Hebrew University

Rehovot, Israel

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Rehovot, Israel
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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

Remote detection of buried landmines is a possible application of system to remotely detect buried landmines using a bacterial sensor and a laser-based scanning system. Credit: Hebrew University The need for safe and efficient technologies for detecting buried landmines and unexploded ordnance is a humanitarian issue of immense global proportions. About half a million people around the world are suffering from mine-inflicted injuries, and each year an additional 15 to 20 thousand more people are injured or killed by these devices. More than 100 million such devices are still buried in over 70 countries. The major technical challenge in clearing minefields is detecting the mines. The technologies used today are not much different from those used in World War II, requiring detection teams to risk life and limb by physically entering the minefields. Clearly, there is a critical need for an efficient solution for the remote detection of buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. Researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem now report a potential answer to this need. Writing in the journal Nature Biotechnology, they present a novel, functional system combining lasers and bacteria to remotely map the location of buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. The system is based on the observation that all landmines leak minute quantities of explosive vapors, which accumulate in the soil above them and serve as markers for their presence. The researchers molecularly engineered live bacteria that emit a fluorescent signal when they come into contact with these vapors. This signal can be recorded and quantified from a remote location. The bacteria were encapsulated in small polymeric beads, which were scattered across the surface of a test field in which real antipersonnel landmines were buried. Using a laser-based scanning system, the test field was remotely scanned and the location of the buried landmines was determined. This appear to be the first demonstration of a functional standoff landmine detection system. "Our field data show that engineered biosensors may be useful in a landmine detection system. For this to be possible, several challenges need to be overcome, such as enhancing the sensitivity and stability of the sensor bacteria, improving scanning speeds to cover large areas, and making the scanning apparatus more compact so it can be used on board a light unmanned aircraft or drone," said Prof. Shimshon Belkin, from the Hebrew University's Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, who was responsible for genetically engineering the bacterial sensors. Explore further: Simple test could offer cheap solution to detecting landmines


WALTHAM, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Corindus Vascular Robotics, Inc. [NYSE MKT: CVRS] announced today the latest post-market findings from the PRECISION Registry at the 2017 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) Scientific Sessions. "Efficacy and Safety Outcomes of Radial-vs Femoral-Access Robotic Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Final Results of the Multicenter PRECISION Registry” was presented on behalf of the PRECISION investigators by Ehtisham Mahmud, M.D., FSCAI of UC San Diego School of Medicine, on Friday, May 12, during the Late Breaking Clinical Trials Session. Findings show a high success rate of both radial and femoral access robotic-assisted percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). "The selection of this study as a Late Breaking Clinical Trial at SCAI 2017 is a testament to the significance robotics will have in invasive cardiology," stated Dr. Mahmud. "My early experience with the CorPath 200 System demonstrated feasibility, safety and procedural effectiveness of robotic PCI to be comparable to the manual approach, even in complex and radial access PCI. I am excited to lead the PRECISION GRX Registry to further demonstrate the applicability and value of CorPath GRX in complex and radial cases." The PRECISION Study, a multicenter post-market registry for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CorPath® 200 System, aimed to collect data on the routine use of the CorPath 200 System in PCIs. Giora Weisz, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center and at the Hebrew University, was the Principal Investigator for the PRECISION Registry. Results showed that 754 patients with an aggregate of 949 lesions were treated with robotic PCI using transradial access in 452 (59.9%) and transfemoral access in 298 (39.5%). Technical (88.6% TRA vs 82.4% TFA; p=0.0224) and clinical success rates (98.9% TRA vs 94.9% TFA; p=0.0019) for both groups were high. Corindus is now launching the PRECISION GRX Study, a post-market registry to continue market surveillance of its second generation CorPath GRX System. Dr. Mahmud has been named as the Principal Investigator for the PRECISION GRX Study. The CorPath GRX System offers improvements in procedural control, enhanced workflow and radiation protection for physicians, patients and staff. Corindus Vascular Robotics, Inc. is a global technology leader in robotic-assisted vascular interventions. The company's CorPath® System is the first FDA-cleared medical device to bring robotic precision to percutaneous coronary interventions. During the procedure, the interventional cardiologist sits at a radiation-shielded workstation to advance guide catheters, stents, and guidewires with millimeter-by-millimeter precision. The workstation allows the physician greater control and the freedom from wearing heavy lead protective equipment that causes musculoskeletal injuries. With the CorPath System, Corindus Vascular Robotics brings robotic precision to interventional procedures to help optimize clinical outcomes and minimize the costs associated with complications of improper stent placement during manual procedures. Corindus stands behind its product with its unique $1,000 hospital credit "One Stent Program." For additional information, visit www.corindus.com, and follow @CorindusInc. Statements made in this release that are not statements of historical or current facts are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Corindus to be materially different from historical results or from any future results or projections expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on any forward looking statements. In addition to statements that explicitly describe such risks and uncertainties, readers are urged to consider statements in the conditional or future tenses or that includes terms such as "believes," "belief," "expects," "estimates," "intends," "anticipates" or "plans" to be uncertain and forward-looking. Forward-looking statements may include comments as to Corindus’ beliefs and expectations as to future events and trends affecting its business and are necessarily subject to uncertainties, many of which are outside Corindus’ control. Examples of such statements are that: Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements are described in the sections titled "Risk Factors" in the company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including its most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as reports on Form 8-K, including, but not limited to the following: the rate of adoption of our CorPath System and the rate of use of our cassettes; risks associated with market acceptance, including pricing and reimbursement; our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights; our need for additional funds to support our operations; our ability to manage expenses and cash flow; factors relating to engineering, regulatory, manufacturing, sales and customer service challenges; potential safety and regulatory issues that could slow or suspend our sales; and the effect of credit, financial and economic conditions on capital spending by our potential customers. Forward looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. Corindus undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise that occur after that date. More information is available on Corindus' website at http://www.corindus.com.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Dr. Yaron Daniely to Step Down as Chief Executive Officer, Effective May 31, 2017 Dr. Daniely to Remain on Board of Directors and be Appointed Chairman TEL AVIV, Israel, May 15, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Alcobra Ltd. (Nasdaq:ADHD), an emerging pharmaceutical company focused on the development of new medications to treat significant unmet clinical needs, today announced that Dr. Yaron Daniely will be stepping down on May 31, 2017 as President and Chief Executive Officer to become the Chief Executive Officer of Yissum, the technology transfer company of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel. David Baker, currently Alcobra’s Chief Commercial Officer, will assume the position of interim CEO. Dr. Daniely will remain on the Board of Directors of Alcobra and will be actively involved in ensuring a seamless transition of duties and responsibilities.  The Company’s Board of Directors also announced that it has appointed Dr. Daniely as Chairman of the Board of Directors, effective June 1, 2017. “Dr. Daniely has been a driven and passionate leader for the company and we thank him for years of service as CEO and wish him all the best as CEO of Yissum.  We are grateful that he will continue to provide leadership as chairman of Alcobra and actively support the CEO transition,” said Howard B. Rosen, current Chairman of Alcobra. “Alcobra has significantly advanced a strategic alternatives process to review opportunities to create value for all of our shareholders.  Further, we have made substantial progress in reducing overall costs and expenses.  We look forward to updating shareholders on future developments.” “It has been an honor to lead Alcobra over the past seven years,” said Dr. Yaron Daniely. “I’m proud of what we’ve accomplished, and believe the company has made significant progress over the past few months to advance potential value creation.  I have full confidence in David and the rest of the management team and look forward to an ongoing role at the board level in shaping the future of Alcobra.” Mr. Baker said, “I am proud to succeed Dr. Daniely as Alcobra’s interim CEO. Yaron is an exceptional leader and mentor.  I look forward to working with the rest of Alcobra’s team to continue delivering on the company’s strategic objectives.” Alcobra continues its established process to explore options for creating shareholder value. The company is currently exploring strategic alternatives, which may include partnership or monetization opportunities for the company’s proprietary product candidates – MDX and/or ADAIR, as well as partnering, licensing, M&A opportunities or other transactions to further develop the company’s pipeline and drug- development capabilities for the benefit of increasing shareholder value. About David Baker Mr. Baker joined Alcobra in 2014 as Chief Commercial Officer. Prior to joining Alcobra, he worked at Shire Pharmaceuticals for 10 years, including as Vice President of Commercial Strategy and New Business in the Neuroscience Business Unit. In that role, Mr. Baker led the commercial assessment of neuroscience licensing opportunities, managed commercial efforts on pipeline CNS products, and led the long term strategic planning process. Previously, he served as Global General Manager for Shire’s Vyvanse® where he led the launch of Vyvanse and led global expansion efforts including successful establishment of a partnership in Japan and launches in Canada and Brazil. Prior to that, Mr. Baker served as Vice President of Marketing for all of Shire's ADHD products. From 1990 - 2004, Mr. Baker worked at Merck & Co., where he held positions of increasing responsibility in marketing, sales, market research, and business development. In addition to his knowledge and experience with CNS medications, Mr. Baker's expertise includes therapeutics for osteoporosis, migraine, and hyperlipidemia. He has been directly involved with the marketing of five medications with annual sales in excess of $1 billion each. Mr. Baker graduated Magna Cum Laude with a bachelor's degree in Economics and Computer Science from Duke University. He earned a Master of Business Administration in Marketing from Duke's Fuqua School of Business. About Alcobra Alcobra Ltd. is an emerging pharmaceutical company primarily focused on the development and commercialization of medications to treat significant unmet medical needs. For more information, please visit the company's website, www.alcobra-pharma.com, the content of which is not incorporated herein by reference. Forward Looking Statements This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other Federal securities laws. Because such statements deal with future events and are based on the Company’s current expectations, they are subject to various risks and uncertainties and actual results, performance or achievements of the Company could differ materially from those described in or implied by the statements in this press release. For example, forward-looking statements include statements regarding updating shareholders on future developments, creating shareholder value and exploring strategic alternatives. The forward-looking statements contained or implied in this press release are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and in subsequent filings with the SEC. Except as otherwise required by law, the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or circumstances or otherwise.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

A team of researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed an innovative new method for detecting buried land mines, and it combines two unconventional tools: lasers and fluorescent bacteria. Civilians around the world are continually impacted by live land mines left over from wartime. Detecting the land mines is difficult and removing them is obviously dangerous. And every year, between 15,000 and 20,000 people are hurt or killed by the devices. As many as 110 million buried land mines have been laid in more than 70 countries since the 1960s, according to the United Nations. Millions are still buried and unexploded. Over the past few years, a number of creative methods have emerged for detecting and detonating land mines, including Massoud Hassani’s windblown device and drone-based system called Mine Kafon. The new Hebrew University method is inspired by the fact that soils collect trace amounts of explosive vapors that leak out of land mines. Detecting the vapors helps detect the land mine. The researchers genetically engineered bacteria to give off a fluorescent signals when contacted by the explosive vapors. They then packed the bacteria into small beads and sprinkled them across the top layer of a test site that had land mines buried underneath. From a safe distance, they scanned the site with a laser and successfully detected the location of the land mines. A paper detailing the study was published last week in the journal Nature Biotechnology. “Our field data show that engineered biosensors may be useful in a land mine detection system,” said Shimshon Belkin, who was in charge of engineering the bacteria. However, he pointed out there were a few more obstacles ahead: “For this to be possible, several challenges need to be overcome, such as enhancing the sensitivity and stability of the sensor bacteria, improving scanning speeds to cover large areas, and making the scanning apparatus more compact so it can be used on board a light unmanned aircraft or drone.”


News Article | April 6, 2017
Site: www.medicalnewstoday.com

Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered a new mechanism through which our genes express the oxygen-carrying molecule hemoglobin. The discovery shows that even at the cellular level, stress and the ability to mount a stress response are essential to our survival. Our ability to breathe oxygen is critical to our survival. This process is mediated by the hemoglobin in our blood, which carries oxygen. Since air contains less oxygen on high mountains, the body is under pressure to make hemoglobin rapidly a stressful time. But what role does cellular stress play in the production of hemoglobin? In a paper in the high-impact journal Cell Research, researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem report the discovery of an entirely new mechanism through which globin genes are expressed. Discovery of this hitherto unknown property of the hemoglobin genes shows that stress is absolutely needed to allow for the production of hemoglobin. To produce a globin protein molecule, the DNA of the globin gene is first transcribed into a long RNA molecule from which internal segments must be excised, or spliced out, to generate the RNA template for protein synthesis in the red cell. Now, a team of molecular biologists led by Prof. Raymond Kaempfer in the Hebrew University's Faculty of Medicine reports that for each of the adult and fetal globin genes, the splicing of its RNA is strictly controlled by an intracellular stress signal. The signal, which has been known for a long time, involves an enzyme present in every cell of the body, called PKR, which remains silent unless it is activated by a specific RNA structure thought to occur only in RNA made by viruses. What Kaempfer and collaborators have discovered is that the long RNAs transcribed from the globin genes each contain a short intrinsic RNA element that is capable of strongly activating PKR. Unless the PKR enzyme is activated in this manner, the long RNA cannot be spliced to form the mature RNA template for globin protein synthesis. "Surprisingly, we have revealed an entirely new mechanism through which hemoglobin gene expression is regulated by stress. An intracellular signal, essential for coping with stress, is absolutely necessary to allow for hemoglobin production. That stress signal is activated by the hemoglobin gene itself. Although we have long known that this signal strongly inhibits protein synthesis in general, during hemoglobin gene expression it first plays its indispensable, positive role before being turned off promptly to allow for massive hemoglobin formation needed for breathing," said Prof. Raymond Kaempfer, the Dr. Philip M. Marcus Professor of Molecular Biology and Cancer Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Once activated, PKR will place a phosphate (a process known as phosphorylation) onto a key initiation factor needed for the synthesis of all proteins, called eIF2-alpha. That in turn leads to inactivation of eIF2-alpha, resulting in a block in protein synthesis. This process is essential for coping with stress. Most unexpectedly, they discovered that once activated, PKR must phosphorylate eIF2-alpha, and that phosphorylated eIF2-alpha is essential to form the machinery needed to splice globin RNA. In the splicing process, removal of an internal RNA segment causes the mature RNA product to refold such that it no longer will activate PKR, now allowing for unimpeded synthesis on this RNA of the essential globin protein chains at maximal rates, allowing for effective oxygen breathing. In other words, the ability to activate PKR remains transient, serving solely to enable splicing. Thus, the team has demonstrated a novel, positive role for PKR activation and eIF2-alpha phosphorylation in human globin RNA splicing, in contrast to the long-standing negative role of this intracellular stress response in protein synthesis. The realization that stress is not only important but also essential may have important implications for how we understand hemoglobin expression. "What this boils down to is that even at the cellular level, stress and the ability to mount a stress response are essential to our survival. We have long known this in relation to other biological processes, and now we see that it is at play even for the tiny molecules that carry oxygen in our blood," said Prof. Kaempfer.


Acentria's fritillary (Melitaea acentria), a new butterfly species discovered in Israel on the slopes of the popular Mount Hermon ski resort. Credit: Dr Vladimir Lukhtanov Vladimir Lukhtanov, entomologist and evolutionary biologist at the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, made a startling discovery: what people had thought was a population of a common species, turned out to be a whole new organism and, moreover - one with an interesting evolutionary history. This new species is named Acentria's fritillary (Melitaea acentria) and was found flying right over the slopes of the popular Mount Hermon ski resort in northern Israel. It is described in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics. "To me, it was a surprise that no one had already discovered it," says Vladimir Lukhtanov. "Thousands of people had observed and many had even photographed this beautifully coloured butterfly, yet no one recognised it as a separate species. The lepidopterists (experts in butterflies and moths) had been sure that the Hermon samples belonged to the common species called Persian fritillary (Melitaea persea), because of their similar appearance, but nobody made the effort to study their internal anatomy and DNA". In 2012, Vladimir Lukhtanov, together with his students, initiated an exhaustive study of Israeli butterflies using an array of modern and traditional research techniques. In 2013, Asya Novikova (until 2012, a master's student at St. Petersburg University and, from 2013, a PhD student at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) sampled a few fritillaries from Mt. Hermon. It was at that time when the researchers noticed that the specimens "didn't look right" - their genitalia appeared different from those of the typical Persian fritillary. Over the next few years, Lukhtanov and his students studied this population in-depth. They carried out sequencing DNA from the specimens and found that they had a unique molecular signature - very different from the DNA of any other fritillary. The Acentria's fritillary seems to be endemic in northern Israel and the neighbouring territories of Syria and Lebanon. Its evolutionary history is likely to prove interesting. "The species is probably one of a handful of butterflies known to have arisen through hybridisation between two other species in the past," says Lukhtanov. "This process is known to be common in plants, but scientists have only recently realised it might also be present in butterflies." This is the first new butterfly species discovered and described from the territory of Israel in 109 years. More information: Vladimir A. Lukhtanov, A new species of Melitaea from Israel, with notes on taxonomy, cytogenetics, phylogeography and interspecific hybridization in the Melitaea persea complex (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae), Comparative Cytogenetics (2017). DOI: 10.3897/CompCytogen.v11i2.12370


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Vladimir Lukhtanov, entomologist and evolutionary biologist at the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, made a startling discovery: what people had thought was a population of a common species, turned out to be a whole new organism and, moreover - one with an interesting evolutionary history. This new species is named Acentria's fritillary (Melitaea acentria) and was found flying right over the slopes of the popular Mount Hermon ski resort in northern Israel. It is described in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics. "To me, it was a surprise that no one had already discovered it," says Vladimir Lukhtanov. "Thousands of people had observed and many had even photographed this beautifully coloured butterfly, yet no one recognised it as a separate species. The lepidopterists (experts in butterflies and moths) had been sure that the Hermon samples belonged to the common species called Persian fritillary (Melitaea persea), because of their similar appearance, but nobody made the effort to study their internal anatomy and DNA". In 2012, Vladimir Lukhtanov, together with his students, initiated an exhaustive study of Israeli butterflies using an array of modern and traditional research techniques. In 2013, Asya Novikova (until 2012, a master's student at St. Petersburg University and, from 2013, a PhD student at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) sampled a few fritillaries from Mt. Hermon. It was at that time when the researchers noticed that the specimens "didn't look right" - their genitalia appeared different from those of the typical Persian fritillary. Over the next few years, Lukhtanov and his students studied this population in-depth. They carried out sequencing DNA from the specimens and found that they had a unique molecular signature - very different from the DNA of any other fritillary. The Acentria's fritillary seems to be endemic in northern Israel and the neighbouring territories of Syria and Lebanon. Its evolutionary history is likely to prove interesting. "The species is probably one of a handful of butterflies known to have arisen through hybridisation between two other species in the past," says Lukhtanov. "This process is known to be common in plants, but scientists have only recently realised it might also be present in butterflies." This is the first new butterfly species discovered and described from the territory of Israel in 109 years. Lukhtanov VA (2017) A new species of Melitaea from Israel, with notes on taxonomy, cytogenetics, phylogeography and interspecific hybridization in the Melitaea persea complex (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Comparative Cytogenetics 11(2): 325-357. https:/


