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Ames, IA, United States

Smith-Warner S.A.,MA | Ahn J.,NY | Horst R.L.,Heartland Assays | Kopp W.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | Rager H.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

The potential role of vitamin D in cancer prevention has generated substantial interest, and laboratory experiments indicate several anti-cancer properties for vitamin D compounds. Prospective studies of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, suggest an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, but with some inconsistencies. Furthermore, the direct or indirect impact of the key transport protein, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), has not been examined. We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, based on 476 colorectal cancer cases and 476 controls, matched on age, sex, race and date of serum collection. All subjects underwent sigmoidoscopic screening at baseline and once during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p trend 0.01). Adjusting for recognized colorectal cancer risk factors and accounting for seasonal vitamin D variation did not alter the findings. Neither circulating DBP nor the 25(OH)D:DBP molar ratio, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D, was associated with risk (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, and OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.21, respectively), and DBP did not modify the 25(OH)D association. The current study eliminated confounding by colorectal cancer screening behavior, and supports an association between higher vitamin D status and substantially lower colorectal cancer risk, but does not indicate a direct or modifying role for DBP. © 2014 UICC. Source


Spoo J.W.,Best Care Pet Hospital | Downey R.L.,Annamaet Petfoods | Horst R.J.,Heartland Assays | Levine C.B.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Dogs are a unique model for examining the effects of exercise on vitamin D status because of their lack of vitamin D synthesis by UV exposure. In addition, the inflammatory response may be associated with hypovitaminosis D. Objectives: To investigate the effects of several days of endurance exercise on plasma vitamin D (25-(OH)D3, 24,25-(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)D3) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in stage-stop racing sled dogs. Animals: 12 racing sled dogs and 8 control dogs. Methods: Blood was collected before the race and immediately after racing on days 2 and 8. Plasma vitamin D metabolites and serum CRP concentrations were measured. Results: Racing dogs showed a significant increase in 25(OH)D3 on day 2 (P = .027) and day 8 of the race (P < .001), whereas no increases were observed in control dogs. The plasma concentration of 24,25(OH)D3 showed a significant increase by day 8 (P < .001). There were no significant changes in 1,25(OH) D3 concentrations across all time points and groups. Racing dogs had significantly increased CRP concentrations by day 2 (39.3 ± 30.1 μg/mL; P < .001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Increases in vitamin D metabolites as well as increases in CRP concentrations were observed in racing sled dogs. This finding was contrary to the hypothesis that decreases in vitamin D status in athletes may be related to the acute phase inflammatory response during exercise. In addition, the increased 24,25(OH)D3 concentrations compared to what is observed in other species suggests metabolic variations in dogs that lead to enhanced disposal of vitamin D. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Nesterova G.,Human Genome Research Institutes | Malicdan M.C.,Human Genome Research Institutes | Yasuda K.,Toyama Prefectural University | Sakaki T.,Toyama Prefectural University | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background and objectives Elevated serum vitamin D with hypercalciuria can result in nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This study evaluated the cause of excess 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1α,25(OH)2D3) in the development of those disorders in two individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Two patients with elevated vitamin D levels and nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis were investigated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center and the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, by measuring calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolites, and by performing CYP24A1 mutation analysis. Results Both patients exhibited hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, low parathyroid hormone, elevated vitamin D (1α,25(OH)2D3), normal 25-OHD3, decreased 24,25(OH)2D, and undetectable activity of 1,25(OH)2D-24- hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the enzyme that inactivates 1α,25(OH)2D3. Both patients had bi-allelic mutations in CYP24A1 leading to loss of function of this enzyme. On the basis of dbSNP data, the frequency of predicted deleterious bi-allelic CYP24A1 variants in the general population is estimated to be as high as 4%-20%. Conclusions The results of this study showthat 1,25(OH)2D-24-hydroxylase deficiency due to bi-allelicmutations in CYP24A1 causes elevated serum vitamin D, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones. © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source


Mohr S.B.,University of California at San Diego | Mohr S.B.,Naval Health Research Center | Gorham E.D.,University of California at San Diego | Gorham E.D.,Naval Health Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether a relationship exists between pre-diagnostic serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of breast cancer in young women. Methods: About 600 incident cases of breast cancer were matched to 600 controls as part of a nested case-control study that utilized pre-diagnostic sera. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and breast cancer risk, controlling for race and age. Results: According to the conditional logistic regression for all subjects, odds ratios for breast cancer by quintile of serum 25(OH)D from lowest to highest were 1.2, 1.0, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 (reference) (p trend = 0.72). After multivariate regression for subjects whose blood had been collected within 90 days preceding diagnosis, odds ratios for breast cancer by quintile of serum 25(OH)D from lowest to highest were 3.3, 1.9, 1.7, 2.6, and 1.0 (reference) (p trend = 0.09). Conclusions: An inverse association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and risk of breast cancer was not present in the principal analysis, although an inverse association was present in a small subgroup analysis of subjects whose blood had been collected within 90 days preceding diagnosis. Further prospective studies of 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk are needed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Olds J.E.,Iowa State University | Burrough E.,Iowa State University | Madson D.,Iowa State University | