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Anderson N.A.,Purdue University | Anderson N.A.,Heartland Plant Innovations | Bonawitz N.D.,Purdue University | Bonawitz N.D.,Dow AgroSciences | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights Reserved.


Anderson N.A.,Purdue University | Anderson N.A.,Heartland Plant Innovations | Tobimatsu Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Tobimatsu Y.,Kyoto University | And 8 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD,in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylasel (fahl) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fahl cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Barkley A.,Kansas State University | Chumley F.G.,Heartland Plant Innovations
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2012

This research evaluates the use of doubled haploid lines (DHs) to accelerate breeding and gene discovery in wheat breeding. The DH biotechnology greatly accelerates time to market for new wheat varieties and speeds genetic gains in wheat yields. An economic model was built based on previous literature, knowledge of the wheat industry, and information gleaned from wheat breed-er interviews. Results show that DH methods would provide large economic gains to Kansas wheat producers and global wheat consumers. The results are robust to a wide variety of scenari-os. © 2012 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).


Chu C.,North Dakota State University | Chu C.,Heartland Plant Innovations | Niu Z.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhong S.,North Dakota State University | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Novel sources of resistance are critical for improving FHB resistance levels in wheat. From a large-scale evaluation of germplasm for reactions to FHB, we identified one wheat accession (PI 277012) that consistently showed a high level of resistance in both greenhouse and field experiments. To characterize the FHB resistance in this accession, we developed a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population consisting of 130 lines from the cross between PI 277012 and the hard red spring wheat cultivar 'Grandin'. The DH population was then evaluated for reactions to FHB in three greenhouse seasons and five field environments. Based on a linkage map that consisted of 340 SSR markers spanning 2,703 cM of genetic distance, two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FHB resistance were identified on chromosome arms 5AS and 5AL, with each explaining up to 20 and 32% of the variation in FHB severity, respectively. The two QTLs also showed major effects on reducing the percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in seeds. FHB resistance has not previously been reported to be associated with this particular genomic region of chromosome arm 5AL, thus indicating the novelty of FHB resistance in PI 277012. Plant maturity was not associated with FHB resistance and the effects of plant height on FHB resistance were minor. Therefore, these results suggest that PI 277012 is an excellent source for improving FHB resistance in wheat. The markers identified in this research are being used for marker-assisted introgression of the QTLs into adapted durum and hard red spring wheat cultivars. © 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).


Friesen T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Friesen T.L.,North Dakota State University | Chu C.,North Dakota State University | Chu C.,Heartland Plant Innovations | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

The Stagonospora nodorum-wheat interaction involves multiple pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors that interact directly or indirectly with specific host gene products to induce the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). Here, we used a tetraploid wheat mapping population to identify and characterize a sixth effector-host gene interaction in the wheat-S.nodorum system. Initial characterization of the effector SnTox5 indicated that it is a proteinaceous necrotrophic effector that induces necrosis on host lines harbouring the Snn5 sensitivity gene, which was mapped to the long arm of wheat chromosome 4B. On the basis of ultrafiltration, SnTox5 is probably in the size range 10-30kDa. Analysis of SNB development in the mapping population indicated that the SnTox5-Snn5 interaction explains 37%-63% of the variation, demonstrating that this interaction plays a significant role in disease development. When the SnTox5-Snn5 and SnToxA-Tsn1 interactions occurred together, the level of SNB was increased significantly. Similar to several other interactions in this system, the SnTox5-Snn5 interaction is light dependent, suggesting that multiple interactions may exploit the same pathways to cause disease. © 2012.


Chu C.-G.,Heartland Plant Innovations | Chu C.-G.,Oklahoma State University | Tan C. T.,Oklahoma State University | Yu G.-T.,North Dakota State University | And 3 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2011

Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In wheat (Triticum L. sp.), it was previously shown that allelic variation in the vernalization gene VRN1 was due to deletions or insertions either in the promoter or in the first intron. Here, we report a novel Vrn-B1 allele that has a retrotransposon in its promoter conferring spring growth habit. The VRN-B1 gene was mapped in a doubled haploid population that segregated for winter-spring growth habit but was derived from two spring tetraploid wheat genotypes, the durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum) variety 'Lebsock' and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accession PI 94749. Genetic analysis revealed that Lebsock carried the dominant Vrn-A1 and recessive vrn-B1 alleles, whereas PI 94749 had the recessive vrn-A1 and dominant Vrn-B1 alleles. The Vrn-A1 allele in Lebsock was the same as the Vrn-A1c allele previously reported in hexaploid wheat. No differences existed between the vrn-B1 and Vrn-B1 alleles, except that a 5463-bp insertion was detected in the 59-UTR region of the Vrn-B1 allele. This insertion was a novel retrotransposon (designated as retrotrans_VRN), which was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contained primer binding site and polypurine tract motifs, a 325-bp long terminal repeat, and an open reading frame encoding 1231 amino acids. The insertion of retrotrans_VRN resulted in expression of Vrn-B1 without vernalization. Retrotrans_VRN is prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accessions, less prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum accessions, and rarely found in other tetraploid wheat subspecies. © 2011 Chu et al.


