Zhang W.,China Agricultural University |
Cao G.,China Agricultural University |
Li X.,China Agricultural University |
Zhang H.,China Agricultural University |
And 10 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2016
Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform. STB involves agricultural scientists living in villages among farmers, advancing participatory innovation and technology transfer, and garnering public and private support. We identified multifaceted yield-limiting factors involving agronomic, infrastructural, and socioeconomic conditions. When these limitations and farmers' concerns were addressed, the farmers adopted recommended management practices, thereby improving production outcomes. In one region in China, the five-year average yield increased from 67.9% of the attainable level to 97.0% among 71 leading farmers, and from 62.8% to 79.6% countywide (93,074 households); this was accompanied by resource and economic benefits. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
Zhang J.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Liang S.,Tsinghua University |
Duan J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Wang J.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012
Background: The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, little about the molecular biology of the peanut is currently known. Recently, next-generation sequencing technology, termed RNA-seq, has provided a powerful approach for analysing the transcriptome, and for shedding light on the molecular biology of peanut.Results: In this study, we employed RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptomes of the immature seeds of three different peanut varieties with different oil contents. A total of 26.1-27.2 million paired-end reads with lengths of 100 bp were generated from the three varieties and 59,077 unigenes were assembled with N50 of 823 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 40,100 genes were identified. Among these unigenes, only 8,252 unigenes were annotated with 42 gene ontology (GO) functional categories. And 18,028 unigenes mapped to 125 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG). In addition, 3,919 microsatellite markers were developed in the unigene library, and 160 PCR primers of SSR loci were used for validation of the amplification and the polymorphism.Conclusion: We completed a successful global analysis of the peanut transcriptome using RNA-seq, a large number of unigenes were assembled, and almost four thousand SSR primers were developed. These data will facilitate gene discovery and functional genomic studies of the peanut plant. In addition, this study provides insight into the complex transcriptome of the peanut and established a biotechnological platform for future research. © 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Chen F.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry |
Ying G.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry |
Kong L.-X.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science |
Wang L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry |
And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011
This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang Y.-M.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Liu Z.-H.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Wen Z.-Y.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Zhang H.-M.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
And 2 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2012
TaNHX2, a vacuolar Na +H + antiport gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to evaluate the role of vacuolar energy providers in plant salt stress responses. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the target gene was integrated into the Medicago genome. Reverse transcriptionPCR indicated that gene TaNHX2 was expressed at the transcriptional level. The relative electrical conductivity in the T2 transgenic plants was lower and the osmotic potential was higher compared to the wild-type plants under salt stress conditions. The tonoplast H +-ATPase, H+-pyrophosphatase (PPase) hydrolysis activities and ATP-dependent proton pump activities in transgenic plants were all higher than those of wild-type plants, and the enzyme activities could be induced by salt stress. The PPi-dependent proton pump activities decreased when NaCl concentrations increased from 100mM to 200mM, especially in transgenic plants. The vacuolar Na+H+ antiport activities of transgenic plants were 23 times higher than those of the wild-type plants under 0mM and 100mM NaCl stress. Na +H + antiport activity was not detectable for wild-type plants under 200mM NaCl, but for transgenic plants, it was further increased with an increment in salt stress intensity. These results demonstrated that expression of the foreign TaNHX2 gene enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. © 2012 CSIRO.
Li B.H.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Weed Science | Year: 2010
Research was conducted to establish a method to investigate the resistance level of flixweed to tribenuron-methyl and the evolved biochemical resistance mechanism. Four resistant biotypes were collected from wheat fields in Mazhuangcun, Jiacun, Dishangcun, and Bafangcun in the Hebei province of China where tribenuron-methyl had been continuously used for more than 10 yr. Two susceptible biotypes were collected from wheat fields where tribenuron-methyl was never applied. Different biotypes were assessed by petri-dish bioassay, whole-plant bioassay, and acetolactate synthase (ALS) assay. Comparisons of data indicated a similarity between methods and that experiments demonstrated that petri-dish bioassay was a feasible method to identify flixweed resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Data indicated differences among the flixweed biotypes when assessed by the petri-dish bioassay, whole-plant bioassay, or ALS enzyme assay, and a close association was obtained for the three bioassay methods. ALS resistance varied by biotypes with Mazhuangcun>Jiacun>Dishangcun> Bafangcun. Target-site enzyme assay data indicated that the resistant biotype's enhanced ALS activity was the biochemical mechanism that induced flixweed's evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl. The concentrations of tribenuron-methyl causing 50 inhibition of ALS activity of the four resistant biotypes were 1,359, 513, 184, and 164 nM; in the susceptible biotypes these concentrations were 64 and 65 nM. Resistance indexes were 21, 8, 3, and 3 for Mazhuangcun, Jiacun, Dishangcun, and Bafangcun biotypes, respectively. © 2010 Weed Science Society of America.
