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Zhao P.S.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | Dong F.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | He D.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | Zhao X.J.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

In order to study the temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in the region of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH), PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Shijiazhuang (SJZ), and Chengde (CD), and also one site at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The samples were weighted for mass concentrations and analyzed in the laboratory for chemical profiles of 19 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), eight water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg 2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3 -, and SO4 2-), and carbon fractions (OC and EC). The concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were season dependent and showed spatially similar characteristics in the plain area of BTH. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 were 71.8-191.2 μg m-3 at the five sites, with more than 90% of sampling days exceeding 50μgm-3 at BJ, TJ, and SJZ. PM2.5 pollution was most serious at SJZ, and the annual concentrations of PM2.5, secondary inorganic ions, OC, EC, and most crustal elements were all highest. Due to stronger photochemical oxidation, the sum of concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (NH4 +, NO3 -, and SO4 2-) was highest in the summer at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and CD. Analysis of electric charges of water-soluble inorganic ions indicated the existence of nitric acid or hydrochloric acid in PM2.5. For all five sites, the concentrations of OC, EC and also secondary organic carbon (SOC) in the spring and summer were lower than those in the autumn and winter. SOC had more percentages of increase than primary organic carbon (POC) during the winter. The sums of crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ba, and Sr) were higher in the spring and autumn owing to more days with blowing or floating dust. The concentrations of heavy metals were at higher levels in the BTH area by comparison with other studies. In Shijiazhuang and Chengde, the PM2.5 pollution was dominated by coal combustion. Motor vehicle exhausts and cos a al combustion emissions both played important roles in Tianjin PM2.5 pollution. However, motor vehicle exhausts had played a more important role in Beijing owing to the reduction of coal consumption and sharp increase of cars in recent years. At SDZ, regional transportation of air pollutants from southern urban areas was significant. © Author(s) 2013.


Zhao P.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | Dong F.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | Yang Y.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | He D.,Institute of Urban Meteorology | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

More than 400 PM2.5 samples were collected at four urban sites in Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Shijiazhuang (SJZ), and Chengde (CD), and also one site in Shangdianzi (SDZ), which was used as a regional background station, over four seasons from 2009 to 2010. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in each sample were analyzed. The average annual concentrations were 71.8-191.2 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 10.8-26.4 μg m-3 for OC, and 3.9-9.7 μg m-3 for EC at the five sites. OC and EC concentrations were lower in the spring and summer and much higher in the autumn and winter, mainly due to aerosol emissions from additional fuel combustion for heating. OC/EC ratios were lowest in the summer and highest in the winter at SDZ, BJ, TJ, and SJZ. These seasonal trends indicate that the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol pollution were spatially similar and season-dependent in the plain area of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH). An EC tracer method was used to calculate the concentrations for secondary organic carbon (SOC); SOC concentrations were also higher in the autumn and winter and lowest during the summer at all five sites. A stable atmosphere and low temperatures, which were more frequent during the winter and autumn, facilitated the accumulation of air pollutants and accelerated the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds in the BTH area. Over the past ten years (1999-2009), Beijing had observed a decrease in the EC concentrations during every season and a remarkable reduction in aerosol emissions from coal combustion for heating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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