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Vladimir Lukhtanov, entomologist and evolutionary biologist at the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, made a startling discovery: what people had thought was a population of a common species, turned out to be a whole new organism and, moreover - one with an interesting evolutionary history. This new species is named Acentria's fritillary (Melitaea acentria) and was found flying right over the slopes of the popular Mount Hermon ski resort in northern Israel. It is described in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics. "To me, it was a surprise that no one had already discovered it," said Vladimir Lukhtanov. "Thousands of people had observed and many had even photographed this beautifully coloured butterfly, yet no one recognised it as a separate species. The lepidopterists (experts in butterflies and moths) had been sure that the Hermon samples belonged to the common species called Persian fritillary (Melitaea persea), because of their similar appearance, but nobody made the effort to study their internal anatomy and DNA". In 2012, Vladimir Lukhtanov, together with his students, initiated an exhaustive study of Israeli butterflies using an array of modern and traditional research techniques. In 2013, Asya Novikova (until 2012, a master's student at St. Petersburg University and, from 2013, a Ph.D. student at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem) sampled a few fritillaries from Mt. Hermon. It was at that time when the researchers noticed that the specimens "didn't look right" - their genitalia appeared different from those of the typical Persian fritillary. Over the next few years, Lukhtanov and his students studied this population in-depth. They carried out sequencing DNA from the specimens and found that they had a unique molecular signature - very different from the DNA of any other fritillary. The Acentria's fritillary seems to be endemic in northern Israel and the neighbouring territories of Syria and Lebanon. Its evolutionary history is likely to prove interesting. "The species is probably one of a handful of butterflies known to have arisen through hybridisation between two other species in the past," said Lukhtanov. "This process is known to be common in plants, but scientists have only recently realised it might also be present in butterflies." This is the first new butterfly species discovered and described from the territory of Israel in 109 years.


Gerson U.,Hebrew University | Weintraub P.G.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2012

This review discusses the economically important pest mites (Acari) of greenhouses, aspects of their biology, and the acarine predators that attack them as well as various insect pests. Greenhouse factors affect pest mites as well as their natural enemy populations and their interactions. Conversely, pest mites affect greenhouse management in terms of the chemical and biological methods required to control their populations. Structure affects heating, cooling, and light, which can be manipulated with suitable screens. Crops often select for pests and their mite enemies. Both groups may be affected in greenhouses by adding pollen and by a CO2-enriched atmosphere. These factors impact pest mite populations, the damage they cause, and the methods used to control them. The possibility of incipient evolution occurring in greenhouses, along with the benefits and consequences for pest control, is discussed. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Baneth G.,Hebrew University
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2014

A wide variety of pathogens is transmitted from ticks to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths, of which most have a life cycle that requires passage through the vertebrate host. Tick-borne infections of humans, farm and companion animals are essentially associated with wildlife animal reservoirs. While some flying insect-borne diseases of humans such as malaria, filariasis and Kala Azar caused by Leishmania donovani target people as their main host, major tick-borne infections of humans, although potentially causing disease in large numbers of individuals, are typically an infringement of a circulation between wildlife animal reservoirs and tick vectors. While new tick-borne infectious agents are frequently recognised, emerging agents of human tick-borne infections were probably circulating among wildlife animal and tick populations long before being recognised as clinical causes of human disease as has been shown for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Co-infection with more than one tick-borne infection is common and can enhance pathogenic processes and augment disease severity as found in B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infection. The role of wild animal reservoirs in co-infection of human hosts appears to be central, further linking human and animal tick-borne infections. Although transmission of most tick-borne infections is through the tick saliva, additional routes of transmission, shown mostly in animals, include infection by oral uptake of infected ticks, by carnivorism, animal bites and transplacentally. Additionally, artificial infection via blood transfusion is a growing threat in both human and veterinary medicine. Due to the close association between human and animal tick-borne infections, control programs for these diseases require integration of data from veterinary and human reporting systems, surveillance in wildlife and tick populations, and combined teams of experts from several scientific disciplines such as entomology, epidemiology, medicine, public health and veterinary medicine. © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.

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