Chen J.,University of Idaho | Chu C.,North Dakota State University | Chu C.,Heartland Plant Innovations | Souza E.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a durable type of resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring HTAP resistance to stripe rust in a population consisting of 169 F 8:10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a susceptible cultivar Rio Blanco and a resistant germplasm IDO444. HTAP resistance was evaluated for both disease severity and infection type under natural infection over two years at two locations. The genetic linkage maps had an average density of 6.7 cM per marker across the genome and were constructed using 484 markers including 96 wheat microsatellite (SSR), 632 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) polymorphisms, two sequence-tagged-site (STS) from semi-dwarf genes Rht1 and Rht2, and two markers for low molecular-weight glutenin gene subunits. QTL analysis detected a total of eight QTL significantly associated with HTAP resistance to stripe rust with two on chromosome 2B, two on 3B and one on each of 1A, 4A, 4B and 5B. QTL on chromosomes 2B and 4A were the major loci derived from IDO444 and explained up to 47 and 42% of the phenotypic variation for disease severity and infection type, respectively. The remaining five QTL accounted for 7-10% of the trait variation. Of these minor QTL, the resistant alleles at the two QTL QYrrb. ui-3B. 1 and QYrrb. ui-4B derived from Rio Blanco and reduced infection type only, while the resistant alleles at the other three QTL, QYrid. ui-1A, QYrid. ui-3B. 2 and QYrid. ui-5B, all derived from IDO444 and reduced either infection type or disease severity. Markers linked to 2B and 4A QTL should be useful for selection of HTAP resistance to stripe rust. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 500.00K | Year: 2015

Sorghum is a drought- and heat-tolerant crop that can help meet global needs for food, feed, and fuel. However, sorghum lags behind other crops in making progress in breeding for increased yield and improved traits. Heartland Plant Innovations is developing a robust system for producing and utilizing Sorghum Doubled Haploids (SDHs), a non-transgenic approach that greatly accelerates plant breeding. DH breeding systems are widely used in crops such as corn, but totally lacking for sorghum. Developing a SDH production system will offer a quicker route to new, improved hybrids with increased yields for farmers. In Phase I, HPI discovered a Haploid Inducing Pollinator (HIP1) that induces formation of viable haploid seeds in diverse lines of sorghum. Working with collaborators, HPI will use HIP1 to develop and implement an efficient pilot scale SDH system for breeding and genetics. This will be accomplished through research and development focused on the following objectives: 1) Confirm and characterize haploid-inducing pollinators identified during Phase I, determine the genetic basis for haploid induction by these lines and improve their performance; 2) Plan and execute a 2nd year of field trials to expand the hunt for useful pollinators; 3) Develop and integrate components of a commercial SDH breeding system, including seed sorting and chromosome doubling; 4) Develop a plan for marketing HPI's SDH breeding system to customers.Sorghum breeders who are working to deliver new inbreds and hybrids to farmers would greatly benefit from incorporating SDH lines into their programs. SDH lines could be used to accelerate traditional breeding, or to rapidly introgress high-value traits for resistance to diseases, insects or abiotic stress. Success with the proposed sorghum DH research will permit expansion of HPI's customer base to include sorghum breeders around the world. HPI expects to market production of SDHs on demand, or to partner with others in making DH technology available for customers to use.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014

Sorghum acres in the United States and around the world are declining. If this trend is to be reversed, new tools for sorghum crop improvement are needed. Sorghum is a naturally drought-tolerant, heat-resistant crop that can play an important role in meeting ever-increasing global needs for food, feed, and fuel. However, sorghum lags behind other crops in making progress on breeding for yield increase and trait enhancement. Heartland Plant Innovations proposes to put sorghum improvement on a new trajectory by developing a robust system for producing and utilizing Sorghum Doubled Haploids (SDHs) in breeding and genetics. Developing a Sorghum Doubled Haploid Breeding System will offer a greatly accelerated route to new improved hybrids, increased yields for farmers, and better food production in the U.S. and around the world.HPI & #39;s SDH project will identify pollinators cabable of inducing haploid embryo development in a wide range of sorghum gentypes and build a DH breeding system around the use of these pollinators. Once this technology is developed, public and private sorghum breeding and crop improvement programs will have a new and faster way of delivering valuable sorghum hybrids that will improve the lives of sorghum farmers and people who depend on their crops. Sorghum Doubled Haploids will deliver true-breeding recombinant lines for breeders in a single plant generation, cutting in half the time required to give farmers higher yielding, healthier sorghum hybrids.


PubMed | University of Wisconsin - Madison, Purdue University, Indiana University, National Renewable Energy Laboratory and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Plant cell | Year: 2015

Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content.

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