Liu Y.,University of Manchester |
Zhou X.,University of Manchester |
Carr J.,University of Manchester |
Butler C.,Innoval Technology |
And 10 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013
Semiconductive composites have been examined using advanced scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the first time, voltage contrast and energy contrast between the conductive filler and the polymer matrix have been revealed using a secondary electron detector placed inside the lens system and an energy selective backscattering detector respectively. Critical parameters, including loading level, distribution, dimension and shape of conductive fillers, correlating to the electrical conductivities of the composites, have been investigated and quantitatively determined. These parameters are essential for performance predictions, product quality control and new product development. The volume fractions of the conductive fillers in the two investigated composites were determined as 20.9% and 14.2% respectively. Higher frequency of distribution distance between the conductive filler aggregates within the ranges of 20-100 nm was revealed for the composite with volume fraction of 20.9%. The aggregates of conductive fillers showed mainly branched shapes. The information obtained provides further insight into the conductivity mechanism of conductive filler loaded polymer composite. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malone N.,Heat Trace Ltd
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2011
The heat tracing industry has developed new third generation heat tracers, which combine the features of both first generation mineral insulated (M.I.) cables with second generation parallel self regulating and constant power heat tracers. Heat Trace Limited has developed and patented a parallel resistance M.I. heating cable with a constant power output per unit length. Such device can withstand 425 °C, well beyond the limits of polymers and usually within the requirements of the application. The cable's flat section maximizes heat transfer, lowers operating sheath temperature and optimizes power capability. A new metal sheathed, cut to length, mineral insulated, self regulating heater has been introduced with a temperature capability of 300 °C whether energized or not, thus exceeding the limits of known polymers. Heat Trace Limited has introduced a three phase self regulating heating cable that increases the potential circuit length to three times the limit of a single phase heater.
Maioria N.,Heat Trace Ltd
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2010
Neil Malone, Heat Trace Limited, UK, outlines how to optimize the design of a heat tracing system. The first consideration of creating a safe heat tracing installation is to ensure temperature safety. This is achieved preferably with the use of inherently temperature safe heating cables. Now inherently temperature safe heaters are available for almost and duties. Safety is also provided, as with all electrical circuits, by protective devices protecting against over current and earth leakage. These should be rated as closely as possible to the operating current of the heating circuit. Heat Trace Limited recognized the extent of this inefficiency in the 1980s, and patented the principle of PowerMatching. This recognizes that the required heating load at any particular moment is directly proportional to the ambient temperature. Clearly an electric heat tracing system should, after satisfying the considerations described previously, aim to have the least capital cost.
HEAT TRACE Ltd | Date: 2014-05-21
An electrical heater comprising; a first conductor, a second conductor, and a fluoropolymer heating element disposed between the first conductor and the second conductor, and a temperature regulation element disposed between the fluoropolymer heating element and the second conductor, wherein the fluoropolymer heating element comprises an electrically conductive material distributed within a fluoropolymer, and wherein the electrical heater comprises a stack, the first conductor, the second conductor, the fluoropolymer heating element, and the temperature regulation element comprising layers of the stack.
HEAT TRACE Ltd | Date: 2014-05-21
An electrical heater comprising; a first conductor, a second conductor, and a heating element disposed between the first conductor and the second conductor, wherein the heating element comprises an electrically conductive material distributed within a first electrically insulating material, wherein the first electrically insulating material is an ethylene acetate or ethylene acrylate copolymer, and wherein the electrical heater comprises a stack, the first conductor, the second conductor and the heating element comprising layers of the stack.
Heat Trace Ltd | Date: 2011-03-18
According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a self-regulating electrical heating cable comprising: a first power supply conductor extending along the length of the cable; a second power supply conductor extending along the length of the cable; a third power supply conductor extending along the length of the cable; the first and second power supply conductors being in electrical connection with each other via a first electrically conductive heating element body having a positive temperature coefficient of resistance, and the second and third power supply conductors being in electrical connection with each other via a second electrically conductive heating element body having a positive temperature coefficient of resistance, and wherein, in use, the first, second and third power supply conductors are not physically connected to one another.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Development of Prototype | Award Amount: 250.00K | Year: 2014
Heat Trace is the technical world leader in the manufacture of self-regulating heating cables, used primarily for heating pipes within the oil/gas market sector. The heating cables comprise two stranded circular copper conductors embedded within a semi-conductive polymeric heating material For this project, the intention is the use of Heat Trace’s base technology to develop prototypes of novel, laminar heating mats, which can be used into targeted markets, thus introducing selfregulating technology for the first time into those markets. The objectives are to develop laminar heating mats providing significant technical benefits, whilst having a lower manufacturing cost than the current state of the art products The major innovative benefit of self-regulating heating technology is that the heater is incapable of overheating or burning out – as its temperature increases, so the heat generated reduces, to a point where the heat output is zero whilst remaining within the maximum withstand temperature of the heater’s constructional materials. Conversely, as the temperature reduces, so the heater produces an increasingly higher power heating load. Such heaters are inherently temperature-safe, and do not require thermostatic control. The major challenge is product cost – the main markets to be addressed involve high volume commodity pricing, where conventional heating cable pricing will be too high. Up to 80% of the cost is in the two copper power conductors. This has been addressed by substituting the expensive copper round wires with flat aluminium foils, thereby reducing the heating element cost by 70%, resulting in very competitive products
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 402.26K | Year: 2012
This project will develop, for snow melting and ice prevention of rail switch points, an electric heating system which will require less energy than conventional switch point heaters. This new heating system will be have 4 elements: a self- regulating semi-conductive polymeric heater, an advanced intelligent control system, a thermal insulation system and a dual power supply (mains or solar). Concept testing and thermal heat transfer calculations indicate energy savings of 75% and a 30 to 50% reduction in product life cycle costs. In addition, the new heating system cannot burnout and hence is safer than current technology. This would give Network Rail potential energy cost savings of £9.9 million per year and a carbon footprint reduction of 52,000 tonnes of CO2e per year. This technology could be utilised in other rail heating applications such as heating of the third rail, overhead cables, bridges, tunnels, platforms and under-floor heating.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 110.19K | Year: 2014
This project will develop, for application in nuclear power and processing, an electrical heating cable which is capable of high temperature withstand and resistance to irradiation. The cable will be a high temperature type built around a novel self-regulating core material suitable for nuclear application. This self-regulating cable, built on new materials offers significant cost reduction and reduced installation time while offering superior safety credentials as the cable cannot burn out, hence making it safer than the current technology. This new material and technology could be utilised in other areas requiring radiation such as long term radiation storage and satellite technologies.