as polymers or silicone. The conversion layers can be made extremely thin, while exhibiting the superior combinations of optical properties. Lighting devices including SNP or RSNP-based conversion layers exhibit energetically efficient superior prescribed colour emission
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Technion Research & Development Foundation Ltd. | Date: 2014-03-25
A system for detecting target elements such as bacteria in a host analyte, comprising a substrate with an ordered array of wells having diameters to fit the size of the targets. The substrate may be a periodic macro-PSi array structure (MPSiAS) illuminated with a broadband source. The reflected light spectrum diffracted from the substrate is optically analyzed to provide the effective optical depth of the wells. Fast Fourier Transform analysis may be used for the optical analysis. Entry of target elements into wells is detected by the change in the effective optical depths of the wells. Micro-organisms as large as bacteria and viruses having dimensions comparable with the wavelength of the illumination can thus be detected. Wells with an inner section impenetrable by the target cells enables compensation for environmental changes. The detection may be performed in real time, such that production line bacterial monitoring may be achieved.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.4.2-9-2 | Award Amount: 9.40M | Year: 2011
The goal of HeMiBio is to develop a hepatic microfluidic bioreactor from human iPSC-derived hepatocytes, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) and stellate cells (HSC), suitable for inclusion in a repeated dose toxicity testing strategy of pharmaceuticals/cosmetic ingredients. The successful creation of such a liver-device requires (a) homotypic and heterotypic interactions between the three cell types to induce and maintain their functional, differentiated state, and (b) optimisation of the matrix, oxygenation conditions, nutrient transport and physiological shear forces. The objectives are (1) to engineer the cellular components incorporated in the bioreactor to enable specific and spatially defined enrichment of the different cells from iPSC progeny, and, by gene editing, to allow non-invasive monitoring of the cellular state (differentiation and damage). (2) Aside from the molecular sensors, an array of electro-chemical sensors will be embedded in the reactors to assess liver-specific function and cellular health under repeated dose toxicity conditions, dynamically and in a high-throughput way. Cells and sensors will be built into (3) bioreactors that will be sequentially upgraded from 2D to 3D microfluidic reactors to ultimately allow full maintenance of mature functional hepatocytes, HSC and HSEC for >28 days. (4) As the ultimate goal is to use the device as a human-based alternative to rodent long-term hepatotoxicity studies, it will be of utmost importance to provide proof of concept that the 3D-devices reveal the hepatotoxicity of prototypical hepatotoxic compounds in vivo (5). -Omics and cell functionality studies will provide evidence that liver-like cells are present, exposed and affected by the selected toxic compounds. These ambitious objectives will be achieved by the excellent project team, composed of academic/industrial partners with unique and complementary biology, physiology, toxicology and technical skills from 7 EU Member States.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.29M | Year: 2013
Off flavour is the presence of undesired sensory properties in food items. Most common in aquaculture products are earthy-musty off flavours caused by the presence of geosmin and 2-methyl-iso-borneol (MIB) in fish tissues. Off flavour is associated to land-based aquaculture production systems with high nutrient loadings such as pond systems and recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS).Off flavour causes economic damage to the aquaculture industry through consumer rejection and low consumer appreciation of aquaculture products and through the additional costs of off flavour removal from fish crops prior to market entrance. Off flavour in farmed fish is an extensively studied and well documented problem. Despite this, satisfactory solutions for the problem are still lacking today. The overall objective of this project is to established a reduction of the incidence of off flavour in farmed fish produced in RAS. The project adopts three strategies to reach this objective: 1) Preventive strategy: reducing the microbial production of geosmin and MIB in aquaculture production systems; 2) Curative strategy: removing geosmin and MIB from the fish culture water; 3) Alternative strategy: optimizing the depuration process. The foreseen results of the project include: 1) Measures to reduce off flavour in RAS 2) Low off flavour RAS design 3) A bioreactor for geosmin and MIB removal from RAS 4) Measures to improve off flavour depuration processes 5) Design of optimal off flavour depuration facility 6) Trained sensory panels The consortium that will implement this project consists of four SMEs, one Other partner and three RTDs.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: ICT-2013.9.9 | Award Amount: 72.73M | Year: 2013
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain diseases and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight. The goal of the Human Brain Project, part of the FET Flagship Programme, is to translate this vision into reality, using ICT as a catalyst for a global collaborative effort to understand the human brain and its diseases and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The Human Brain Project will last ten years and will consist of a ramp-up phase (from month 1 to month 36) and subsequent operational phases.\nThis Grant Agreement covers the ramp-up phase. During this phase the strategic goals of the project will be to design, develop and deploy the first versions of six ICT platforms dedicated to Neuroinformatics, Brain Simulation, High Performance Computing, Medical Informatics, Neuromorphic Computing and Neurorobotics, and create a user community of research groups from within and outside the HBP, set up a European Institute for Theoretical Neuroscience, complete a set of pilot projects providing a first demonstration of the scientific value of the platforms and the Institute, develop the scientific and technological capabilities required by future versions of the platforms, implement a policy of Responsible Innovation, and a programme of transdisciplinary education, and develop a framework for collaboration that links the partners under strong scientific leadership and professional project management, providing a coherent European approach and ensuring effective alignment of regional, national and European research and programmes. The project work plan is organized in the form of thirteen subprojects, each dedicated to a specific area of activity.\nA significant part of the budget will be used for competitive calls to complement the collective skills of the Consortium with additional expertise.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-10 | Award Amount: 8.06M | Year: 2012
European aquaculture production provides direct employment to 65.000 people with a turnover of 3 billion . However, the lack of authorised veterinary medicinal products and the consequent disease outbreaks in farmed fish species costs the sector 20% of the production value. The most appropriate method for disease control, both on economical and ethical grounds, is disease prevention by vaccination. TargetFish will advance the development of existing (but not sufficient) and new prototype vaccines against socio-economically important viral or bacterial pathogens of Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, common carp, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The project will develop targeted vaccination strategies for currently sub-optimal and for novel vaccines. Improved vaccines will be brought closer to industrial application by addressing practical issues such as efficacy, safety and delivery route. TargetFish will also establish a knowledge- and technology-base for rational development of next generation fish vaccines. To achieve these challenging tasks, we brought together 29 partners from 11 EU member states, 2 associated countries and 1 International Cooperation Partner Country (ICPC). In this large multidisciplinary consortium an approximate equal number of RTD and SME partners will cooperate closely while keeping an intensive communication with the large vaccine and nutrition industries via an Industry Forum. Specifically, TargetFish will 1) generate knowledge by studying antigens and adjuvants for mucosal routes of administration while analyzing the underpinning protective immune mechanisms; 2) validate this knowledge with response assays for monitoring vaccine efficacy and study safety aspects, including those associated with DNA vaccines; 3) approach implementation of prototype vaccines by optimizing vaccination strategies thus 4) shortening the route to exploitation. Thereby, this project will greatly enhance targeted disease prophylaxis in European fish farming.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.1 | Award Amount: 486.75K | Year: 2012
We seek to bring together all major European and Israeli research centres in Optimal Control of Quantum Information Processing. This project will coordinate ongoing research activities, best practice dissemination, personnel training and public engagement as well as interaction with public stakeholders and policymakers for 17 established research groups from 15 universities in 6 countries a total of about 60 scientists and 30 PhD students, spanning a variety of nationalities, races, cultures, social backgrounds, genders and career stages.The proposed Consortium will join the forces of multiple EU and Israeli research groups to explore a radical alternative to the currently established information processing technologies quantum information processing, where bits are carried by atoms or elementary particles and dramatic acceleration is believed to be possible for several types of computational tasks. Our specific research area within Quantum Information Processing is optimal control of quantum bits a set of technologies that enable extremely accurate manipulation of quantum bits with minimal expenditure of energy.Within this Coordination Action, we aim to create a vibrant, productive and efficient European research community, to deliver value to the society and to grow a new generation of young European physicists.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.2-4 | Award Amount: 15.50M | Year: 2008
Cell therapy can be defined as the transplantation of living cells for the treatment of medical disorders. Three different principles underlie the increasing interest in cell therapy. 1. Transplanted cells used as an active drug 2. Transplanted cells used to replace damaged and degenerated tissue. 3. Cells used as a drug delivery vehicle. Promising results have been obtained in pre-clinical and clinical studies, however, success rates have been variable and clinical benefits have been limited. A major issue is the fact that the mechanisms by which cell therapy works in the different disease areas, are still poorly understood. The ability to non-invasively monitor the fate and modes of action of transplanted cells over time is mandatory. The development of relevant imaging tools will lead to a better understanding of how cell therapy works, the possibility of response monitoring in patients, and sufficient safety of the treatment.. ENCITE will provide tools to allow this by developing; New imaging methods to improve the spatio-temporal tracking of labelled cells Dual- and multimodality imaging procedures to cross-validate each individual approach New contrast agents and procedures that will improve the sensitivity and specificity of cellular labelling Combining of molecular biology for the generation of molecular and cellular imaging reporters with multimodal imaging techniques Novel cell and animal reporter systems detecting the location and function of individual cells and small cell subsets within the target organ Cellular labelling that does not interfere with cellular functions and therapeutic efficacy Methods for quantitative assessment to generate reliable biomarkers of the cell fate and therapeutic effects Cell homing for therapeutic delivery to target organs The tools and methodologies developed will be validated in 5 key disease areas; Neurological, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Diabetes and Cancer.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.1.6 | Award Amount: 8.85M | Year: 2008
Experimentally driven research is key to success in todays Internet. Many test beds support research and development, and product prototyping in communication networks. However, they tend to specialise in particular access technologies or services, or explore near term product offerings, often with limited availability and openness. An open and sustainable large-scale shared experimental facility will allow European industry and academia to innovate today and to design the future Internet. The OneLab2 project will leverage the original OneLab projects PlanetLab Europe test bed and its international visibility to make this facility a reality.\n\nOneLab2 is built on three complementary pillars. The Platform Pillar will operate PlanetLab Europe, extending PlanetLab service across Europe, and federating with other PlanetLab infrastructures worldwide. It will integrate new features into the system. The Tools Pillar will enhance the test-bed-native network monitoring service that supports experiments. And the Customers Pillar will meet the needs of the facilitys customers by providing them with access to diverse facilities, achieved through federating different types of test bed. An experimental facility must know its customers. OneLab2 will do this by directly involving pilot customers who are testing novel ideas in networking research.\n\nOneLab2s coalition assembles some of the most highly respected networking research teams from university and industry labs in Europe. Each team has an active research agenda in new network technologies, network monitoring, or test bed management. OneLab2s success would mean that PlanetLab Europe is established as a competitive and federated facility with international visibility and a broad set of customers, implementing OneLab2s vision and research contributions. PlanetLab Europe will continue to function beyond the end of the project period, providing ongoing services to the research community at large.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-4-06 | Award Amount: 7.90M | Year: 2009
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) started, 20 years ago, a devastating health and food crisis throughout Europe. Classical BSE is now under control as a result of the meat and bone meal ban. However, tonsil analyses suggest that there may be an alarmingly high number of asymptomatic PrPSc positive cases. Transmission through blood transfusion is another important concern, as are recent atypical cases of BSE. Only a profound understanding of the molecular biology of prions will enable us to control them. Thus, to understand why BSE-contaminated food causes vCJD, we need to understand how prions get into food, what happens with them in the gut, how they reach the brain, and how they initiate the chain reaction rapidly leading to death. We have formulated 7 key questions: 1) How can we avoid a new BSE outbreak, or other possible future prion infection of livestock? 2) Why did decontamination of meat and bone meal fail; is there an effective way to decontaminate feedstuffs, soil etc? 3) What is the risk of humans being infected with each of the different prion strains known thus far? 4) Which are the best strategies to implement feasible prion eradication programs? 5) How can we develop a pre-clinical prion blood test? 6) How can we identify human cases with potential secondary transmission? And 7) What is the origin of atypical human CJD cases? We will search for decisive data on the structure of PrPSc, the molecular basis of strains and species barriers, the mechanism of prion conversion, the cell biology of PrPSc, the function of PrPC, and the mechanisms of PrP-associated pathology. This information will be translated into a better estimation of current exposure risk to humans from TSE, evaluation of current intervention strategies, and development of improved decontamination techniques and prion tests. With all this, we will be able to respond to the questions formulated and thus advise the EC on TSE policy for the protection of European consumers..