Cheng Y.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Guan J.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014
It was recently proposed that pheophytinase (PPH) is a key protein that mediates chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown in leaves. To study the role and regulation of PPH on Chl breakdown of peel in harvested 'Yali' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. 'Yali') fruit, the partial sequence of PbPPH was obtained from the NCBI database, and the alignment results revealed that the amino acid sequence of PbPPH shared great similarity to PPHs of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating that these proteins have similar functions. Ethephon treatment significantly increased ethylene production of pear fruit and accelerated the proceeding of Chl breakdown. Conversely, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment decreased ethylene production and delayed Chl breakdown. PbPPH expression was closely related to the process of Chl breakdown and was correlated with the expression of Chl degradation-associated genes such as pheide a oxygenase and stay-green 1. The chlorophyllase 1 expression level was well maintained by 1-MCP treatment, whereas red Chl catabolite reductase expression was inhibited by 1-MCP. Further analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of four ethylene receptors were stimulated by ethephon and suppressed by 1-MCP treatment and that these changes were strongly correlated with Chl breakdown and similar to the expression pattern of PbPPH. These results suggest that PPH is one of the enzymes responsible for the ethylene-mediated Chl degradation pathway of peel in harvested 'Yali' pear. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Gao F.,Hebei Normal University |
Gao F.,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science |
Gao F.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Han X.,Hebei Normal University |
And 6 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012
An increased concentration of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca2+) is an early response by plant cells to heat shock. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the heat-induced initial Ca2+ response in plants is unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized a heat-activated Ca 2+-permeable channel in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana root protoplasts using reverse genetic analysis and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results indicated that A. thaliana cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel 6 (CNGC6) mediates heat-induced Ca2+ influx and facilitates expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes and the acquisition of thermotolerance. GUS and GFP reporter assays showed that CNGC6 expression is ubiquitous in A. thaliana, and the protein is localized to the plasma membrane of cells. Furthermore, it was found that the level of cytosolic cAMP was increased by a mild heat shock, that CNGC6 was activated by cytosolic cAMP, and that exogenous cAMP promoted the expression of HSP genes. The results reveal the role of cAMP in transduction of heat shock signals in plants. The correlation of an increased level of cytosolic cAMP in a heat-shocked plant with activation of the Ca2+ channels and downstream expression of HSP genes sheds some light on how plants transduce a heat stimulus into a signal cascade that leads to a heat shock response. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zheng S.-Z.,Hebei Normal University |
Liu Y.-L.,Hebei Normal University |
Li B.,Hebei Normal University |
Shang Z.-L.,Hebei Normal University |
And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012
Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) increases rapidly after heat shock (HS) in the Ca2+/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) HS signal transduction pathway: a hypothesis proposed based on our previous findings. However, evidence for the increase in Ca2+ after HS was obtained only through physiological and pharmacological experiments; thus, direct molecular genetic evidence is needed. The role of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is poorly understood in the plant response to HS. In this work, atplc9 mutant plants displayed a serious thermosensitive phenotype compared with wild-type (WT) plants after HS. Complementation of atplc9 with AtPLC9 rescued both the basal and acquired thermotolerance phenotype of the WT plants. In addition, thermotolerance was even improved in overexpressed lines. The GUS staining of AtPLC9 promoter:GUS transgenic seedlings showed that AtPLC9 expression was ubiquitous. The fluorescence distribution of the fusion protein AtPLC9 promoter:AtPLC9:GFP revealed that the subcellular localization of AtPLC9 was restricted to the plasma membrane. The results of a PLC activity assay showed a reduction in the accumulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3) in atplc9 during HS and improved IP3 generation in the overexpressed lines. Furthermore, the heat-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ was decreased in atplc9. Accumulation of the small HS proteins HSP18.2 and HSP25.3 was downregulated in atplc9 and upregulated in the overexpressed lines after HS. Together, these results provide molecular genetic evidence showing that AtPLC9 plays a role in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hebei Academy Of Agriculture And Forestry Science | Date: 2012-09-14
The present invention is a method of shoot apical meristem transformation for monocot plant via sufficient and micro wounding (SMW). The technical process includes: expose the apical meristem by removing the coleoptile away when the shoot grows to 0.2-2 cm after 1-2 days of seed germination; make sufficient and micro wounding transformation to the apical meristem by stabbing and brushing for 2-3 times using the SMW brush having 100-5000 bristles which is 4-20 m in diameter for each one and 0.5-3 mm in exposed length, and dipped with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing binary vector harboring exogenous genes; develop the treated meristems directly to normal plants after co-cultivation; promote the plants to develop big spikes and set more seeds; harvest the seeds of T_(0 )plants separately; detect and identify the transformation results in T_(1 )generation which is bred from each individual T_(0 )plant. The advantages of the invention are independent of tissue culture, unlimited in genotype, unnecessary to carry resistant marker, simple and large scale to perform, and applicable to all monocot plants which can set seeds. The transformation efficiencies for wheat, rice and maize using this method are 49%, 66.3%, and 100%, respectively.
Hebei Academy Of Agriculture And Forestry Science | Date: 2014-11-20
The disclosure relates to a glutinous millet nutrition milk taking glutinous millet as raw material, and preparation process thereof, and particularly relates to a glutinous millet nutrition milk or compound glutinous millet nutrition milk taking the rust-proofing and glutinous foxtail millet variety of Ji Chuang 1 glutinous millet as raw material and preparation process thereof. The glutinous millet nutrition milk or compound glutinous millet nutrition milk prepared by the method has the characteristics that the emulsion is stable, it will neither become aged nor coagulate or precipitate after long-term storage, and it does not need to add any anticoagulant stabilizer, which is more environmental friendly and healthy; its products utilize the rich nutrition of the millet, digests and absorbs easily, and tastes delicately.