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Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Y.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Miao X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xia X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message: After cloning and mapping of wheat TaSdr genes, both the functional markers for TaSdr - B1 and TaVp - 1B were validated, and the distribution of allelic variations at TaSdr - B1 locus in the wheat cultivars from 19 countries was characterized. Seed dormancy is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat TaSdr genes, orthologs of OsSdr4 conferring seed dormancy in rice, were cloned by a comparative genomics approach. They were located on homoeologous group 2 chromosomes, and designated as TaSdr-A1, TaSdr-B1 and TaSdr-D1, respectively. Sequence analysis of TaSdr-B1 revealed a SNP at the position -11 upstream of the initiation codon, with bases A and G in cultivars with low and high germination indices (GI), respectively. A cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence marker Sdr2B was developed based on the SNP, and subsequently functional analysis of TaSdr-B1 was conducted by association and linkage mapping. A QTL for GI co-segregating with Sdr2B explained 6.4, 7.8 and 8.7 % of the phenotypic variances in a RIL population derived from Yangxiaomai/Zhongyou 9507 grown in Shijiazhuang, Beijing and the averaged data from those environments, respectively. Two sets of Chinese wheat cultivars were used for association mapping, and results indicated that TaSdr-B1 was significantly associated with GI. Analysis of the allelic distribution at the TaSdr-B1 locus showed that the frequencies of TaSdr-B1a associated with a lower GI were high in cultivars from Japan, Australia, Argentina, and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Valley Winter Wheat Region and Southwest Winter Wheat Region in China. This study provides not only a reliable functional marker for molecular-assisted selection of PHS in wheat breeding programs, but also gives novel information for a comprehensive understanding of seed dormancy. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Guan J.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Dou S.,Agricultural University of Hebei
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

The plum fruits (cv. Fraiar) were packaged with polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC) film and then stored at 0°C for 60 days, the results showed that modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) delayed the fruit softening, suppressed the increase of the soluble solids and anthocyanin contents and browning degree, decreased the activity of polyphenolic oxidase (PPO) and content of phenolic substances and suppressed the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and production of superoxide radical (O2-), but had less effect on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Thus, it suggested that the MAP inhibiting plum fruits from softening and browning, closely correlated with the regulation on phenolics metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation.

Zhang Q.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Zhang Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li J.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Zhao Y.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2012

China, one of the primary centers of genetic diversity for the genus Malus, is very rich in wild apple germplasm. In this study, genetic diversity in 29 Malus accessions, including 12 accessions from 7 Chinese Malus species, 4 Chinese landraces, and 13 introduced apple cultivars, was assessed using a set of 19 single-locus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across all 17 linkage groups of the apple genome. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 5.3 per SSR marker. In some accessions, 16 unique alleles were identified. Ten out of these 16 unique alleles (62.5%) were detected exclusively in wild species, indicating that these Chinese wild apple species have considerable genetic diversity and can be used in breeding programs to increase the genetic diversity of apple cultivars. Using 19 SSRs, an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis was conducted, and the resulting dendrogram revealed that all cultivars, except for Ef{cyrillic}peMeBckoe, were clustered together in the same group. The Russian cultivar Ef{cyrillic}peMeBckoe was closely related to the Chinese crabapple Baihaitang (M. prunifolia), with a high similarity coefficient value of 0.94. Of the two M. sieversii accessions used, one accession showed a close relationship to apple cultivars, while the other accession was closely related to wild apple species, suggesting the presence of a wider genetic diversity in Chinese M. sieversii species. The influence of SSR marker selection on genetic diversity analysis in this Malus collection was also discussed. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Jin H.-J.,RMIT University | Xie X.-L.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Ye J.-M.,RMIT University | Li C.-G.,RMIT University | Li C.-G.,University of Western Sydney
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is an important target of cardioprotective signalling. Tanshinones, a group of major bioactive compounds isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, have been reported with actions against inflammation, oxidative stress, and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the actions of these compounds on the chronic hypoxia-related mitochondrial apoptosis pathway have not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects and molecular mechanisms of two major tanshonones, tanshinone IIA (TIIA) and cryptotanshinone (CT) on hypoxia induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Cultured H9c2 cells were treated with TIIA and CT (0.3 and 3 μΜ) 2 hr before and during an 8 hr hypoxic period. Chronic hypoxia caused a significant increase in hypoxia inducible factor 1α expression and the cell late apoptosis rate, which was accompanied with an increase in caspase 3 activity, cytochrome c release, mitochondria membrane potential and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bax and Bak). TIIA and CT (0.3 and 3 μΜ), in concentrations without affecting the cell viability, significantly inhibited the late apoptosis and the changes of caspase 3 activity, cytochrome c release, and mitochondria membrane potential induced by chronic hypoxia. These compounds also suppressed the overexpression of Bax and reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. The results indicate that TIIA and CT protect against chronic hypoxia induced cell apoptosis by regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway, involving inhibitions of mitochondria hyperpolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activity, and balancing anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins in Bcl-2 family proteins. © 2013 Jin et al.

Li S.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Jin X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Chen J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Pest Management Science | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Pythium ultimum is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, venom piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from red imported fire ants were tested against P. ultimum in vitro, and piperideines were employed to control cucumber damping-off in the greenhouse as drench treatments. Results Piperidine and piperideine alkaloids of the red imported fire ant significantly inhibited mycelium growth of P. ultimum. Piperidine alkaloids were stable at both room and elevated temperatures. The inhibitory activity positively correlated with the concentrations of piperidine alkaloids in the medium, and the EC50 = 17.0 μg ml-1. Germination of sporangia of P. ultimum was negatively correlated with the concentrations of piperidine alkaloids in the medium, and the EC50 = 12.3 μg ml-1. The piperideine alkaloid drenching treatment significantly improved seedling emergence and seedling height of cucumber. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing the use of venom alkaloids from the red imported fire ant to inhibit P. ultimum in the laboratory and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control damping-off disease caused by P. ultimum in the greenhouse. These findings may lead to the development of a new group of fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

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