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 7.66M | Year: 2011
This proposal includes all tasks that are essential to maintain the European added value of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and to keep the 16 national surveys well integrated. It complements the national financing mode of data collection as result of the ESFRI process by keeping its centrifugal forces in bounds. It will keep up our excellence in service provision as well as in science by: 1. Fostering the culture of cooperation between designers and users of SHARE by organizing user conferences, offering specialized training courses for users and interviewers, expanding web services and developing standards and procedures within the network that will make more efficient use of the research infrastructure. 2. Improving the multinational services for users in EU member countries, associated countries and third countries by a more efficient centralized data base management that will provide detailed synopses and concordances across member countries. We will coordinate this work with our sister surveys in the UK, US, China, India, Japan, Korea and Thailand, thereby providing a platform for global access to ageing data. 3. Pushing the state-of-the-art in interdisciplinary panel construction further such that SHARE will maintain its status as a leading edge research infrastructure. The project will leverage our research on response behaviour to minimize attrition; it will develop a multi-mode interviweing facility tailored to the 50\ in order to reduce survey costs; it will develop innovative questionnaire modules on biomarkers, physical health, social networks, pension claims, time use and nutrition that will keep SHARE at the forefront of empirical science; and, with the help of EUROMOD, it will harmonizes income concepts across EU-surveys, notably EU-SILC in order to facilitate the measurement of material well-being in times of rapid demographic change with its complex implications for old-age income provision.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.46M | Year: 2013
Clouds are a very important, yet not well understood feedback factor in climate change and they contribute to the effective radiative forcing (ERF) from aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The uncertainty in ERFaci is larger than for any other forcing agent. Also, feedbacks between the terrestrial and marine biosphere and the atmosphere involving ACI are thought to play an important role in regulating climate change but their relevance remains poorly quantified. BACCHUS proposes to quantify key processes and feedbacks controlling ACI, by combining advanced measurements of cloud and aerosol properties with state-of-the-art numerical modelling. The analysis of contrasting environments will be the guiding strategy for BACCHUS. We will investigate the importance of biogenic versus anthropogenic emissions for ACI in regions that are key regulators of Earths climate (Amazonian rain forest) or are regarded as tipping elements in the climate system (Arctic). BACCHUS will generate a unique database linking long-term observations and field campaign data of aerosol, cloud condensation and ice nuclei and cloud microphysical properties; this will enable a better quantification of the natural aerosol concentrations and the anthropogenic aerosol effect. BACCHUS will advance the understanding of biosphere aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks that occur via emission and transformation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, primary biological aerosols, secondary organic aerosols and dust. Integration of new fundamental understanding gained in BACCHUS in Earth Systems Models allows to reduce the uncertainty in future climate projections. This will have a direct impact on decision-making addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. BACCHUS brings together a critical mass of experimentalists and modellers with the required scientific expertise to address these complex topics and a high commitment to communicate their findings in many ways in order to ensure a high-impact project.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.6.5-2 | Award Amount: 3.53M | Year: 2012
PACT (PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF SECURITY AND PRIVACY: ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE, COLLECTING EVIDENCE, TRANSLATING RESEARCH INTO ACTION) is a 36 month collaborative project, which aims 1) to assess existing knowledge about public perception of the tension between security and privacy and the role played by social trust and concern; 2) to collect empirical evidence about the way in which European citizens perceive and assess in real life novel surveillance technologies; 3) to analyze the main factors that affect public assessment of the security and privacy implications of given security technology. On the basis of such an investigation, the project will develop and validate a prototype Decision Support System, which may help end users to evaluate pros and cons of specific security investments also on the basis of the societal perception of privacy and liberty.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-07a-2014 | Award Amount: 4.37M | Year: 2015
Tomato is the second most consumed vegetable in the EU and a major dietary source of many nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants. Consumers complaints about the loss of flavour in modern tomatoes, provide an opportunity for the valorisation of traditional tomato varieties, in order to protect them from genetic erosion and the replacement by higher-yielding, pest resistant modern cultivars. Genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic variability and knowledge from farms and in public repositories, will be concentrated in a TRADITOM database and seed repository (O1). The available genetic and phenotypic variability present in TRADITOM varieties, and the genetic and epigenetic differences from modern cultivars will be assessed (O2). For varieties whose cultivation is not sustainable due to unacceptably low yield and/or pathogen resistance, novel F1 hybrids will be generated, retaining the quality characteristics of traditional varieties and incorporating yield and disease resistance traits (O3) Finally, traditional varieties and the impact of traditional cultivation methods will be valorised through a thorough characterization of their composition in term of flavour- and health-related compounds, the identification of consumer preferences, the evaluation of socio-economic factors limiting their market diffusion, and the protection of the most significant case studies through PDO or PGI denominations (O4). TRADITOM is a multidisciplinary translational, multi-actor research project bringing together scientists working in academia, local farmers communities, consumer experts and small seed companies that have preserved the local germplasm, in order to bring to fruition and apply to traditional tomato varieties the enormous knowledge generated on tomato genetics, genomics and metabolomics. This will help the conservation of traditional tomato varieties and enhance the competitive advantage of rural communities based on their production.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-1.1-2 | Award Amount: 16.69M | Year: 2008
Proteomics is a major new field in biomedical research, which deals with the large-scale identification and characterization of large groups of proteins, or proteomes. These can either be the components of a subcellular organelle or compartment, or even the entire protein complement of whole cells and tissues. Proteomics is essential in the functional annotation of the genome and in future attempts to build a quantitative, systems-based description of cell biology. However, current first generation proteomics approaches largely measure protein complexes and proteomes as homogeneous and static entities with little or no quantitative annotation. PROSPECTS (PROteomics SPECification in Time and Space) is a proposal by world leaders in this young discipline to make a major advance, both by developing much more powerful instrumentation and by applying novel proteomics methods that will allow us to annotate quantitatively the human proteome with respect to protein localization and dynamics. Complementary technologies, including mass spectrometry, cyro-electron microscopy and cell imaging will be applied in innovative ways to capture transient protein complexes and the spatial and temporal dimensions of entire proteomes. We will develop these new proteomics technologies in a generic fashion to maximize their utility to the wider biomedical community and we will generate comprehensive data sets that will foster many downstream functional studies. Our approaches will also generate unique insights into the molecular basis of multiple forms of human disease, specifically neurodegeneration and other diseases related to folding stress. The multidimensional data sets generated in PROSPECTS will be integrated using advanced data aggregation and machine learning, made available to the scientific community via annotated online public databases and used as a basis for a systems biological modelling of the human proteome, with spatial and temporal resolution within the cell.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.7.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2013
Crime-fighting is a significant concern of the European Union. The EU is committed to fighting all forms of serious, organised and transnational crime. This commitment has led to the decision in 1999 to create a network of national authorities responsible for crime prevention, and later to the establishment (in 2001) of the European Crime Prevention Network and specifically, in the support of forensic science. This project (MiSAFE Microbial Soil Analysis) fits as a part of this commitment to a safe Europe. It also reflects the EUs 2020 Flagship Initiative (SEC(2010) 1161) for increasing the output of innovative research to the entrepreneurial world. Soil intelligence can usually be re-assessed to provide direct evidence during the evidential phase of an investigation, where it is being assembled against a specific suspect. Such soil evidence is often comparative, but clearly it is necessary for the soil expert to assist the court as to the likelihood of the results being derived from some other, unrelated, location. The development of soil DNA tools within MiSAFE will improve on conventional approaches. The partnership comprises two SMEs, two police forces and three academic institutions. The overall aim of MiSAFE is to develop tools for crime-fighting and crime-prevention, providing opportunities for European SMEs to lead in this new field of environmental genetic forensics. The specific project objectives will be to: 1. Develop appropriate sample collection, storage, and processing tools for soil DNA as applied to forensic science. 2. Apply and delimit the use of DNA-based technologies in soil forensic science for search and evidence. 3. Develop and apply data analysis software and user interface for soil DNA tools. 4. Validate and legally consolidate the use of microbial soil forensic science across the range of EU legal systems. 5. Provide basic standards and procedures for creating a pan-EU soil microbial database.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.3-4 | Award Amount: 7.82M | Year: 2011
ANTIFLU is to develop innovative drugs against influenza virus infections based on a novel concept that precludes the development of viral resistance and ensures efficacy against upcoming pandemic influenza strains. Viral replication is known to depend on multiple host factors. Whilst traditional anti-influenza treatments usually target viral factors, ANTIFLU will aim at drugs interfering with host-response pathways. The concept of drugs targeting human factors, established in treatment of other diseases, has yet not been sufficiently explored for treatment of viral infections, although it bears compelling advantages over conventional antiviral therapies: (i) the avoidance of viral escape mutants and (ii) the broad coverage against unprecedented viral variants. ANTIFLU aims to fully exploit this potent approach to fill critical gaps in our current treatment and prevention options against seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infections. By building upon an existing panel of potent human targets and firm knowledge derived from FP6 project RIGHT, an interdisciplinary consortium will pursue the identification and validation of small molecule ligands and inhibitory RNA molecules effective against influenza infection. Promising modulators will form the basis to generate lead molecules that will be further refined to yield clinically applicable therapeutics. Initial preclinical studies will aim at providing proof of concept in animal models, safety and toxicology profiles. They will allow initiating complete clinical trials immediately after the phase of FP7 support, thanks to the commitment already taken by investors from the private sector. The consortium includes several SMEs, internationally renowned research groups and clinical institutions with extensive experience in anti-influenza treatment and clinical trials. An already agreed common exploitation model will provide a smooth route to market and optimal use of the project results.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2012.5.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.43M | Year: 2013
The European Court of Justice expects European citizenship to become the fundamental status of nationals of the Member States. It lies at the heart of the European integration process. The treaties, legislation, and case law have given Europeans an increasing number of rights. Yet the European Commission complains that these remain underused. Therefore, it has included in FP7 a call for a large-scale IP, identifying and analyzing barriers to exercising such European citizenship rights. Utrecht University is initiating a response to this call. In its project proposal it identifies research questions and several categories of potential hindrances as answers to some of them: contradictions between different rights, multilevel rights, and differences in priorities Member States accord these rights; differences in political, administrative, and legal institutions; financial restraints; lack of sufficient solidarity; administrative and bureaucratic hurdles; language problems; and other practical barriers to claiming and exercising rights - and related duties. Furthermore we distinguish citizenship rights by the types of rights - economic, social, political, and civil - and by the ascribed characteristics of the subjects of these rights: male and female, young and old, native and immigrant. We believe multidisciplinarity will help in identifying and analyzing barriers to the exercise of European citizenship. We can learn from other times and places; therefore we add a historical and comparative dimension to the analysis. And we aim to combine insights from the historical, legal, and social sciences. Overall we want to investigate the options for a multilayered citizenship true to the EUs motto In Varietate Concordia. The research questions and theoretically identified barriers will be investigated in 12 different work packages, each containing specific research objectives, tasks, roles of the participants, and deliverables
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.2.1.5.1 | Award Amount: 7.77M | Year: 2009
Urban settlements, following the economic crisis of the 70s, entered in a process of regional and urban restructuring to gain a new image at the international level. As a result of the renewed economic success new flows of permanent, semi-permanent, temporary and daily human mobility followed: (i) for consumption (leisure and tourism), (ii) for production (economic migration). The world competition among metropolitan areas highlighted the essential importance of natural and cultural resources. The proposal considers the effects of human mobility on urban settlement growth and restructuring in coastal areas where (i) environment is more fragile and space limited, (ii) every phenomenon is more concentrated and (iii) effects on natural and cultural environment are more acute. Problems are multiplied since the climate change affecting environmental parameters - as sea levels - augments risks of flooding, propagation of pollutants, dislocation of a great number of settlers. Controlling and reducing unwanted consequences is contributing to growing conflicts among stakeholders. An integrated ecosystem approach incorporating social, economic and natural disciplines is essential in understanding and dealing with the complex and dynamic problems facing the coastal city environments. The proposal intends to: (i) identify conflicts, (ii) analyze their quantitative and qualitative effects on the environment, (iii) create models to synthesize the complexity of the different social, economic and environmental systems, (iv) compare the priority of each typology through taxonomy. Outcomes include (i) elaboration of an analysis methodology, (ii) creating tools for appropriate policies, (iii) scenario building, (iv) disseminationexploitation of results for users needs. The project will analyse 8 metropolitan areas of global importance and 8 of local importance in European and Asian countries (Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, Israel, India, and Vietnam)
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.2-03 | Award Amount: 6.90M | Year: 2014
WHEALBI will combine genomics, genetics and agronomy to improve European wheat and barley production in competitive and sustainable cropping systems. Germplasm representing the species diversity will be selected and characterised in unprecedented detail by next-generation-sequencing. Life history and adaptive traits will be evaluated in both transnational field experiments and a state-of-the-art precision phenotyping platform. Germplasm will be stored in a specialised and accessible bio-repository and associated data in knowledge bases that will represent a valuable legacy to the community. Whole genome association scans will be conducted for several traits, signatures of adaptive selection will be explored, and allele mining of candidate genes will reveal new variation associated with specific phenotypes. Pre-breeding tools and pipelines will be developed to optimize the efficiency of allele transfer from unadapted germplasm into elite breeding lines. New methodologies will explore how to optimally exploit the large amount of new genotypic and phenotypic data available. They will focus on the design of ideotypes with improved yield stability and tolerance to biotic and climatic stresses and provide proof of concept of the efficiency of genome and phenome assisted selection. Ideotypes and reference varieties will be evaluated in innovative cropping systems, particularly organic farming and no-till agriculture, and an economic evaluation of these approaches will be conducted. The results will be disseminated to a broad user community, highlighting the benefits and issues associated with the adoption of what is considered sustainable and environmentally friendly wheat and barley crop production in a European context. WHEALBI aims to help the EU remain a major actor in world small grain cereal production while addressing the pressing global priorities of increasing and stabilising primary production, improving food quality and safety, and reducing environmental impact.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.6 | Award Amount: 4.46M | Year: 2012
The goal of the project is to give electronics and chemistry an equal autonomous say in programming complex chemical constructions, processes and analyses at the nano and microscales: the same scale where information processing in living systems occurs where to construct is to compute. To do this MICREAgents (MIcroscopic Chemically Reactive Electronic Agents) will develop novel electronically active microreactor components, called lablets, that self-assemble at a scale less than 100 m, approaching that of living cells. The project will integrate the necessary components to ensure autonomous action of millions of these very smart chemicals, including electronic logic, supercapacitors for power, pairwise coupling for communication, programmable chemical sensors and electronic actuation of chemical processing. Key examples of MICREAgent actuation are to reversibly switch their association, load or dose chemicals, modify surfaces, initiate reactions and control locomotion in complex chemical environments. MICREAgents lablets can join forces to communicate both chemicals and electronic information in order to solve complex tasks, acting as smart collective agents of chemical change. Like cells, they will be essentially genetically encoded, but with chemical and electronic memories, translating electronic signals into constructive chemical processing and recording the results of this processing. They will also reversibly employ DNA molecules as chemical information, for example to control surface-surface binding of lablets, or to program chemical sensors, not to synthesize proteins as in cells. The project builds on pioneering FET-funded work towards electronic chemical cells, taking a giant stride to cell-like microscopic autonomous chemical electronics with self-assembling electronic membranes controlling the entry and exit of chemicals.\n\nThese autonomous mobile smart reactors will provide a novel form of computation that microscopically links reaction processing and chemical construction with computation, providing a radical integration of autonomous chemical experimentation. The self-assembling smart micro reactors can be programmed for molecular amplification and other chemical processing pathways, that start from complex mixtures, concentrate and purify chemicals, perform reactions in programmed cascades, sense completion, and transport and release products to defined locations. The project defines a continuous achievable path towards this ambitious goal, making use of a novel pairwise local communication strategy to overcome the limitations of current smart dust and autonomous sensor network communication. It will provide a technical platform spawning research in new computing paradigms that integrate multilevel construction with electronic ICT. The 10 groups, from 8 countries including Israel and New Zealand, are all pioneers in the multidisciplinary areas required to achieve the project goals, with a common grounding in IT.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2009
Population ageing is among the most pressing challenges of the 21st century in Europe. Addressing this challenge scientifically demands an infrastructure of micro data of the changing health, economic and social living conditions of individuals as they go through the ageing process. SHARE, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, is an infrastructure of multidisciplinary, longitudinal, and cross-nationally harmonized micro data that has been created in response to these demands. Currently, SHARE contains two waves of data for about 32,000 respondents aged 50\ in 17 European countries. SHARE became a great success: More than 2300 researchers are working with the data, and SHARE has been elected to be one of the future ESFRI infrastructures. This project is the essential device to enhance the longitudinal stability of the SHARE panel and to improve access and consulting services to users in the years 2009 and 2010. It will: -enhance the longitudinal stability of the panel by keeping in touch with the panel members, monitoring moves, re-interviewing lost panel members, and ascertaining last year of life events of deceased panel members. The scientific value of SHARE critically depends on continuous panel care. -improve the research potential from the SHARE infrastructure by adding imputed values for missing variables, calibrated weights, geo-coded and environmental variables, and meta/para-statistics derived from IT-driven survey methods. -enhance the SHARE survey instrument in response to user feedback, to changes in the institutional environment, and to new survey technologies recently developed, making the interview more effective and less burdensome for the respondents. Such enhancements need to be implemented in 2009/early 2010 to be in time for the ESFRI-financed fourth wave of data collection. -improve and maintain the much applauded user-friendly access for SHARE data users through services provided by central and national support points.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.1 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2012
Flexible optical networking is widely proposed today by major vendors and operators as the solution that offers smooth system upgradability towards Tb/s capacities and optimized use of network resources. Latest research and development efforts proposed a variety of multi-carrier signal transmission methods with significantly increased spectral efficiency, (compared to legacy WDM), allowing the transport of ultra-high capacity channels and the adaptive filling of wavelength channels according to the demands and the required performance on a link distance basis. These developments enable the flexible bandwidth utilization of the optical links but are limited to the point-to-point transport of data. The key network element required to truly enable the realization of a flexible optical networking system is a flexible switching node capable to adaptively add, drop and switch tributaries with variable bandwidth characteristics from/to ultra-high capacity wavelength channels at the lowest switching granularity.The FOX-C project aims to design, develop and evaluate the first functional system prototype of flexible add-drop multiplexers and flexible optical cross-connects, with fine switching granularity at the optical subcarrier level with the purpose to enable the end-to-end network routing of any tributary channel with flexible bandwidth down to 10Gb/s carried over wavelength superchannels, each with an aggregated capacity beyond 1Tb/s. Moreover, the project will define and evaluate the flexible transmission solutions and their exact characteristics, thus providing a holistic flexible optical networking approach applicable in next generation networks.The FOX-C project consortium consists of industrial partners with leading position in the field of optical node design and development, as well as academic partners with worldwide recognised research on flexible transmission solutions, forming together a strong research team capable of meeting the project objectives.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-3.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.21M | Year: 2011
ALICE RAP is a Europe wide project of 43 partner research institutions involving 107 researchers from 25 European countries providing 1000 months of a plurality of scientific endeavour to analyse the place and challenges of addictions and lifestyles to the cohesion, organization and functioning of contemporary European society. Through integrated multidisciplinary research, a wide range of factors will be studied through a foresight approach to inform a redesign of effective addictions governance. Ownership will be described by an historical study of addiction through the ages, an analysis of public and private stakeholder views, and through image analyses, of professional and citizenship views. A study of how addictions are classified and defined will be followed by estimates of their health, social and economic impact. Determinants of addiction will be investigated through a coordinated and cohesive social, economic and biological analysis of initiation, transition into problem use and transition into and out of dependence. The business of addiction will be analyzed through studies of revenues, profits and participants in legal and illegal trade, the impact of suppliers on addictive substance use and behaviours, and analyses of webs of influence on policy responses. Addictions governance will be studied by describing the views and forces that determine the ways societies steer themselves and by stock taking of present governance practices to old and emerging addictions. Youth as customers will be analyzed through considering the impacts of new technologies on promoting and mitigating use, by studying the interrelations of culture and biology, and by determining features that promote resilience and nudge young people to reduce problematic use. The programme itself will be professionally managed from a partnership perspective to promote a coordinated and integrated approach to the high volume of research and its policy implications.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2 | Award Amount: 7.93M | Year: 2012
Chronic inflammatory diseases of joints are major causes of disability in the ageing population. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common types of arthritis and a major cause of pain and disability in older individuals. OA is expected to place a heavy burden on European healthcare systems, as European citizens grow older. Cartilage damage in OA is detected radiographically by decreases in joint space width (JSW). However, radiographic evidence is seen only after significant cartilage degradation has already taken place. The early stages of the disease may remain latent and asymptomatic for many years. Therefore, there is an acute need for reliable biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can facilitate earlier diagnosis of OA, and inform the prognosis, monitoring and therapeutic strategies for chronic and disabling forms of this disease. However, there is currently a lack of reliable, quantifiable and easily measured biomarkers that provide an earlier diagnosis of OA, inform on the prognostic of the disease and monitor and predict responses to therapeutic modalities. Biomarkers of tissue turnover in joints can reflect disease relevant biological activity and provide valuable information that may be useful diagnostically and therapeutically, potentially enabling a more rational and personalized approach to healthcare management. The proliferation of omic technologies has facilitated rapid progress in biomarker research. Combinations of omic technologies are dominating the biomarker research arena and are playing increasingly important roles in the identification, validation and qualification of new biomarkers. The aim of the D-BOARD consortium is to bring together leading academic institutions and European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to focus on the identification, validation and qualification of new combination biomarkers and the development of diagnostic tests capable of subclinical disease diagnosis for degenerative and inflammatory diseases of joints.
News Article | February 15, 2017
WASHINGTON - Clinical trials for genome editing of the human germline - adding, removing, or replacing DNA base pairs in gametes or early embryos - could be permitted in the future, but only for serious conditions under stringent oversight, says a new report from the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine. The report outlines several criteria that should be met before allowing germline editing clinical trials to go forward. Genome editing has already entered clinical trials for non-heritable applications, but should be allowed only for treating or preventing diseases or disabilities at this time. Genome editing is not new. But new powerful, precise, and less costly genome editing tools, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have led to an explosion of new research opportunities and potential clinical applications, both heritable and non-heritable, to address a wide range of human health issues. Recognizing the promise and the concerns related to this technology, NAS and NAM appointed a study committee of international experts to examine the scientific, ethical, and governance issues surrounding human genome editing. Human genome editing is already widely used in basic research and is in the early stages of development and trials for clinical applications that involve non-heritable (somatic) cells. These therapies affect only the patient, not any offspring, and should continue for treatment and prevention of disease and disability, using the existing ethical norms and regulatory framework for development of gene therapy. Oversight authorities should evaluate safety and efficacy of proposed somatic applications in the context of the risks and benefits of intended use. However, there is significant public concern about the prospect of using these same techniques for so-called "enhancement" of human traits and capacities such as physical strength, or even for uses that are not possible, such as improving intelligence. The report recommends that genome editing for enhancement should not be allowed at this time, and that broad public input and discussion should be solicited before allowing clinical trials for somatic genome editing for any purpose other than treating or preventing disease or disability. "Human genome editing holds tremendous promise for understanding, treating, or preventing many devastating genetic diseases, and for improving treatment of many other illnesses," said Alta Charo, co-chair of the study committee and Sheldon B. Lubar Distinguished Chair and Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. "However, genome editing to enhance traits or abilities beyond ordinary health raises concerns about whether the benefits can outweigh the risks, and about fairness if available only to some people." Germline genome editing, in contrast, is contentious because genetic changes would be inherited by the next generation. Many view germline editing as crossing an "ethically inviolable" line, the report says. Concerns raised include spiritual objections to interfering with human reproduction to speculation about effects on social attitudes toward people with disabilities to possible risks to the health and safety of future children. But germline genome editing could provide some parents who are carriers of genetic diseases with their best or most acceptable option for having genetically related children who are born free of these diseases. Heritable germline editing is not ready to be tried in humans. Much more research is needed before it could meet the appropriate risk and benefit standards for clinical trials. The technology is advancing very rapidly, though, making heritable genome editing of early embryos, eggs, sperm, or precursor cells in the foreseeable future "a realistic possibility that deserves serious consideration," the report says. Although heritable germline genome editing trials must be approached with caution, the committee said, caution does not mean prohibition. At present, heritable germline editing is not permissible in the United States, due to an ongoing prohibition on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's ability to use federal funds to review "research in which a human embryo is intentionally created or modified to include a heritable genetic modification." A number of other countries have signed an international convention that prohibits germline modification. If current restrictions are removed, and for countries where germline editing would already be permitted, the committee recommended stringent criteria that would need to be met before going forward with clinical trials. They include: (1) absence of reasonable alternatives; (2) restriction to editing genes that have been convincingly demonstrated to cause or strongly predispose to a serious disease or condition; (3) credible pre-clinical and/or clinical data on risks and potential health benefits; (4) ongoing, rigorous oversight during clinical trials; (5) comprehensive plans for long-term multigenerational follow-up; and (6) continued reassessment of both health and societal benefits and risks, with wide-ranging, ongoing input from the public. Policymaking surrounding human genome editing applications should incorporate public participation, and funding of genome editing research should include support to study the socio-political, ethical, and legal aspects and evaluate efforts to build public communication and engagement on these issues. "Genome editing research is very much an international endeavor, and all nations should ensure that any potential clinical applications reflect societal values and be subject to appropriate oversight and regulation," said committee co-chair Richard Hynes, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "These overarching principles and the responsibilities that flow from them should be reflected in each nation's scientific community and regulatory processes. Such international coordination would enhance consistency of regulation." The study was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Greenwall Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the Wellcome Trust, with additional support from the National Academies' Presidents' Circle Fund and the National Academy of Sciences W.K. Kellogg Foundation Fund. The National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that, along with the National Academy of Engineering, provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. The Academies operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit http://www. . Copies of Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance are available at http://www. or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). R. Alta Charo1 (co-chair) Sheldon B. Lubar Distinguished Chair and Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics University of Wisconsin Madison Richard O. Hynes1,2 (co-chair) Investigator Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge Ellen Wright Clayton1 Craig Weaver Professor of Pediatrics, and Professor of Law Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tenn. Barry S. Coller1,2 David Rockefeller Professor of Medicine, Physician in Chief, and Head Allen and Frances Adler Laboratory of Blood and Vascular Biology Rockefeller University New York City Ephrat Levy-Lahad Director Fuld Family Department of Medical Genetics Shaare Zedek Medical Center Faculty of Medicine Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem Luigi Naldini Professor of Cell and Tissue Biology and of Gene and Cell Therapy San Raffaele University, and Director San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy Milan Duanqing Pei Professor and Director General Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou, China Janet Rossant2 Senior Scientist and Chief of Research Emeritus Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto Toronto Dietram A. Scheufele John E. Ross Professor in Science Communication and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor University of Wisconsin Madison Jonathan Weissman2 Professor Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology University of California San Francisco Keith R. Yamamoto1,2 Vice Chancellor for Science Policy and Strategy University of California San Francisco
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-1-04 | Award Amount: 8.18M | Year: 2009
QUANTOMICS will deliver a step-change in the availability of cutting edge technologies and tools for the economic exploitation of livestock genomes. We will provide the tools to identify rapidly the causative DNA variation underpinning sustainability in livestock and for industry to exploit high-density genomic information. Our adaptable quantitative and genomic tools each based on cutting-edge technologies and valuable in itself, will together form a powerful integrated pipeline with wide application. To deliver these outcomes we will; i) use comparative genomics to annotate putatively functional features of the genomes of the EUs key farmed animal livestock species; ii) enhance existing molecular genetic tools (to include copy number variation, CNV); iii) deliver computationally optimised tools for genome-wide selection (GWS) to include CNV; iv) apply these tools to important health and welfare traits in commercial populations of dairy cattle and broiler chickens, determining the benefits and constraints; v) use hyper-parallel resequencing of DNA within identified genomic features underlying loci of large effect in significant numbers of animals to catalogue variation; vi) develop new visualisation tools to make this variation publicly available via the Ensembl genome-browser; vii) develop tools to prioritise the likely functionality of identified polymorphisms; viii) validate the utility of the putative causative haplotypes within commercial populations; ix) test the potential advances from combined GWS and gene assisted selection in breeding programmes; x) explore new methods to manage molecular biodiversity; xi) assess the implications of these new tools for breeding programme design, and xii) disseminate results of the project achieving major competitive, animal health and welfare impacts across the EU livestock industry and ultimately consumers. QUANTOMICS will have wide application in all farmed species and leave a legacy of resources for future research.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-06-2014 | Award Amount: 3.38M | Year: 2015
Despite the fact that iodine deficiency (ID) can easily be prevented by iodine fortification of table salt, industrial salt and cattle food, Europe belongs to the worst regions in terms of access to iodized salt and is seriously ID, resulting in the perpetuation of the single most important, preventable cause of brain damage. European ID is due to significant heterogeneity in prevention and monitoring programs, leading to inappropriate interventions, increased disease burden, health inequities and increased health care costs. Up to 360 Million European citizens are exposed to ID disorders. An effective European monitoring program is a crucial step towards eradication of ID disorders with significant benefits for European citizens and the sustainability of health care systems. The effects of ID in total cause tremendous, preventable costs in health care systems of affected regions. The overall aim of EUthyroid is to evaluate ID prevention and monitoring programs in 24 European countries, to initiate capacity building for harmonized European ID prevention and monitoring programs, and to disseminate project outcomes for supporting measures on national and EU level in order to eradicate ID disorders in Europe. The project will position itself as international hub of current national initiatives in the attempt to coordinate and support existing national activities. EUthyroid will generate the first harmonized data set of ID resulting in the first valid map of iodine status in Europe. With a dedicated dissemination program about the unfavorable health outcomes of ID, EUthyroid will pave the way for a harmonized EU-wide regulation of iodination, a common approach to iodine and outcome monitoring and establish recommendations for scientists on how to monitor IDD prevention programs. The project aims to make Europe a benchmark for ID disorder prevention worldwide.
Gal A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Millener D.J.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011
It is shown how the recent shell-model determination of λN spin-dependent interaction terms in λ hypernuclei allows for a reliable deduction of ΛΛ separation energies in ΛΛ hypernuclei across the nuclear p shell. Comparison is made with the available data, highlighting BeΛΛ11 and BeΛΛ12 which have been suggested as possible candidates for the KEK-E373 HIDA event. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Frost R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Frost R.,Haskins Laboratories
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2012
In the last decade, reading research has seen a paradigmatic shift. A new wave of computational models of orthographic processing that offer various forms of noisy position or context-sensitive coding have revolutionized the field of visual word recognition. The influx of such models stems mainly from consistent findings, coming mostly from European languages, regarding an apparent insensitivity of skilled readers to letter order. Underlying the current revolution is the theoretical assumption that the insensitivity of readers to letter order reflects the special way in which the human brain encodes the position of letters in printed words. The present article discusses the theoretical shortcomings and misconceptions of this approach to visual word recognition. A systematic review of data obtained from a variety of languages demonstrates that letter-order insensitivity is neither a general property of the cognitive system nor a property of the brain in encoding letters. Rather, it is a variant and idiosyncratic characteristic of some languages, mostly European, reflecting a strategy of optimizing encoding resources, given the specific structure of words. Since the main goal of reading research is to develop theories that describe the fundamental and invariant phenomena of reading across orthographies, an alternative approach to model visual word recognition is offered. The dimensions of a possible universal model of reading, which outlines the common cognitive operations involved in orthographic processing in all writing systems, are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
London N.,University of California at San Francisco |
Raveh B.,University of California at San Francisco |
Schueler-Furman O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2013
Protein Interactions (PPIs) mediate numerous biological functions. As such, the inhibition of specific PPIs has tremendous therapeutic value. The notion that these interactions are 'undruggable' has petered out with the emergence of more and more successful examples of PPI inhibitors, expanding considerably the scope of potential drug targets. The accumulated data on successes in the inhibition of PPIs allow us to analyze the features that are required for such inhibition. Whereas it has been suggested and shown that targeting hot spots at PPI interfaces is a good strategy to achieve inhibition, in this review we focus on the notion that the most amenable interactions for inhibition are those that are mediated by a 'hot segment', a continuous epitope that contributes the majority of the binding energy. This criterion is both useful in guiding future target selection efforts, and in suggesting immediate inhibitory candidates - the dominant peptidic segment that mediates the targeted interaction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Gal A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Millener D.J.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013
Recent experimental evidence presented by the FINUDA Collaboration for a particle-stable HΛ6 has stirred renewed interest in charting domains of particle-stable neutron-rich Λ hypernuclei, particularly for unbound nuclear cores. We have studied within a shell-model approach several neutron-rich Λ hypernuclei in the nuclear p shell that could be formed in (π-, K+) or in (K-, π+) reactions on stable nuclear targets. Hypernuclear shell-model input is taken from a theoretically inspired successful fit of γ-ray transitions in p-shell Λ hypernuclei which includes also ΛN↔σN coupling (Λσ coupling). The particle stability of HΛ6 is discussed and predictions are made for binding energies of HeΛ9, LiΛ10, BeΛ12, BΛ14. None of the large effects conjectured by some authors to arise from Λσ coupling is borne out, neither by these realistic p-shell calculations, nor by quantitative estimates outlined for heavier hypernuclei with substantial neutron excess. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
London N.,University of California at San Francisco |
Raveh B.,University of California at San Francisco |
Schueler-Furman O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013
Peptide-mediated interactions are gaining increased attention due to their predominant roles in the many regulatory processes that involve dynamic interactions between proteins. The structures of such interactions provide an excellent starting point for their characterization and manipulation, and can provide leads for targeted inhibitor design. The relatively few experimentally determined structures of peptide-protein complexes can be complemented with an outburst of modeling approaches that have been introduced in recent years, with increasing accuracy and applicability to ever more systems. We review different methods to address the considerable challenges in modeling the binding of a short yet highly flexible peptide to its partner. These methods apply an array of sampling strategies and draw from a recent amassing of knowledge about the biophysical nature of peptide-protein interactions. We elaborate on applications of these structure-based approaches and in particular on the characterization of peptide binding specificity to different peptide-binding domains and enzymes. Such applications can identify new biological targets and thus complement our current view of protein-protein interactions in living organisms. Accurate peptide-protein docking is of particular importance in the light of increased appreciation of the crucial functional roles of disordered regions and the many linear binding motifs embedded within. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Gaspar-Maia A.,University of California at San Francisco |
Gaspar-Maia A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Alajem A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Meshorer E.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Ramalho-Santos M.,University of California at San Francisco
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2011
Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from embryos or induced from adult cells by reprogramming. They are unique among stem cells in that they can give rise to all cell types of the body. Recent findings indicate that a particularly 'open' chromatin state contributes to maintenance of pluripotency. Two principles are emerging: specific factors maintain a globally open chromatin state that is accessible for transcriptional activation; and other chromatin regulators contribute locally to the silencing of lineage-specific genes until differentiation is triggered. These same principles may apply during reacquisition of an open chromatin state upon reprogramming to pluripotency, and during de-differentiation in cancer. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.7 | Award Amount: 8.27M | Year: 2013
The DIADEMS project aims at exploiting the unique physical properties of NV color centres in ultrapure single-crystal CVD-grown diamond to develop innovative devices with unprecedented performances for ICT applications. By exploiting the atom-like structure of the NV that exhibits spin dependent optical transitions, DIADEMS will make optics-based magnetometry possible.\nThe objectives of DIADEMS are to develop\n- Wide field magnetic imagers with 1 nT sensivities,\n- Scanning probe magnetometer with sensitivity 10 nT and spatial resolution 10 nm,\n- Sensor heads with resolution 1 pT.\n\nTo reach such performances, DIADEMS will:\n- Use new theoretical protocols for sensing,\n- Develop ultrahigh purity diamond material with controlled single nitrogen implantation with a precision better than 5 nm,\n- Process scanning probe tips with diametre in the 20 nm range,\n- Transfer them to AFM cantilever, improve the emission properties of NV by coupling them with photonic cavities and photonic waveguides.\n\nDIADEMS outputs will demonstrate new ICT functionalities that will boost applications with high impact on society:\n- Calibration and optimization of write/read magnetic heads for future high capacity (3 Tbit per square inch) storage disk required for intense computing,\n- Imaging of electron-spin in graphene and carbon nanotubes for next generation of electronic components based on spintronics,\n- Non-invasive investigation of living neuronal networks to understand brain function,\n- Demonstration of magnetic resonance imaging of single spins allowing single protein imaging for medical research.\n\nDIADEMS aims at integrating the efforts of the European Community on NV centres to push further the limits of this promising technology and to keep Europes prominent position.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.5 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2011
The human brain can be seen as an immensely powerful, energy efficient, self-learning, self-repairing computer. If we could understand and mimic the way the brain works, we could revolutionize information technology, medicine and society. But to do so we have to bring together everything we know and everything we can learn about the inner workings of the brains molecules, cells and circuits. The goal of the Human Brain Project (HBP) is to do this by integrating our knowledge in massive databases and in computer models of the brain. This will require breakthroughs in mathematics and software engineering and an international supercomputing facility more powerful than any before. This is all possible. Experimental and clinical data is accumulating exponentially. Computers powerful enough to meet the projects initial requirements are already here. An international team led by Europes best neuroscientists, doctors, physicists, mathematicians, computer engineers and ethicists have assembled to begin the mission. As technology progresses and the project discovers new principles of brain design it will build ever more realistic models to probe ever deeper principles. The benefits for society will be huge, even before the HBP achieves its final goals. Models of the brain will revolutionize information technology, allowing us to design computers, robots, sensors, prosthetics and other devices far more powerful, more intelligent and more energy efficient than today. They will help us understand the root causes of brain diseases, and to diagnose them early, when they can still be treated. They will reduce reliance on animal testing and make it easier to develop new cures for brain disease. They will help us understand how the brain ages, and how to slow these changes and nurture a healthy brain for our children. In summary, the HBP is poised to produce dramatic advances in technology, a new understanding of the way the brain works and a new ability to cure its diseases.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-NIGHT | Award Amount: 389.09K | Year: 2013
With 7 years of experience, support (in time, efforts and funds) from Israel Ministry of Science and Technology, 36,500 visitors last year, one Guinness World Record, 14 venues all over Israel from Kiryat-Shmona in the very north to Eilat in the very south and a National TV, National Radio and major newspapers coverage our strong consortium is really committed to Researchers Night success. In 2013 our Researchers Night event will be even bigger while most of the partners will send researchers to meet the audience outside the campuses at local cafs of neighbor cities. This way we will increase the number of people enjoying the face to face meetings with researchers and will tighten the connection between the universities and the community for yearlong cooperation. All of the partners which will operate 2013 Researchers Night event already have the experience and took part in previous Researchers Nights events. Partners which will run the event in 2013 are ALL of the universities in Israel, two of the leading collages and 2 science museum which one of them is the National Museum of Science, Technology & Space which will also coordinate the project. The main theme for this year Researchers Night event will be Space and us in conjunction with marking 10 years for the Columbia tragedy and the preservation of Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, legacy of excellence and science. Management of 2013 will stay the same as in 2011 and 2012 successful events.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 7.23M | Year: 2011
Experimentally-driven research is key to success in exploring the possible futures of the Internet. An open, general-purpose, shared experimental facility, both large-scale and sustainable, is essential for European industry and academia to innovate today and assess the performance of their solutions. OpenLab brings together the essential ingredients for such a facility. We extend early prototypes of testbeds, middleware, and measurement tools so as to provide more efficient and flexible support for a diverse set of experimental applications and protocols. The prototypes include a set of demonstrably successful testbeds: PlanetLab Europe, with its 153 partner/user institutions across Europe; the NITOS and w-iLab.t wireless testbeds; two IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) telco testbeds for exploring merged media distribution; a green networking testbed; the ETOMIC high precision network measurement testbed; and the HEN emulation testbed. Associated with these testbeds are similarly successful control- and experimental-plane software. OpenLab advances these prototypes with key enhancements in the areas of mobility, wireless, monitoring, domain interconnections, and the integration of new technologies such as OpenFlow. These enhancements will be transparent to existing users of each testbed, while opening up a diversity of new experiments that users can perform, extending from wired and wireless media distribution to distributed and autonomous management of new social interactions and localized services, going far beyond what can be tested on the current Internet. OpenLab results will advance the goal of a unified Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE) facility. In addition, OpenLab can provide models for the Future Internet Public Private Partnership (FI-PPP). Finally, OpenLab will issue open calls to users in industry and academia to submit proposals for innovative experiments using the OpenLabs technologies and testbeds, and will devote one million euros to funding the best of these proposals.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.27M | Year: 2011
The EU has experienced successive enlargements in recent years with the incorporation of new countries. These have changed the EU map, broadening frontiers and thus appearing new neighbouring countries. The integration of them offers new opportunities but also implies some risks. Even though the ENP has demonstrated to be an integration tool, which has provided an effective and clear framework to establish cooperation links within neighbouring countries, some are important areas with considerable potential for further progress. SEARCH will focus attention on some areas which so far have been neglected in the analysis of the impact of the ENP but which are of central interest in the economic literature on cohesion. Divided in 8 WPs. WP1 will obtain a background framework. From WP2 to WP5, scientific research will be carried out analyzing different aspects that ENP should strengthen in the future. WP6 will collect and analyse the policy implications from previous research. WP7 will communicate the research results and the policy recommendations through the correct communication channels to the potential users. WP8 will ensure the coordination of the SEARCH project consortium work with the previous experience of UB-AQR. It includes a remarkable well-balanced consortium with partners from 16 different countries, different backgrounds and expertise, giving an extensive vision to focus adequately to the projects objective of identifying policies that will strengthen the relationship between the EU and the NCs. Main impacts will be the advance on the research on ENP state of the art, obtaining relevant results for contributing to the formulation of future ENP, the involvement of relevant communities, stakeholders and practitioners in ENP research, the critical mass of resources involved and the establishment of a basis to develop new strategic partnership among EU and NCs. In short, SEARCH is a well defined project, relevant to the topic and with an experienced consortium
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.1 | Award Amount: 3.33M | Year: 2014
We propose a theory and a hardware implementation of probabilistic computation inspired by biochemical cell signaling. We will study probabilistic computation following three axes: algebra, biology, and hardware. In each case, we will develop a bottom-up hierarchical approach starting from the elementary components, and study how to combine them to build more complex systems. We propose Bayesian gates operating on probability distributions on binary variables as the building blocks of our probabilistic algebra. These Bayesian gates can be seen as a generalization of logical operators in Boolean algebra. We propose to interpret elementary cell signaling pathways as biological implementation of these probabilistic gates. In turn, the key features of biochemical processes give new insights for innovative probabilistic hardware implementation. We propose to associate conventional electronics and novel stochastic nano-devices to build the required hardware elements. Combining them will lead to new artificial information processing systems, which could, in the future, outperform classical computers in tasks involving a direct interaction with the physical world. For these purposes, the BAMBI project associates research in Bayesian probability theory, molecular biology, nanophysics, computer science and electronics.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2014
Static and dynamic wetting of solid surfaces by liquids is a focus of numerous theoretical, computational and experimental investigations. Most of the research and training activities are focused on the wetting of simple solids by one-component liquids. However, a wide variety of industrial processes mostly include wetting/spreading of complex multiphase liquids over heterogeneous, structured or (nano)porous solids. The latter include deposition of active substances from foams and nanoemulsions on human hair and skin and deposition of functional nanoparticles on textile fibers and flexible polymer films. The mechanisms of those complex fluid-solid processes are to be understood. The development and optimization of the industrial processes and products is based on purely empirical trial and error methods. CoWet supra-disciplinary project is aimed at bridging the gap between the industrially relevant processes involving the complex fluid-solid processes, from one side, and the high resolution experiment, as well as physically sound modelling and direct computer simulations, from the other side. The high-resolution, high-speed experimental techniques, including confocal microscopy, atomic force microscopy and fluorescent correlation spectroscopy, will be used to reveal the nano- and microscopic phenomena governing the complex fluid-solid interactions in the course of wetting/spreading processes of complex liquids over complex substrates. The modern computational and modelling techniques will help to reveal, predict and optimize the industry-relevant processes. The young researchers will be trained to study the systems of practical importance rather than focusing on model systems only. They learn the cutting edge scientific methodology and application technology from an industrial perspective. CoWet fellows will form a powerful network of experts which will eventually result in ground-breaking development of new complex fluid-solid technological processes.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2010-1.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.62M | Year: 2011
Hernia operations are among the most common surgical procedures performed today with over 20 million cases annually worldwide. Hernia incidents are associated with pain and poor quality-of-life for the patient and lead to enormous healthcare costs, exceeding US $48 billion in the US annually. At present, hernia operations rely heavily on non-degradable polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and nylon meshes. However, these polymers are often associated with foreign body reaction; implant failure; and hernia reoccurrence (over 42%). Moreover, leaking chemicals of these polymers are often deleterious to the surrounding cells and tissue and immobilise post-operative drug treatments. In addition, the process technologies are often associated with environmental risks. Herein, we propose a novel approach that employs recent advances in green nanotechnology and sustainable raw materials for scaffold fabrication that not only will eliminate toxic chemicals from the processes, but will also enhance functional repair due to superior biological properties. Specifically, we aim to fabricate a nano-fibrous mesh with well-defined nano-topography using cellulose; human recombinant collagen, derived from transgenic tobacco plants; and biodegradable polylactic/polyglycolic acid as raw materials. The green credentials of this innovative approach lie in the use of sustainable eco-friendly raw materials that will produce biodegradable waste products and therefore replacing hazardous chemicals currently in use. Thus, this proposal directly fits the call for the substitution of materials or components with green nano-technology.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.53M | Year: 2012
In the research part we will deal with the basic principles of the innate immune defense used to control tumors and viral infections with a focus on NK and NK/T cells, including analysis of NK receptor genomics/epigenetics, gene polymorphisms/disease linkage, differentiation of hitherto unrecognized NK cell subpopulations and novel ligands for NK receptors exposed by tumor and/or virally infected cells. We will investigate the mechanisms installed by tumors and viruses to avoid or subvert immune defenses. This will include the investigation of the role of NK/T cell subpopulations in the defense against tumors and infections by herpes virus family members, some being involved in tumor formation, in the development of inflammatory diseases and/or constituting a frequent complication during tumor therapy. The project will support anti-tumor and anti-viral therapies by developing novel technology for NK cell generation from cord blood stem cells for NK cell infusions in patients, by genetic engineering of NK cells and by using NK receptors and their ligands to develop novel reagents for amplifying anti-tumor and -viral activities of NK/T cells. It will further undertake basic studies on the potential of the newly emerging iPS cell technology for reconstituting immune systems including NK cells in patients with hematologic cancers. All students of this ITN will be trained in state-of-the-art immunotechnology including wider aspects of molecular medicine at the individual partner universities. An exchange of students between the different partners will be organized to ensure that every participant will be trained in several laboratories/universities with different expertise. It will further include network-wide training modules with cutting-edge lectures of internationally recognized research experts in the field, state-of-the-art seminars in the front-line technologies used in this project as well as courses in genome-wide bioinformatics, business and patent rights.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.2-2 | Award Amount: 15.73M | Year: 2012
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a major health problem with severe co-morbidities, requiring life-long treatment. Oscillating processes, like biological clocks are well studied and modeled in a number of systems. Circadian rhythms are extremely important for optimal treatments of patients. Recently, the NfkB pathway has been shown to be oscillating. In this project, we will model NfkB oscillation in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in animal models and patient cohorts with immunosuppressive treatments and controls. The aim is to build an experimentally validated model the NfkB oscillation in 4D within the gut tissue. Dynamic, experimental validation will be done for various types of cells in the gut by a combination of methods, including single-cell based transcriptomics, multi-photon microscopy and time-dependent, multi-component profiling. The validated model framework will enable searching for critical components of the NfB oscillation and to assess their relevance for the disease in patients. Interfering with the oscillation of biological pathways may provide new possibilities to influence biological processes like inflammation. Hence, we will search (assisted by the models and databases developed) for small molecules interfering with the NfkB oscillation in chemical databases and validate selected candidates in experimental systems. To this end, we will use cell lines with the correct indicator constructs using high content microscopy. To better translate the findings in animal models to patients, we will use a mouse model with transplanted human tissue so that we can verify the mathematical model in human tissue and verify functionality of small molecules in vivo. Owing to its systems, highly focused approach, the project will generate substantial insights into key mechanisms underlying IBD and will provide ways to modulate the oscillatory behavior of the NfB in IBD and IBD-dependent co-morbidities.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-NIGHT | Award Amount: 298.46K | Year: 2010
Based on the success in previous years, IRN2010 was extended to additional institutes, and many additional sites at industries, and designed to attract Israelis of all ages, background and geographic location nationwide to meet researchers face-to-face. Number of sites was more than doubled and covers all of Israel (see map), with many places (science-caf and round tables) outside the Campuses where researchers will meet the public. The event will focus this year on How are researchers advancing Water technologies and Climate Change research?, with additional other scientific aspects. A broad range of compelling scientific activities, held nationwide and supported by the Ministry of Science & Technology and the Ministry of Industry, Trade & Employment, will contribute to altering public stereotypes of researchers, and to a greater understanding of the pivotal role of researchers in the economic development of Israel, and their contribution to the betterment of society and mankind as a whole. This event will comprise rich and imaginative programmes, featuring leading researchers from Israeli universities, research institutions, major science museums and industries, engaged in cutting edge scientific discovery and technological innovation. They will meet the public in their laboratories, in Science-Caf, at Round-Table Events, in the museums next to exhibitions and in lectures, where they will tell their personal stories. Events will include interactions with scientists who have received EU ERC and Marie Curie grants and a variety of hands-on activities for youngsters and others. Forums will take the shape of informal settings, where scientists and the public can get acquainted with each other in an unthreatening environment. We will emphasis the researchers passion for teaching the young generation on Water Technologies and Climate changes.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-2 | Award Amount: 7.83M | Year: 2011
Allergy and autoimmunity cause increasing burden to societies worldwide. We study the effect of microbiome on the skin, the forefront barrier to environment, on autoimmunity and allergy, using atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (PSO) as paradigmatic examples. We have detailed information about the genetic risk factors, as well as the molecular and cellular players in AD and PSO, but we know very little how microbe-host interaction triggers and regulate inflammatory cascade leading to allergic or autoimmune reaction. We propose that environmental and genetic factors, characteristic to particular disease, initiate a cascade of inflammatory events through the modulation of anti-microbial defence. The dysregulation of innate as well as adaptive immune responses leads to inappropriate responses to physical, microbial or allergen challenge, finally manifesting in the clinical symptoms of AD or PSO. We propose to use high-throughput whole microbiome and transcriptomics analysis with bioinformatics and systems biology to unravel the pathways during the host-pathogen interactions which may trigger an allergic or autoimmune reaction. We will identify key microbes and molecular targets to develop novel intervention strategies to decrease and prevent the burden of allergy and autoimmunity.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-5 | Award Amount: 7.81M | Year: 2013
Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Therefore, ncRNAPain proposes that ncRNAs are critically important master switches for chronic pain. ncRNAPain represents a multidisciplinary consortium of clinical partners, molecular and systems-level neuroscientists, bioinformatics and ncRNA experts. In order to gain knowledge on the mechanisms of chronic pain, ncRNAPain will investigate ncRNAs specifically in neurogenic and neuropathic pain, including headache. ncRNAPain will provide novel understanding of ncRNA regulation of processes modulating nociception and endogenous analgesia and of the importance of ncRNAs in circuitries and cognitive, emotional and behavioural components of pain. ncRNAPain will reveal insights into the concerted function of ncRNAs in the control of macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and signals used for neuroimmune communication in the pain pathway. Based on these findings, ncRNAPain will identify and validate specific ncRNAs as new druggable molecular targets for pain prevention and relief. ncRNAPain will identify pain predisposing ncRNA expression patterns and polymorphisms in ncRNAS and/or their binding sites as biomarkers for pain and inter-individual variations in the response to painful stimuli and analgesic drugs. ncRNA-based diagnostic tools will be developed and provided to enable better patient stratification, improved mechanism-based treatment and targeted prevention strategies for high risk individuals. ncRNAPain will provide novel understanding of the induction and maintenance of chronic pain and is committed to translate pre-clinical and clinical results and developments into clinical applications for the benefit of the patients, to improve the patients quality of life and reduce the societal burden of chronic pain across Europe.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-11-2015 | Award Amount: 5.07M | Year: 2016
Non-invasively imaging small numbers of molecular probes, to help image particular targets or pathways in vivo, is currently undergoing a technological revolution. Recent breakthroughs in molecular hyperpolarization proved > 10,000-fold increase in sensitivity on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, thus providing insight into previously unseen metabolic processes with enormous potential for socioeconomic relevant diseases. E.g. pyruvate-based hyperpolarized imaging was clinically demonstrated to be effective for prostate cancer diagnostics in human patients. However, the current state-of-the-art hyperpolarization methods are expensive and cumbersome, limiting the access to hyperpolarization technology, and require long hyperpolarization times of 60-90 minutes per dosage; hyperpolarization probes exhibit short hyperpolarization duration (1-5 minutes), limiting the usage of hyperpolarization to metabolic imaging. A quantum technological breakthrough, Nitrogen-Vacancy defects (NV centres) in diamonds, is set to revolutionize the field of hyperpolarization for both hyperpolarizer and probes. The primary objective of HYPERDIAMOND is the development and commercialization of two new molecular imaging technologies for sensitive diagnosis and treatment monitoring, based on NV centres: The Diamond Hyperpolarizer will offer a cost- and time-effective solution for hyperpolarization that easily fits current MRI layouts, hyperpolarizes within 5 minutes, and improves clinical viability. The Nano-diamond (ND) Probe will introduce the first targeted MRI probe capable of achieving comparable molecular sensitivity to positron emission tomography (PET) with MRI systems, exhibiting extremely long hyperpolarization duration (~1 hour), and enabling non-metabolic hyperpolarized imaging. HYPERDIAMOND will bridge the gap between novel quantum and nanotechnology and their applications in hyperpolarized imaging, producing innovation not feasible with current technology.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.6 | Award Amount: 3.73M | Year: 2010
To understand what is required to support new innovative Internet applications, a solid understanding of Internet content characteristics (size, distribution, form, structure, evolution, dynamic) is necessary. The LAWA project (LAWA - Longitudinal Analytics of Web Archive data) will build an Internet-based experimental testbed for large-scale data analytics. Its emphasis is on developing a sustainable infrastructure, scalable methods, and easily usable software tools for aggregating, querying, and analyzing heterogeneous data at Internet scale. For decades, compute power and storage have become steadily cheaper, while network speeds, although increasing, has not kept up. The result is that data is becoming increasingly local and thus distributed in nature. It has become necessary to move more analysis to the data, not the reverse. The Internet is already, a long-scaled heterogeneous complex system.\nLAWA will federate distributed FIRE facilities with the rich centralized Web repository of the European Archive, to create a Virtual Web Observatory and use Web data analytics as a use case study to validate our design. The outcome of our work will enable Web-scale analysis of data, to unlock large-scale study of the content aspect of the Internet and bring this dimension on the roadmap of Future Internet Research. In four workpackages we will extend the open-source Hadoop parallel query management software by novel methods for data access and import, develop new methods of distributed storage with indexing, offer scalable aggregation, mine metadata and text along the time dimension, and advance the art of automatic classification of Web contents.\nLAWA adds value to the FIRE community by offering access to very large datasets across thousands of storage and processing nodes, with advanced methods and open-source tools for intelligently analysis at Internet scale enabling research for the Future Internet to take into account the challenge of content explosion.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-SG | Phase: ERC-SG-SH1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2010
The importance of information asymmetry in financial markets has long been recognized in financial economics. Most existing models focus on the role of privately informed investors who influence prices through their trades. But in many cases the agents who have the biggest information advantage are insiders or the firms themselves; they are precluded from trading but can affect the information flow to the market. This endogenous information flow and its effect on financial market is the focus of the proposed project. By the term information flow we refer to a wide range of channels through which firms can communicate. The information can be part of a mandatory disclosure or a voluntary one. It can be verifiable or non-verifiable information. In addition there can be an implicit information transmission. A firm may choose certain actions to convey its private information (i.e. signaling) without any explicit announcements. The way firms convey this information may provide key insights into the behavior of financial markets and in particular the development of financial crises. The project combines theoretical and empirical work. In the theory part I plan to examine the channels mentioned above and develop testable implications. In the empirical part I plan to test these implications.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-NIGHT | Award Amount: 258.67K | Year: 2011
With two governmental offices supporting, all universities and the main leading colleges in Israel taking part, Researchers Night 2011 event expected to be a great success and to fulfill its objectives. Read on... Israel`s Researchers Night (IRN) has been a highly successful national science project. Every year, many people attend the event and numerous institutions want to partner on an event that has become a sort of informal Researchers National Day. Moreover, the partnership on Researchers Night in Israel has turned the IRN consortium into a much larger and stronger community science education body, which has begun to take on additional joint actions in the field of science orientation. In 2011 we plan to expand emphasis on academic research and its implementation in industry, at the encounter with scientists as ordinary people like us. Four additional academic institutions will run activities in 2011. The Open University (OUI), Sami Shamoon Collage (SCE) and Haifa University (HAIFAU) which will join us for the first time and will also finance the activities using own funds, Bar-Ilan university which was responsible for WP3 but on 2011 will run activities during the night instead. Ort Braude College which hosted some successful activities last year will join us this year as well using own funds for 2011 activities. We believe that with almost no budget expand, these newly added institutions, yielding a greater number and range of participating scientists, will contribute to the attractiveness of the event and appeal to Israelis of all ages, backgrounds and geographic locations, who will come to meet researchers face-to-face. We will cover geographically the entire country, with many event locations (science-caf and round-tables) outside the campuses, where the public and researchers will have a chance to converse at eye level. The 2011 event will focus on Chemistry in line with UNESCOs International Year of Chemistry (2011)
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2010.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.11M | Year: 2011
The DESURBS project makes significant and novel advances with the following developments: 1) An urban space security event database that includes incidents or near misses that have (or might have) resulted in injury or loss of life, damage to urban spaces, the auxiliary infrastructures supporting those spaces, or the surrounding natural environment 2) An integrated security and resilience (ISR) design framework that engages local stakeholders for identifying vulnerabilities and improving urban spaces with respect to security threats. 3) Comprehensive and generic supporting tools and methodologies including urban resilient design guidelines and quantitative risk and vulnerability assessment models, tools and technologies to facilitate the qualitative ISR assessment process. 4) A web-based Decision Support System Portal integrating the projects outputs and including tailored visualization and mapping tools to help end users better understand the vulnerabilities and design possibilities. An objective rating scale for quantifying safety of different urban space designs is developed and used to show that DESURBS solutions result in urban spaces less prone for and less affected by security threats. Primary case studies with end users in Jerusalem in Israel, Nottingham in the UK and Barcelona in Spain inform the development process. The consortium consists of eight partners from five countries, and includes academic and research institutions as well as an SME for exploiting the projects outputs among end-users and stakeholders. The SME partner is committed to maintaining, updating and hosting the DESURBS Decision Support System Portal and associated databases and tools after the lifetime of the project. An Advisory Board with members from governmental and municipal urban planning and preparedness organizations ensures that the DESURBS advances are relevant, exploitable and will have the desired impact for end users.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: MSCA-NIGHT-2014 | Award Amount: 808.05K | Year: 2014
Following previous eight years of successful implementation of European Researchers Night in Israel we will have: o Venues covering the whole country. o Involvement of the academic community including Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space (MOST), all major research universities, leading collages and three science museums. o Awareness campaign at national level managed and funded by the Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space. o Groups of junior-high and high-school students (ages 12-18) will be invited by each partner to take part in each venue. We are ready and proud to implement European Researchers Night 2014 & 2015. All of the partners involved in the project have the experience of running successful European Researchers Nights events. With the successive increase in number of visitors along the years and the reputation of the event we are expecting more than 50,000 visitors each year. Main theme for 2014 will be Water & Marine Sciences research. Main theme for 2015 will be Brain Research which is very attractive subject to the special 10th anniversary event. Same management as in 2011, 2012, 2013 successful events. Proposal covers both 2014 & 2015 European Researchers Night events.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2014
The PRIME project will support the design of technologies (counter-measures and communication measures) for the prevention, interdiction and mitigation of lone actor extremist events (LOEEs), which are hard to anticipate, yet can be highly damaging to local and national communities and therefore must be addressed. Given the difficulty in detecting LOEEs, prevention-based strategies must be complemented by interdiction- and mitigation-based measures, to minimize harm in the event of detection failure. These measures must be accompanied by communication strategies aimed at a range of audiences, including extremists and the general public. The PRIME project will deliver a knowledge-base to inform the design of measures to defend against LOEEs, by achieving the following objectives: 1): Characterising a) the risk posed by lone actor extremists, and b) the context in which measures to defend against LOEEs may be implemented; 2) Producing a cross-level risk analysis framework within which to articulate the key factors and processes implicated in LOEEs, across all stages of the event (radicalisation, attack preparation, attack). 3): Translating the risk analysis framework into a meta-script of lone actor extremist events, and developing methodologies and techniques to produce empirically-supported scripts of each stage. 4): Producing an integrated, cross-level script of LOEEs, and identifying categories of intervention points or pinch points. 5): Delivering a portfolio of requirements for the design of measures for the prevention, interdiction and mitigation of lone actor extremist events across levels of intervention, informed by the analysis of the event script and an understanding of the context in which these measures may be implemented. 6): Delivering a portfolio of requirements for communication measures directed at a diverse audience at each stage of the script, in coordination with the portfolio of counter-measures.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: OCEAN 2013.1 | Award Amount: 4.56M | Year: 2013
BRAAVOO aims to develop innovative solutions for real-time in-situ measurements of high impact and difficult to measure marine pollutants. The concept of BRAAVOO is based on a unique combination of three types of biosensors, which will enable both the detection of a number of specific marine priority pollutants as well as of general biological effects that can be used for early warning. First, innovative bimodal evanescent waveguide nanoimmuno-sensors will enable label-free antibody-based detection of organohalogens, antibiotics, or algal toxins. Secondly, bacterial bioreporters producing autofluorescent proteins in response to chemical exposure will enable direct detection of alkanes or PAHs from oil, heavy metals, or antibiotics, and can further assess the general toxicity of the water sample. Finally, the photosystem activity of marine algae is exploited to monitor changes induced by toxic compounds. BRAAVOO will construct and rigorously test the three biosensor systems for their analytical performance to the targeted pollutants. To enable low-cost real-time measurements, the three biosensors will be miniaturized, multiplexed and integrated into innovative modules, which allow simultaneous multianalyte detection. The modules will include all optical elements for biosensor signal generation and readout, the microelectronics for data storage, and specific microfluidics to embed the biosensors or cells, and expose them to aqueous samples from dedicated autosamplers. The modules can be used either as stand-alone instruments for specific marine applications or can operate autonomously and in real-time in an integrated form. Hereto, they will be embedded in a marine buoy and an unmanned surveying vessel. Vessels and stand-alone biosensor modules will be tested extensively and in comparative fashion on real marine samples and in mesocosms. If successful, the flexible and innovative BRAAVOO solutions will democratize and revolutionize marine environmental monitoring.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-6-03 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2010
BIOMONAR develops multiplexed nanoarray biosensors for environmental targets, i.e. pollutants and pathogens. The innovative approach engineers three sensor platforms (surface, liposomal, living cell) which exploit a panel of periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) as the common selective element. The nanoarrays are integrated into a microfluidics system for in-situ monitoring. The strategy allows for selective and sensitive detection of target compounds in complex environmental mixtures. The sensor platforms probe different aspects in the exposure to effect chain of processes: each responds to a certain proportion of the total target concentration and has a characteristic dynamic window. The sensor signals are quantitatively interpreted and represented in terms of the spectra of reactivities and fluxes of the target compounds. This level of sophistication, coupled with the common PBP selective component, allows a coherent elucidation of the link between dynamic target speciation and predicted ecotoxicological impact. The optimisation and dedication of the sensors for environmental monitoring inherently involves physicochemical characterisation of the various bio/nonbio and bio/bio interfacial processes at nanoscale. The ensuing knowledge on the interaction of nanostructured surfaces with biological systems facilitates design of sensors for new targets, thus providing technical opportunities for the biosensor industry.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 3.22M | Year: 2014
INFOCORE focuses on the conditions that bring about different media roles in the cycle of conflict and peace building. It generates knowledge on (1) the social processes underlying the production of conflict news, and (2) the inherent dynamics of conflict news contents, (3) in a systematically comparative fashion. Based on this perspective, we identify the conditions under which media play specific constructive or destructive roles in preventing, managing, and resolving violent conflict, and building sustainable peace. The project will provide detailed knowledge on the process of conflict news production. Specifically, INFOCORE focuses on interactions between (1) professional journalists (in various media), (2) political actors (including public authorities, military), (3) experts/NGOs (in intelligence, peacekeeping, conflict prevention/resolution, and media assistance), and (4) lay publics (individuals and groups, including economic actors). INFOCORE analyzes these actors different roles (as sources/advocates, mediators, and users/audiences) in the production of (1) professional news media, (2) social media, (3) and semi-public intelligence/expert analysis. To assess the roles of media for shaping lay publics and political actors conflict perceptions and responses to ongoing conflicts, we analyze the dynamics of conflict news content over time. We identify recurrent patterns of information diffusion and the polarization/consolidation of specific frames and determine the main contextual factors that influence the roles media play in conflict and peace building. Specifically, we assess the roles of individual agendas and resources, professional norms, media organizations and systems, political systems, and characteristics of the conflict situation. INFOCORE implements a gender-sensitive perspective throughout the project, contributing to the ECs efforts to enable and strengthen the participation of women in peace and security matters.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 5.28M | Year: 2009
6.1 million people currently live with a form of dementia in the European Union with an addition of 1.4 million new cases every year. Combination of psychological testing, brain-imaging and exclusion of other neurological disorders makes the diagnosis of Alzheimers disease complicated and time consuming (taking up to 20 months). A rapid, sensitive and specific immunoassay for protein markers inside blood would largely improve early diagnosis and lead to a better treatment of dementia. Homogeneous assays based on FRET from one dye labeled specific antibody (AB1) to another (AB2) within an AB1-biomarker-AB2 immune complex are an ideal basis to meet these diagnostic requirements. As the detection of several protein markers is obligatory for a highly sensitive and specific diagnosis an optical multiplexing approach with dyes of different colors is a smart solution. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are the ideal candidates due to their size-dependent absorption and emission wavelengths. Moreover, they possess unique photophysical properties that overcome conventional fluorescence dyes. In combination with lanthanide complexes (LCs), that display long luminescence lifetimes and well separated emission bands, QDs render a powerful multiplexing tool for highly sensitive diagnostics even for large immune complexes. FRET applications using QDs are to date restricted to academic research and a profound understanding of QD-based FRET is not available. For a comprehensive analysis the use of LCs is mandatory, because they are the only known donors for efficient FRET to QD acceptors. NANOGNOSTICS strives for a profound understanding of QD-based FRET, the synthetic creation of highly efficient QD immune sensors for detection of several Alzheimer-specific protein markers and the development of a modular high-throughput-screening immuno analyzer for the integration of QD-based multiplexing immunoassays into early diagnosis for improved patient outcome in dementia therapy.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.4.2 | Award Amount: 3.12M | Year: 2010
Current pedagogy increasingly fails to engage young people with the study of Science and Math (S&M) in a way that threatens the future of Europe. Without basic S&M knowledge it is not possible to understand many of the important issues that confront us, such as global warming or genetic modification. A general lack of S&M literacy makes the ideal of Europe as a participatory democracy an unattainable goal, and means that the new products required for thriving in a global knowledge economy will not be developed. To address this problem, this project proposes to explore the potential of social learning for S&M by providing a visual language to support online groups in designing their own learning together. To gain deep knowledge of any specific domain learners need to integrate learning experiences with shared reflection through dialogue, in a way that builds conceptual understanding cumulatively. To this end, the objectives of the proposed project are: to further our understanding of meta-learning within collaborative communities engaged in S&M learning; to design a visual language to support students reflection on their individual and collaborative learning; to implement a platform integrating state-of-the-art argumentation tools with exploratory environments; to develop an adaptive diagnostic system utilizing AI techniques to support students and teachers during the collaboration and learning to learn process; to develop appropriate pedagogies to inform the design of the technical system; and to design new forms of assessment of the individual and collaborating learning exploiting the diagnostic system. Seven partners from 5 countries compose the consortium. Besides the technical development of the system, in its 3-year life the project will address the underlying pedagogical theory and extensive experimentation in classroom (ages 12-16) in the partners countries. Extensive dissemination and exploitation-planning actions are foreseen as well.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: ERC-AG | Phase: ERC-AG-SH1 | Award Amount: 1.52M | Year: 2013
The vast majority of published research on the impact of school interventions has examined their effects on short-run outcomes, primarily test scores. While important, a possibly deeper question of interest to society is the impact of such interventions on long-run life outcomes. This is a critical question because the ultimate goal of education is to improve lifetime well-being. Recent research has begun to look at this issue but much work remains to be done, particularly with regard to the long-term effects of interventions explicitly targeting improvement in general quality and students educational attainment. This proposal examines the impact of seven different schooling interventions teachers quality, school quality, remedial education, school choice, teacher incentive payments, students conditional cash transfers and an experiment with an increase in the return to schooling on long-run life outcomes, including educational attainment, employment, income, marriage and fertility, crime and welfare dependency. To address this important question I will exploit unique data from seven experimental programs and natural experiments implemented simultaneously at different schools in Israel. All programs were successful in achieving their short-term objectives, though the cost of the programs varied. This undertaking presents a unique context with unusual data and very compelling empirical settings. I will examine whether these programs also achieved a longer-term measure of success by improving students life outcomes. Another unique feature of the proposed study is that the interventions vary widely and touch on some emergent educational trends. The body of empirical evidence from this study will provide a more complete picture of the individual and social returns from these educational interventions, and will allow policymakers to make more informed decisions when deciding which educational programs lead to the most beneficial use of limited school resources.
ELASTISLET - Tailored Elastin-like Recombinamers as Advanced Systems for Cell Therapies in Diabetes Mellitus: a Synthetic Biology Approach towards a Bioeffective and Immunoisolated Biosimilar Islet/Cell Niche
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-10-2014 | Award Amount: 6.72M | Year: 2015
ELASTISLET aims to create a breakthrough development in encapsulation technology and its use in cell and tissue therapies for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes. ELASTISLET will combine leading technologies in biomaterial design, production and processing, cross-linking/grafting technology and cell therapy, to synergistically integrate them into a new immune-isolation and biomimetic scaffolding approach for islet and cell transplantation in diabetes treatment. ELASTISLETs starting point is a highly innovative and versatile family of superior biomaterials, the Elastin-like Recombinamers (ELRs). Those innovative materials will be combined with the most cutting-edge encapsulation technologies, such as reactive LbL. ELASTISLET relies on the most innovative ideas taken from synthetic biology, nanobiotechnology and molecular and cellular biology to build the ideal niche for islet/cell encapsulation and transplantation. ELASTISLET main objective is to achieve a functional coating that fulfils, first, the basic requirements of optimal biocompatibility and physical properties (permselectivity) but, second, generate a capsule that can promote an intense and directed cross talk through all cell-material interfaces involved: the implant-surrounding tissue (outer) interface and cargo cells-capsule (inner) interface. At the end, a capsule that is able not only to cloak its content and isolate it from the immune rejection but that it is able to biologically interact with the surrounding tissues and its cargo simultaneously in a way that the implanted capsule will immediately interact and fuse with the surrounding tissues creating a real continuity of the extracellular matrix from the core of the capsule to the surrounding hosts tissues and procuring adequate nutrient supply. That will provide a physiologically ideal biomimetic environment for the implanted islets/cells to survive and function in the long term without perceiving a foreign, unusual or hostile environment.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FCT-16-2015 | Award Amount: 4.46M | Year: 2016
PROTON aims at improving existing knowledge on the processes of recruitment to organised crime and terrorist networks (OCTN) through an innovative integration between social and computational sciences. Moving beyond the state of the art, this integration will support evidence-based policies at the international, national and local level. To achieve its aim, PROTON will complete three specific objectives: 1. Investigate the social, psychological and economic factors leading to OCTN (WP1 and 2), including their connection with cybercrime and the cyberspace (WP3). The factors will be transformed into input (WP4) for PROTONs final outputs, PROTON-S and PROTON Wizard (WP5), designed for helping policy makers to act more effectively against OCTN. 2. Develop PROTON-S, agent-based modelling (ABM) simulations of the effects of different societal and environmental changes on OCTN. PROTON-S will generate virtual societies in a computer laboratory, enabling to test the impact of different scenarios on the evolution of, and particularly individuals recruitment to, OCTN. 3. Develop PROTON Wizard, a user-friendly software tool embedding the results of the ABM simulations. PROTONs impact will improve the quality of prevention policies on OCTN, providing at the same time significant innovations in the social, technological and computational sciences. PROTON-S, based on simulations, will bear no ethical and societal risks, and will create a breakthrough in the understanding of OCTN, enabling better policies and stimulating further innovation. PROTON Wizard will provide the first support tool for policy makers at the international, national and local level, giving easy access to the most advanced scientific research. The participation of different policy makers and potential end-users throughout the whole project will make sure that the final results specifically meet their needs and expectations.
News Article | February 22, 2017
LOS ANGELES & JERUSALEM--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Phytecs Inc., a biotechnology company exploring innovative research into and potential treatments targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS), together with Yissum Research Development Company, the technology-transfer company of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, announced a new partnership with two aims: to synthesize novel compounds that show increased efficacy over existing phytocannabinoids in targeting specific elements of the ECS, a key homeostatic regulator of the human body; and to continue testing semi-synthetic, patented fluorinated cannabidiol (F-CBD) compounds developed under a previous licensing agreement, which was signed with Yissum, University of São Paulo (USP) and Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul (UFRGS). Work conducted under the new partnership will complement Phytecs’ existing research into therapeutic applications for various phytocannabinoids and terpenoids sourced from cannabis, and combinations thereof. A Hebrew University research team led by Professor Raphael Mechoulam, MS, PhD, working closely with Tamás Bíró, MD, PhD, DSc, director of applied research for Phytecs, and other members of the Phytecs Scientific Advisory Board, will explore new therapeutic opportunities offered by these compounds for certain health conditions, with an initial focus on mental and immune disorders. The new Phytecs-Yissum partnership will also build on previous licenses between the two organizations that led to compounds currently under investigation as treatments for central nervous system (CNS) and skin disorders. Financial details of the partnership were not disclosed. Professor Mechoulam, whose pioneering work during the past half-century has supported a global expansion of research into phytocannabinoids from cannabis and other plants, said: “I am gratified to see the growing understanding among physicians and researchers of the body’s native ECS and its role in homeostatic regulation. Since ECS dysregulation is implicated in multiple pathological conditions, data suggests that modulating the ECS may have benefits across a huge range of human diseases. “My team at Hebrew University shares confidence with Yissum and Phytecs that our work will identify compounds with even greater therapeutic promise than the naturally occurring cannabis compounds (e.g. THC or CBD) my lab identified decades ago. We are particularly excited to extend our already productive partnership with testing on the patented F-CBD compounds licensed exclusively by Phytecs.” Dr. Bíró said: “Data from preclinical work previously conducted by Phytecs in partnership with Yissum is already encouraging in assays for epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression, among other areas. For example, we are hopeful that F-CBD compounds, which exhibit greater efficacies and potencies than CBD, will one day deliver the same or greater benefits to patients with CNS disorders as may be possible with CBD, at lower therapeutic doses. We are thrilled to be able to build upon this in close collaboration with Professor Mechoulam as we apply his and his team’s deep expertise.” Gary Hiller, president and COO of Phytecs, said: “We are excited to be building upon the data generated from our work with F-CBD by expanding our research slate, creating a pipeline of semi-synthetics and identifying new and more effective compounds – as well as putting together a world-leading team to translate ECS knowledge into value for patients. This pipeline correlates perfectly with our continued work on phytocannabinoids and reflects our focus on developing effective, efficient, accessible ECS therapeutic agents, regardless of their source.” Dr. Shoshi Keynan, vice president of healthcare business development at Yissum, said: “New cannabinoid research under the Phytecs-Yissum partnership promises to yield significant commercial opportunities and solutions for patients in the coming decade, not just in well-known areas such as treatment-resistant childhood epilepsy and pain relief, but in other disorders across a wide range of health areas including dermatology and mental health.” About Phytecs Phytecs is a biotechnology company developing interventions that address the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The Phytecs team pioneered the modern understanding of how the ECS regulates aspects of physiology including immunity, pain, inflammation, mood, emotion, learning, memory, metabolism, appetite, weight, sleep, embryo development, neuroprotection and stress response; and how dysregulation of the system affects human health and disease. The unique Phytecs R&D and product development platform includes not only compounds isolated from the Cannabis plant but also novel, highly effective synthetic and semi-synthetic cannabinoid agents. Phytecs is currently conducting research in the United States, Hungary, Israel and Switzerland. www.phytecs.com The Phytecs logo is a registered trademark of Phytecs, Inc. About Yissum Yissum Research Development Company of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Ltd. was founded in 1964 to protect and commercialize the Hebrew University’s intellectual property. Products based on Hebrew University technologies that have been commercialized by Yissum currently generate $2 billion in annual sales. Ranked among the top technology transfer companies in the world, Yissum has registered over 9,325 patents covering 2,600 inventions; has licensed out 880 technologies and has spun out 110 companies including Mobileye, Briefcam, Orcam, Avraham Pharmaceuticals, Betalin Therapeutics, CollPlant and Qlight Nanotech. Yissum’s business partners span the globe and include companies such as Microsoft, Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Roche, Merck, Teva, Syngenta, Monsanto and many more. For further information please visit www.yissum.co.il.
News Article | February 27, 2017
We're told not to judge a book by its cover, but we make instant judgments about people's intelligence, trustworthiness or dominance based on their facial appearance. Now, researchers have investigated the reverse possibility: can the way people judge us influence how we look? To answer this question, researchers led by Dr. Ruth Mayo and PhD candidate Yonat Zwebner at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem examined whether a person's appearance can be influenced by their given name. To do this, they recruited independent observers and showed them color headshot photographs of complete strangers. Then they presented a list of names to the observers and asked them to choose the stranger's real name based on his or her facial appearance. In a series of studies (now reported in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), the observers repeatedly beat the odds of correctly identifying a person's name based on their facial appearance alone. For example, upon looking at the face and considering four possible names - Jacob, Dan, Josef or Nathaniel - observers correctly chose "Dan" 38% of the time, significantly above the 25% chance level of a random guess. This effect held true even when the researchers controlled for age and ethnicity, implying that something more than simple socioeconomic cues is at work. "Our research demonstrates that indeed people do look like their name," said Dr. Ruth Mayo, senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. "Furthermore, we suggest this happens because of a process of self-fulfilling prophecy, as we become what other people expect us to become." Supporting the notion of a self-fulfilling prophecy, the researchers found that observers beat the odds of correctly guessing a person's name even when they were only allowed to see their hairstyle. This suggests that people may choose the hairstyle that fits a stereotype associated with their name. The researchers confirmed that observers in a second country and culture were also able to beat the odds. However while observers were good at matching faces to names in their own culture, they were not good at doing so in a foreign culture. This supports the idea that name stereotypes are important when matching faces with names. The researchers also found that observers are less good at guessing the given name of people who use a nickname exclusively. This indicates that a person's appearance is affected by their name only if they use it, and not if it simply appears on a birth certificate. In one study, the researchers completely removed the human factor from the matching process. Using a computerized paradigm, they found that computers were able to beat the odds when asked to choose the correct name for 94,000 different faces. This further supports the idea that our faces contain relevant information related to our names. The researchers suggest the "Dorian Gray effect," cited in previous research on how internal factors like personality can influence facial appearance, may apply here as well. Dorian Gray was the protagonist of an Oscar Wilde novel whose actions affected his portrait. "We are familiar with similar processes from other stereotypes like race and gender, where many times the stereotypical expectations of others affect who we become. We hypothesize that there are similar stereotypes about names, including how someone with a specific name looks, and these expectations really do affect our facial appearance," said Dr. Mayo from the Hebrew University. According to the researchers, the possibility that our name can influence our look, even to a small extent, suggests the important role of social structuring in the complex interaction between the self and society. The research suggests that we are subject to social structuring from the minute we are born, not only by our gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, but also by the simple choice that others make in giving us our name. "A name is an external social factor, different from other social factors such as gender or ethnicity, therefore representing an ultimate social tag. The demonstration of our name being manifested in our facial appearance illustrates the great power that a social factor can have on our identity, potentially influencing even the way we look," added Dr. Mayo. Future research could examine the precise nature of the mechanism leading to the emergence of this face-name matching effect, for example how a person's name matches his or her face at different stages of life. Another question worth exploring is why some people have a very high face-name match while others have a low match. Dr. Mayo's collaborators in this research include Yonat Zwebner, School of Business Administration, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Anne-Laure Sellier, Department of Marketing, HEC Paris; Nir Rosenfeld, the Rachel and Selim Benin School of Computer Science and Engineering, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and Jacob Goldenberg, Arison School of Business, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), and Columbia Business School, Columbia University.
News Article | February 15, 2017
'One of the most exciting archaeological discoveries -- and the most important in the last 60 years -- in the caves of Qumran' Excavations in a cave on the cliffs west of Qumran, near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, prove that Dead Sea scrolls from the Second Temple period were hidden in the cave, and were looted by Bedouins in the middle of the last century. With the discovery of this cave, scholars now suggest that it should be numbered as Cave 12. The surprising discovery, representing a milestone in Dead Sea Scroll research, was made by Dr. Oren Gutfeld and Ahiad Ovadia from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Institute of Archaeology, with the collaboration of Dr. Randall Price and students from Liberty University in Virginia, USA. The excavators are the first in over 60 years to discover a new scroll cave and to properly excavate it. The excavation was supported by the Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria, by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), and is a part of the new "Operation Scroll" launched at the IAA by its Director-General, Mr. Israel Hasson, to undertake systematic surveys and to excavate the caves in the Judean Desert. Excavation of the cave revealed that at one time it contained Dead Sea scrolls. Numerous storage jars and lids from the Second Temple period were found hidden in niches along the walls of the cave and deep inside a long tunnel at its rear. The jars were all broken and their contents removed, and the discovery towards the end of the excavation of a pair of iron pickaxe heads from the 1950s (stored within the tunnel for later use) proves the cave was looted. Until now, it was believed that only 11 caves had contained scrolls. With the discovery of this cave, scholars have now suggested that it would be numbered as Cave 12. Like Cave 8, in which scroll jars but no scrolls were found, this cave will receive the designation Q12 (the Q=Qumran standing in front of the number to indicate no scrolls were found). "This exciting excavation is the closest we've come to discovering new Dead Sea scrolls in 60 years. Until now, it was accepted that Dead Sea scrolls were found only in 11 caves at Qumran, but now there is no doubt that this is the 12th cave," said Dr. Oren Gutfeld, an archaeologist at the Hebrew University's Institute of Archaeology and director of the excavation. "Finding this additional scroll cave means we can no longer be certain that the original locations (Caves 1 through 11) assigned to the Dead Sea scrolls that reached the market via the Bedouins are accurate." Dr. Gutfeld added: "Although at the end of the day no scroll was found, and instead we 'only' found a piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, the findings indicate beyond any doubt that the cave contained scrolls that were stolen. The findings include the jars in which the scrolls and their covering were hidden, a leather strap for binding the scroll, a cloth that wrapped the scrolls, tendons and pieces of skin connecting fragments, and more." The finds from the excavation include not only the storage jars, which held the scrolls, but also fragments of scroll wrappings, a string that tied the scrolls, and a piece of worked leather that was a part of a scroll. The finding of pottery and of numerous flint blades, arrowheads, and a decorated stamp seal made of carnelian, a semi-precious stone, also revealed that this cave was used in the Chalcolithic and the Neolithic periods. This first excavation to take place in the northern part of the Judean Desert as part of "Operation Scroll" will open the door to further understanding the function of the caves with respect to the scrolls, with the potential of finding new scroll material. The material, when published, will provide important new evidence for scholars of the archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea caves. "The important discovery of another scroll cave attests to the fact that a lot of work remains to be done in the Judean Desert and finds of huge importance are still waiting to be discovered," said Israel Hasson, Director-General of the Israel Antiquities Authority. "We are in a race against time as antiquities thieves steal heritage assets worldwide for financial gain. The State of Israel needs to mobilize and allocate the necessary resources in order to launch a historic operation, together with the public, to carry out a systematic excavation of all the caves of the Judean Desert."
Khelashvili G.,New York Medical College |
Harries D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013
Although there have been great advances in understanding the effect of cholesterol on various properties of lipid membranes, its mechanistic role in determining the elasticity of bilayers at the molecular level is not fully resolved. Indeed, to date the molecular mechanisms that drive the experimentally detected differences in properties of saturated and unsaturated lipid bilayers that contain cholesterol remain unclear. By quantifying the cholesterol orientational degrees of freedom from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of mixed lipid-cholesterol membranes, we address this question from the perspective of cholesterol tilt and splay. Following the fluctuations in orientations of cholesterol and of lipid molecules in simulations, we have extracted tilt and splay moduli both for cholesterol molecules and hydrocarbon lipid tails. This has further allowed us to estimate the contributions of these modes to the response of membranes to elastic deformations. We find that tilt and splay deformations importantly contribute to the overall elasticity of the mixed lipid membranes, and that they can account for the experimentally established differences between the liquid ordered sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol bilayers and fluid dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC)/cholesterol bilayers. These findings underscore the importance of tilt and splay moduli, derived from simulations with relative computational ease, as useful metrics for quantitatively characterizing the mechanical properties of mixed lipid-cholesterol bilayers. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Koch J.,Paul Ehrlich Institute |
Steinle A.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Watzl C.,Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors o |
Mandelboim O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2013
Natural killer (NK) cells are central players in the vertebrate immune system that rapidly eliminate malignantly transformed or infected cells. The natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 are important mediators of NK cell cytotoxicity, which trigger an immune response on recognition of cognate cellular and viral ligands. Tumour and viral immune escape strategies targeting these receptor-ligand systems impair NK cell cytotoxicity and promote disease. Therefore, a molecular understanding of the function of the NCRs in immunosurveillance is instrumental to discovering novel access points to combat infections and cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Fridlender Z.G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Fridlender Z.G.,University of Pennsylvania |
Albelda S.M.,University of Pennsylvania
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012
Neutrophils play an established role in host defense and in killing invading microorganisms. Although neutrophils are traditionally considered in the context of their antibacterial functions, it is becoming increasingly clear that tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) play a major role in cancer biology. Neutrophils make up a significant portion of the inflammatory cell infiltrate in many models of cancer. Like all other leukocytes, they move into tissues under the influence of specific chemokines, cytokines and cell adhesion molecules. The tumor microenvironment has been shown to be responsible for their recruitment in cancer. We have found that TAN are a distinct population of neutrophils, differing markedly in their transcriptomic profile from both naive neutrophils and the granulocytic fraction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Studies have demonstrated specific examples of tumor-mediated signals (such as transforming growth factor-β) that induce the formation of a pro-tumorigenic (N2) phenotype capable of supporting tumor growth and suppressing the antitumor immune response. However, there are also studies showing that TAN can also have an antitumorigenic (N1) phenotype. Herein, we explore the literature on the different mechanisms of TAN recruitment to tumors, the unique characteristics of TAN and what shapes their pro- and/or antitumor effects. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Dengjel J.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Abeliovich H.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Autophagy | Year: 2014
Mitophagy, or the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is thought to be important in mitochondrial quality control, and hence in cellular physiology. Defects in mitophagy correlate with late onset pathologies and aging. Here, we discuss recent results that shed light on the interrelationship between mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics, based on proteomic analyses of protein dynamics in wild-type and mutant cells. These studies show that different mitochondrial matrix proteins undergo mitophagy at different rates, and that the rate differences are affected by mitochondrial dynamics. These results are consistent with models in which phase separation within the mitochondrial matrix leads to unequal segregation of proteins during mitochondrial fission. Repeated fusion and fission cycles may thus lead to "distillation" of components that are destined for degradation. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Colibri Photonics GmbH | Date: 2015-03-24
Systems, kits and methods for non-invasive, long-term, real-time monitoring of one or more physiological parameters of a cell, including but not limited to oxygen uptake, are provided.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Medical Research Fund At The Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | Date: 2010-09-24
The present invention describes the use of an AChE-R-derived peptide, also known as ARP, as an inducer of hemopoietic cell differentiation and expansion, specifically for the granulocytic population. In addition, the use of ARP as an inducer of thrombopoietin and pro-inflammatory cytokines is also presented. ARP may further be used in the pre-transplant priming of hematopoietic stem cells. Other uses and methods utilizing ARP are also described herein.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.9.1 | Award Amount: 2.62M | Year: 2013
Among complex systems with emergent behaviours, frustrated quantum magnets are predicted to exhibit novel, highly nontrivial phases of matter that may play a major role in future and emerging quantum technologies such as the synthesis of innovative materials for energy harnessing and storage, entanglement-enhanced metrology, and topological quantum computing.Unfortunately, due to the intrinsic levels of noise in natural compounds, the controlled realization, characterization, and manipulation of frustrated quantum magnets appear exceedingly demanding. On the other hand, we are now entering an advanced stage of development of quantum emulators, engineered quantum systems that realize model Hamiltonians of increasing complexity in a controlled fashion. Cutting-edge technologies for quantum emulation science include cold atoms in optical lattices, trapped ultracold ions (Coulomb crystals), NV centres in diamond, and photonic circuits. By developing, comparing, and integrating these four different atom-optical platforms, project EQuaMs breakthrough is the controlled experimental emulation of fundamental model Hamiltonians for frustrated quantum magnetism, both in nontrivial lattice geometries and for competing long-range interactions, and the characterization of their phase diagrams, targeting fundamental features such as spin liquid phases, global topological order, and fractional excitations. By achieving this objective, EQuaMs groundbreaking contribution to the long-term vision in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is the efficient quantum emulation, not admitting efficient classical computational counterparts, of many-body quantum systems with essential elements of complexity. Besides providing crucial insights in the physics of complex many-body systems, it will be a foundational step in the realization of large-scale architectures for topologically protected quantum computation and information.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.8.8 | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2011
The brain circuits of the central nervous system are formed by neurons and synapses endowed with complex dynamical properties. However, the traditional architectures of computational systems, like artificial neuronal networks, are based on connectivity rules while making use of very simplified neurons. Moreover while brain circuits operate through discontinuous signal called spikes organized in complex sequences, theoretical analysis usually deals with continuous signals. To understand circuit computations a different approach is needed: to elaborate realistic spiking networks and use them, together with experimental recordings of network activity, to investigate the theoretical basis of central network computation. As a benchmark we will use the cerebellar circuit. The cerebellum is supposed to compare expected and actual activity patterns and to reveal their congruence with respect to stored memories. By these means, the cerebellum takes part to control loops regulating movement and cognition. Experimental evidence has revealed that cerebellar circuits can dynamically regulate their activity on the millisecond time scale and operate complex spatio-temporal transformation of signals through non-linear neuronal responses. Moreover, synaptic connections can be fine-tuned by distributed forms of synaptic plasticity, the correlate of memory in neural circuits. In this project, we will develop specific chips and imaging techniques to perform neurophysiological recordings from multiple neurons in the cerebellar network. Based on the data, we will develop the first realistic real-time model of the cerebellum and connect it to robotic systems to evaluate circuit functioning under closed-loop conditions. The data deriving from recordings, large-scale simulations and robots will be used to explain circuit functioning through the adaptable filter theory. REALNET will thus provide a radically new view on computation in central brain circuits laying the basis for new technological applications in sensori-motor control and cognitive systems.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Colibri Photonics GmbH | Date: 2015-09-30
Systems, kits and methods for non-invasive, long-term, real-time monitoring of one or more physiological parameters of a cell, including but not limited to oxygen uptake, are provided.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 2.91M | Year: 2011
We identify Neuroelectronics as a novel mature discipline, at the boundaries between neurobiology, electrophysiology, computational neurosciences, microelectronics, materials sciences, and nanotechnologies. In the proposed Marie-Curie consortium, each of these components, as well as the specific application contexts (i.e. basic research, neuroprosthetics, and pharmaceutical applications), are represented and combined in a concerted effort, towards the training of a new generation of researchers and professionals. We target both technological priorities, such as the development of novel multi-electrode arrays and advanced interfaces that functionally interact with neurons and networks; and scientific priorities, considering and studying neuro-electronic hybrids as devices able to undergo a functional and anatomical reconfiguration, on the basis of the activity-dependent plasticity and rewiring properties of neurons, under some control of the experimenter. Our ultimate aim is to lay the foundation of a virtual institute for the multi-disciplinary study of neuroengineering and network-neurosciences that will train a new generation of scientists and professionals and that will contribute to Europes leading role in scientific innovation. We strongly believe in the unique training potential of our consortium: neuroelectronics to analyze and synthesize neuronal networks, using artificial devices able to co-operate with neurons, thereby crossing the barriers between artificial devices and neurons. Knocking down the barriers between natural and artificial is, in the words of Edoardo Boncinelli (founding figure in developmental biology and 2005 EMBO Awardee for Communication in the Life Sciences), a fantastic crossing between biological evolution and cultural evolution, a shortcut between culture and nature.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.1.6 | Award Amount: 1.62M | Year: 2013
The objective of the AmpliFIRE Support Action is to prepare FIRE for year 2020, in strengthening the exploitation and impact creation capacities of Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE) facilities. It brings the concept of open innovation into the world of FIRE, involving beneficiaries across the range from infrastructure technologies to new modes of interaction, collaboration and empowerment. AmpliFIRE enhances the awareness for FIRE-enabled research and innovation opportunities in the business community, in societal domains and in the existing FIRE community.\nAmpliFIRE develops a sustainable vision for 2020 of Future Internet research and experimentation including the role of FIRE facilities, and sets out a transition path from the current situation towards 2020. It conducts an assessment of todays FIRE capabilities, identifying the gaps relative to the 2020 demands and identifying how capabilities must evolve. FIRE capabilities include research and engineering experiment facilities, new user- and innovation-oriented instruments, platforms to attract business interest to FIRE, and collaboration and business models for partnering. By 2020, FIRE facilities shall be the backbone of European research and innovation ecosystems. AmpliFIRE proposes the capabilities, collaboration models and service offering portfolios to achieve that goal.\nEnhancing earlier actions and ensuring FIRE community support continuity, AmpliFIRE supports the FIRE community to identify exploitation opportunities, enhance impact creation approaches and strengthen effectiveness of the FIRE facility. Based on Key Performance Indicators, AmpliFIRE monitors the technical, operational and organizational conditions necessary to realise benefits, impact and sustainability of the Europe-wide Future Internet experiment facility.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2007-4.0-1 | Award Amount: 7.24M | Year: 2009
Currently the world of polymeric composite materials is almost exclusively based on fossil derived components. This fact represents a strong issue, as the non-renewable global oil resources are being exploited year after year, also as a consequence of the ever growing demand for plastics engineering materials. WOODY Project goal is to develop new composite panels and laminates from wood derived renewable materials, providing performances competitive with respect to traditional composites. WOODY Project is aimed at introducing a fully innovative paradigm in the composite industry, thanks to development of materials derived from natural resources, enabling to cover the whole necessities of components: fibre, matrix and core. Enzymatic processing is developed in parallel to chemo-thermo-mechanical treatments, for achieving the maximum throughput and eco-sustainability. The breakthrough innovation in materials is backed by an innovative approach in design of composite products, the so called Composite Thinking, starting from the phase of conception, to the production and installation, enabling to rethink products and fully exploiting the potentialities of composites. Quality of the approach is based on multidisciplinary research and on the target oriented to the redefinition of the whole processing value-chain for wood derived cellulose nano fibrils and resins deriving from natural raw materials, and the related manufacturing processes for advanced composite components. The Project is aimed to set the basis for the development of a new class of products optimising the use of the natural resources. Such approach is therefore expected to increase the tendency for wild forest areas recovery, and to promote the culture of wooden species dedicated to the extraction of compounds finalized to the production of renewable composite materials.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP-2007-3.1-2 | Award Amount: 5.45M | Year: 2008
Economical and health interests of skin problems are fast growing issues in Europe, following the remarkable extension in life expectancy in western countries, together with the increased awareness of UV radiation risks. Personalized health care approach has been discussed over the past few years and had been accompanied by developing innovative technologies capable of identifying specific biomarkers, supporting a personalized diagnosis and treatments, especially concerning bio-compatibility of drugs. Skin Treat intends to develop and validate nano-chemical and bio- technologies to achieve an accurate matching of drugs, and drug delivery vehicles, to skin diseases and sub pathogenic skin conditions in their individual context. The project will design novel generation of pharmaceutical products, as well as consumer personalized service, in order to fit customers tailored needs with a support of strategic consortium based on partnership among SMEs and research organizations. The development of personalized skin therapy protocols requires achieving an accurate diagnostics of skin condition and an extensive analysis of biological markers. Non invasive methods as well as minimal invasive skin sampling, will support the establishment of a range of biological profiles corresponding to skin diseases and skin sub pathologic conditions. Statistical processing of these data will allow defining biomarkers patterns specifically associated with given clinical conditions. A bio-informatics data mining protocol will be elaborated, together with multifunctional biomarker analysis software, to build a refined, personalized diagnosis method. Finally, the computer data analysis will yield a decision support system (DSS) to assist dermatologists, chemist and clients for prescription of personalized treatment. Skin Treat concept will be evaluated by a wet pilot study of the whole ervice chain on a few, selected skin disorders like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and UV skin photo-aging damages.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2013-6 | Award Amount: 9.39M | Year: 2013
Skin alterations within ageing are significant and visible, and therefore disturbing feature in the quality of life of aged people. Economic importance of this population is dramatically growing in Europe in the last decade. Regular skin care preparations are capable to cope with ageing symptoms to some extends, i.e. wrinkles, age spots and skin dryness, but limited in protecting skin from microbial contaminations, inflammation, irritation and other ageing related manifestations. A novel flexible customized skin care approach for better skin treatment is proposed by SuperFlex, combined with cost reduction of 30%, significant reduced environmental impact and a 50% reduction in time to market. SuperFlex low cost and environmentally friendly concept will be a result of: 1). Low energy manufacturing of water/oil emulsions; 2) Green packaging; 3).Centralized management serving the on-site mini-factories; 4) Flexible units for on-site and by-demand production diminishing inventory needs; 5) LCA and LCC studies for platform optimization. SuperFlex manufacturing concept of central factory and mini-factories extensions raises a mechanism for sophisticated options analysis of products to be designed and produced at operational level. An advanced cloud based ICT platform will include: 1). Integration of the manufacturing IT system for distributed control and monitoring of the production network [Enterprise Resource Planning; Secure Information Systems; Manufacturing Execution Systems; Standard for the Exchange of Product model data]; 2). A new Cyber physical system-enabled infrastructure approach for equipment integration; 3). A decision support system for cosmetic formulations according to biomarkers profile, expert evaluation and client requirements; 4).Mobile device supported customer feedback system. SuperFlex achievement will be demonstrated within project period by design manufacturing and treating elderly population with personalized skincare products
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-01 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2009
In the METAPRO project we aim to optimise the production of several useful isoprenoid derived secondary metabolites to demonstrate the tools and strategies developed for the generic production of useful secondary metabolites in plants. Astaxanthin (ketocarotenoids) and the apocarotenoid crocin have been selected to demonstrate the application of the technologies adopted and developed. These compounds are of high-value and used in the industrial and health sectors. Both are classical secondary plant metabolites being formed in slow growing species that are not readily amenable to agricultural production. They are non-essential to the plant, synthesised at a defined developmental stage, in specialised tissues, cells and/or cellular compartments. In order to generate cheap renewable bio-resources of these compounds with improved economic and environmental potential, natural variation will be exploited and genetic engineering approaches implemented. Astaxanthin and crocin will be engineered into Solanaceae host platforms. Tomato fruit and potato tuber are ideal cell factories for this class of molecules, as at defined developmental stages their tissues and specialised cellular compartments are pre-disposed to high level isoprenoid formation. To optimise production in these hosts the METAPRO project aims to use modern and emerging technologies to (i) elucidate regulatory mechanisms involved in synthesis, (ii) optimise storage by increasing, altering and transport from, the cellular compartment responsible for synthesis and accumulation, (iii) improve stability of the products in the cell and during bioprocessing and (iv) implement improved transformation, transcription and translation tools for more efficient engineering and improved yields and quality. To achieve these objectives and deliver scientific excellence with impact a multidisciplinary pan-European team with complementary expertise, industrial (SME) participation and global interaction has been constructed.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Shenkar College | Date: 2010-10-11
A photovoltaic device is presented including one or more cell units. The photovoltaic device comprises a semiconductor substrate having a patterned light collecting surface defining an array of spaced-apart substantially parallel first grooves. Each of these first grooves has a bottom portion, comprising a bottom surface and side walls extending from the bottom portion and being substantially perpendicular to the surface of the device. A heavily doped semiconductor layer in the form of spaced-apart regions is located at the bottom surfaces of the first grooves respectively. Further improvement of performance is obtained by deposition of thin metal lines on top of the heavily doped spaced apart lines.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Hoffmann-La Roche | Date: 2013-05-22
Uses of a compound of any of Formulas I-VI as a cytotoxic inhibitor of undifferentiated cells are disclosed herein, as well as pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of any of Formulas I-VI, and methods for identifying a lead candidate for inhibiting undifferentiated cells. Further disclosed are uses of an SCD-1 inhibitor as a cytotoxic inhibitor of undifferentiated cells.
News Article | February 16, 2017
Jars from between the eighth and second centuries B.C., found in Judea, show the magnetic field has been fluctuating regularly, not diminishing over time. Earth’s core is the source of the very important but poorly understood magnetic field that surrounds the planet and extends outward. One of physics’ great mysteries, it was first recorded about 180 years ago and when it was noticed to be weakening, the potential consequences, such as its effects on the biosphere, set alarm bells ringing. However, new evidence shows that instead of diminishing, Earth’s magnetic field is perhaps merely fluctuating, as it has done over millennia. Using a set of 67 jars, all of them from between the eighth and second centuries B.C. from the region that was known as Judea at the time, scientists have gathered information about changes in the planet’s geomagnetic field in the course of those 600 years. A study by researchers from Tel Aviv University, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the University of California, San Diego, published online Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, said: “The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the twin challenges of (i) the accuracy of ancient paleomagnetic estimates and (ii) the dating of the archaeological material. Here we address the latter by using a set of storage jar handles (fired clay) stamped by royal seals as part of the ancient administrative system in Judah (Jerusalem and its vicinity).” The data they found showed the magnetic field was relatively stable and declined gradually between the sixth and second centuries B.C. but a short 30-year period in the eighth century B.C. saw a spike, in which about 27 percent of the field’s strength was lost. “The field strength of the 8th century B.C. corroborates previous observations of our group, first published in 2009, of an unusually strong field in the early Iron Age. We call it the 'Iron Age Spike,' and it is the strongest field recorded in the last 100,000 years. This new finding puts the recent decline in the field's strength into context. Apparently, this is not a unique phenomenon — the field has often weakened and recovered over the last millennia,” Erez Ben-Yosef of TAU's Institute of Archaeology and the study’s lead investigator, said in a statement Tuesday. Findings of the study could help us better understand not just the enigmatic magnetic field, but also the inner structure of our planet.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 2.26M | Year: 2010
This industry-academia proposal addresses the development of technology which will enable understanding of regeneration of injured or degenerated tendons. Biomimetic fibrous composites will be designed and developed that will mimic the structure of native tendons. The project objectives are to fabricate an optimally stabilised and effectively functionalised three-dimensional collagen-resilin composite scaffold to match the properties of native tendons. Evaluation of the optimally stabilised and effectively functionalised biomimetic constructs will be conducted in vitro (cell studies, structural and mechanical properties) and in vivo (small and large animal studies). Using textile technologies, we aim to fabricate fibre extrusions that will allow future commercialisation of the three-dimensional biomimetic construct. In meeting the scientific and technological objectives of the IAPP Programme, an inter-sectorial academic industry multidisciplinary approach will be taken which maximises the potential offered by contemporary technologies This IAPP Programme will foster increased scientific dialogue between academics, industry and clinicians. One of the key benefits will be the transfer of key scientific and experimental knowledge between the institutions enabling the consortium to widen the scope of their work, beyond what is available within their own institution and merge the available technologies. This programme will provide training of both seconded and recruited staff, both in the host and parent institutions. This training will include experimental, communication and project management skills. Platform technologies developed during the lifetime of this project will result in future joint applications by partners in the consortium to the FP7 Health and FP7 NMP programmes.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Albert Einstein considered the origin of the Earth's magnetic field one of the five most important unsolved problems in physics. The weakening of the geomagnetic field, which extends from the planet's core into outer space and was first recorded 180 years ago, has raised concern by some for the welfare of the biosphere. But a new study published in PNAS from Tel Aviv University, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and University of California San Diego researchers finds there is no reason for alarm: The Earth's geomagnetic field has been undulating for thousands of years. Data obtained from the analysis of well-dated Judean jar handles provide information on changes in the strength of the geomagnetic field between the 8th and 2nd centuries BCE, indicating a fluctuating field that peaked during the 8th century BCE. "The field strength of the 8th century BCE corroborates previous observations of our group, first published in 2009, of an unusually strong field in the early Iron Age. We call it the 'Iron Age Spike,' and it is the strongest field recorded in the last 100,000 years," says Dr. Erez Ben-Yosef of TAU's Institute of Archaeology, the study's lead investigator. "This new finding puts the recent decline in the field's strength into context. Apparently, this is not a unique phenomenon -- the field has often weakened and recovered over the last millennia." Additional researchers included Prof. Oded Lipschits and Michael Millman of TAU, Dr. Ron Shaar of Hebrew University, and Prof. Lisa Tauxe of UC San Diego. "We can gain a clearer picture of the planet and its inner structure by better understanding proxies like the magnetic field, which reaches more than 1,800 miles deep into the liquid part of the Earth's outer core," Dr. Ben-Yosef observes. The new research is based on a set of 67 ancient, heat-impacted Judean ceramic storage jar handles, which bear royal stamp impressions from the 8th to 2nd century BCE, providing accurate age estimates. "The period spanned by the jars allowed us to procure data on the Earth's magnetic field during that time -- the Iron Age through the Hellenistic Period in Judea," says Dr. Ben-Yosef. "The typology of the stamp impressions, which correspond to changes in the political entities ruling this area, provides excellent age estimates for the firing of these artifacts." To accurately measure the geomagnetic intensity, the researchers conducted experiments at the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California San Diego, using laboratory-built paleomagnetic ovens and a superconducting magnetometer. "Ceramics, baked clay, burned mud bricks, copper slag -- almost anything that was heated and then cooled can become a recorder of the components of the magnetic field at the time of the event," said Dr. Ben-Yosef. "Ceramics have tiny minerals -- magnetic 'recorders' -- that save information about the magnetic field of the time the clay was in the kiln. The behavior of the magnetic field in the past can be studied by examining archaeological artifacts or geological material that were heated then cooled, such as lava." Observed changes in the geomagnetic field can, in turn, be used as an advanced dating method complementary to the radiocarbon dating, according to Dr. Ben-Yosef. "The improved Levantine archaeomagnetic record can be used to date pottery and other heat-impacted archaeological materials whose date is unknown. "Both archaeologists and Earth scientists benefit from this. The new data can improve geophysical models -- core-mantle interactions, cosmogenic processes and more -- as well as provide an excellent, accurate dating reference for archaeological artefacts," says Dr. Ben-Yosef. The researchers are currently working on enhancing the archaeomagnetic database for the Levant, one of the most archaeologically-rich regions on the planet, to better understand the geomagnetic field and establish a robust dating reference. Tel Aviv University (TAU) is inherently linked to the cultural, scientific and entrepreneurial mecca it represents. It is one of the world's most dynamic research centers and Israel's most distinguished learning environment. Its unique-in-Israel multidisciplinary environment is highly coveted by young researchers and scholars returning to Israel from post-docs and junior faculty positions in the US. American Friends of Tel Aviv University (AFTAU) enthusiastically and industriously pursues the advancement of TAU in the US, raising money, awareness and influence through international alliances that are vital to the future of this already impressive institution.
News Article | February 9, 2017
Archaeologists from Hebrew University have made an important discovery. Excavations in a cave located along the cliffs near the Dead Sea, in Israel, have revealed the possible presence of yet another Dead Sea Scroll. The scroll has not been located but evidence found by the team suggests that it was likely present in the cave, but may have been looted by Bedouins sometime during the last century. With this discovery the total tally of Dead Sea Scrolls now stands at 12 and it comes more than 60 years after the last scroll was discovered. The Scrolls were first discovered during the 1940's in the hills of Wadi Qumran in the Judean desert. Following this, 10 more such scrolls have been discovered till date. These scrolls are said to be more than 2000 years old and provide better insight into the biblical texts and are known to be the second oldest known manuscripts which have survived. Most of the text in the Dead Sea Scrolls is in Hebrew and some even have Greek writing. The discovery of these manuscripts is of historical and religious importance. It was reported by Liberty University that the scrolls are so valuable that even a fragment as small as a fingernail would be priced at around $1 million, which offers insight into its importance. The excavation was headed by Dr Oren Gutfeld and Ahiad Ovadia from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Institute of Archaeology. Liberty University in Georgia, USA also collaborated with them. Excavations into the cave revealed that it may have housed another part of the Dead Sea Scrolls but it was likely looted. The findings include the empty jars in which the scroll is believed to have been preserved along with leather binding straps, a cloth used to wrap the scroll and pieces of skin. "Although at the end of the day no scroll was found, and instead we 'only' found a piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, the findings indicate beyond any doubt that the cave contained scrolls that were stolen," said Gutfeld post the excavation. This indicates that the archaeologists consider the excavation a success even if the actual scroll was not discovered. The team discovered pickaxe remains inside the cave which indicates that the theft of the scroll was relatively recent. Israel Hasson, who is the Director General of Israel Antiquities Authority, believes that this recent excavation just goes to show that a lot of secrets are still "waiting to be discovered." He has requested more funding to conduct similar operations in other caves of the Judean desert. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
Weiss I.D.,Hadassah University Hospital |
Jacobson O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Theranostics | Year: 2013
CXCR4 was found to be expressed by many different types of human cancers and its expression has been correlated with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. CXCR4 was also shown to contribute to metastatic seeding of organs that express its ligand CXCL12 and support the survival of these cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4 is a potentially attractive therapeutic target, and several antagonists and antibodies for this receptor were developed and are under clinical evaluation. Quantifying CXCR4 expression non-invasively might aid in prognostication as a mean for personalized therapy and post treatment monitoring. Multiple attempts were done over the recent years to develop imaging agents for CXCR4 using different technologies including PET, SPECT, fluorescent and bioluminescence, and will be reviewed in this paper. © Ivyspring International Publisher.
Shaik S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Rzepa H.S.,Imperial College London |
Hoffmann R.,Cornell University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013
What could be simpler than C2, a diatomic molecule that has the second strongest homonuclear bond? This molecule turns out to be a microcosm of the bonding issues that bother chemists, as is shown in this trialogue. Join the three authors in their lively debate, light a candle, as Faraday did, and see the excited states of C2! Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Baer R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Livshits E.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Salzner U.,Bilkent University
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2010
We review density functional theory (DFT) within the Kohn-Sham (KS) and the generalized KS (GKS) frameworks from a theoretical perspective for both time-independent and time-dependent problems. We focus on the use of range-separated hybrids within a GKS approach as a practical remedy for dealing with the deleterious long-range self-repulsion plaguing many approximate implementations of DFT. This technique enables DFT to be widely relevant in new realms such as charge transfer, radical cation dimers, and Rydberg excitations. Emphasis is put on a new concept of system-specific range-parameter tuning, which introduces predictive power in applications considered until recently too difficult for DFT. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Mechoulam R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Hanus L.O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Pertwee R.,University of Aberdeen |
Howlett A.C.,Wake forest University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Isolation and structure elucidation of most of the major cannabinoid constituents-including Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), which is the principal psychoactive molecule in Cannabis sativa-was achieved in the 1960s and 1970s. It was followed by the identification of two cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s and the early 1990s and by the identification of the endocannabinoids shortly thereafter. There have since been considerable advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system and its function in the brain, which reveal potential therapeutic targets for a wide range of brain disorders. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Ziv O.,TheHebrew University Hadassah Medical School |
Glaser B.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Dor Y.,TheHebrew University Hadassah Medical School
Developmental Cell | Year: 2013
Pancreas homeostasis is based on replication of differentiated cells in order to maintain proper organ size and function under changing physiological demand. Recent studies suggest that acinar cells, the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, are facultative progenitors capable of reverting to embryonic-like multipotent progenitor cells under injury conditions associated with inflammation. In parallel, it is becoming apparent that within the endocrine pancreas, hormone-producing cells can lose or switch their identity under metabolic stress or in response to single gene mutations. This new view of pancreas dynamics suggests interesting links between pancreas regeneration and pathologies including diabetes and pancreatic cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.3-03 | Award Amount: 1.13M | Year: 2012
Since more and increasingly different species of animals are kept as companions one has to face the fact that apart from the well documented positive effects of human-animal interaction there are negative consequences as well. CALLISTO will focus on the risks of zoonotic infectious diseases associated with companion animals. To do so, we will form a multidisciplinary, multisectorial and interprofessional network of experts representing the major relevant stakeholders. In a 3 year program we will provide an overview of the current situation with regard to the role of companion animals as a source of infectious diseases for people and food animals. We will identify knowledge and technology gaps for the most important zoonoses and will propose targeted actions to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases transferred via companion animals. Furthermore, we will keep our stakeholders and the general public informed of our results in order to contribute to the uptake of the proposed actions and to promote risk-awareness in healthy human-animal relationships. To this purpose, CALLISTO will install a total of seven Expert Advisory Groups (EAG), consisting of experts in complementary fields of interest that will meet at regular intervals in order to exchange perspectives, knowledge and ideas and to produce expert documentation that serves as input from the specific EAG to the CALLISTO Conferences. The following EAGs will be installed: EAG User Community, EAG Policy Actions; EAG Zoonotic Viral Infections; EAG Zoonotic Bacterial Infections, EAG Zoonotic Parasitic Infections, EAG Epidemiology and underlying factors, and EAG Sociology and Welfare. The CALLISTO Synthesis Conferences are the center stage of the project, where experts from all EAGs come together to engage in discussions with each other and with other representatives from outside the network. Results from the Conferences will be widely disseminated.
Dead Sea Laboratories Ltd. and Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Date: 2013-03-06
The present disclosure is directed to dispersions of a Dead Sea material in oil, the Dead Sea material is present in the dispersions in the form of solid nanoparticles. Further disclosed are formulations comprising the dispersions, method of treating and/or preventing diseases or disorders of the skin comprising topical application of the dispersions or formulations thereof onto a skin of a subject, method of inducing a heat sensation on the skin of a subject by topically applying the dispersions or formulations thereof onto a skin of a subject and methods of preparing the dispersions.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of Sao Paulo and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Date: 2014-01-08
The present invention relates to fluorine substituted CBD compounds, compositions thereof and uses thereof for the preparation of medicaments.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: SSH-2009-4.2.1. | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2010
Media headlines are dominated by the prospect of regional water wars. Clearly, climate change poses several threats to human security; in particular, hydro-climatic hazards such as droughts and floods have a considerable capacity to exacerbate social tensions, intra- and inter-state conflict. Still, cooperation often trumps conflict. There are surprisingly few peer-reviewed studies rigorously addressing links between climate change, hydrological systems, conflict and security. CLICO will fill this gap in knowledge over the social dimensions of climate change, by looking whether hydro-climatic hazards intensify social tensions and conflicts in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Sahel, or if they provide a catalyst for cooperation and peace. It will examine why some countries and communities are more vulnerable to droughts, floods and related conflict, and what types of policies and institutions are necessary to ensure adaptation, security and peace in the face of global and regional hydro-climatic change. The project will mobilize 13 research teams from Europe, North Africa, Sahel and the Middle East and will bring together for the first time some of the worlds leading researchers in water resource, vulnerability, and peace and security studies. Ten cases of hydro-conflicts will be studied ranging from Niger, Sudan, the Jordan and Nile basins to Cyprus, Italy and the Sinai desert. A large dataset the first of its kind of hydro-conflicts in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Sahel will be regressed against climatic, hydrological and socio-economic variables. Policies and institutions at the national, international and transboundary levels will be investigated and their ability to face climate change and ensure human security will be assessed. Project results will be synthesised in a report that will identify potential security hotspots in the region and provide fresh policy ideas for promoting peace and security under changing hydro-climatic conditions.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.3.3 | Award Amount: 5.42M | Year: 2010
The LOTUS proposal addresses the urgent need for a technology to produce the highly conductive patterns required for high throughput large volume manufacturing of flexible large area electronics. While all printed electronics need electric wiring LOTUS specifically targets the applications the most advanced towards commercialization: flexible thin-film photovoltaics, RFIDs, and OLEDs for lighting.The general objective is to provide a simple, low cost, energy efficient, environmentally friendly and R2R compatible platform to produce highly conductive structures with high resolution. The interplay between materials researchers, technology developers and end users allows to generate solutions quickly and effectively with minimum investment and time and to achieve maximum output with minimum risk. This will also accelerate the transfer to mass production. The strategy is based on an integrated approach to address both the common needs and the specific requirements of the most representative applications.The platform developed will reinforce the leading position of the European Industry in flexible OLEDs, PVs, and RFIDs. Moreover, it will be beneficial to any flexible electronics including thin-film transistors, power converters, flexible batteries, printed sensors for biomedical use (point-of-care) and food protection/freshness applications. These devices presently at various stages of development also need an electric wiring. Thus LOTUS will contribute to wealth creation and making new technology available to address societal needs. The technologies and materials generated will enable the European Community to be competitive with Asian and North American products (there are presently no conductive inks and sintering tools manufacturers in Europe). LOTUS project will create synergies and cooperation between research groups, equipment manufacturers and end users bringing them to the position of global frontrunners in their respective technology areas.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and Hadasit Medical Research Services & Development Ltd. | Date: 2011-06-16
The compounds D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and capsaicin are useful for prevention, treatment, or both, of hepatic encephalopathy. The compounds capsaicin, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), HU-308 and cannabidiol are useful for prevention, treatment, or both, of liver cirrhosis.
Shalev-Shwartz S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem |
Zhang T.,Rutgers University
Journal of Machine Learning Research | Year: 2013
Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) has become popular for solving large scale supervised machine learning optimization problems such as SVM, due to their strong theoretical guarantees. While the closely related Dual Coordinate Ascent (DCA) method has been implemented in various software packages, it has so far lacked good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new analysis of Stochastic Dual Coordinate Ascent (SDCA) showing that this class of methods enjoy strong theoretical guarantees that are comparable or better than SGD. This analysis justifies the effectiveness of SDCA for practical applications. © 2013 Shalev-Shwartz and Zhang.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2013
The ITN WntsApp is organized to achieve 3 key aims: (i) Provide a committed training programme for young researchers to bridge the gap between basic scientific knowledge and drug development, (ii) Centring research on a key cancer-signalling pathway, WNT signalling, to stimulate synergies and (iii) Strengthening the link between international partners and private enterprises to stimulate innovation and facilitate exploitation of results. We have recruited ten full partners from academia and industry from seven EU countries, providing a highly interactive research and training programme. Fellows get exposed to a wide range of activities in the private sector, including biotechnology and drug development, but also the publishing business. WntsApp fellows also profit from the activities of the SME PCDI, who are professionals in advising and supporting young graduates researchers. The scientific focus will be on the WNT signalling pathway that mediates critical cell fate decisions and is strongly linked to cancer. The fellows will address the mechanisms that relay cellular WNT signals from the membrane to the cytosol and nucleus, at the atomic, molecular and organismal level. The underlying molecular mechanisms provide attractive drug targets, particularly in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment. We will study and interfere with WNT signalling at various levels, focusing on conceptual advances regarding receptor specificity, allosteric effects, assembly and disassembly of complexes, WNT-regulated conformational changes, regulation of protein stability, role of molecular chaperones, protein-protein interactions, consequences for stem cell maintenance, mutation-induced tumourigenesis and the generation of high affinity agonists and antagonists that modulate receptor activity. The coherent class of students working on this multidisciplinary theme will create synergisms, stimulate associated graduate schools and offer new opportunities for exploitation of results.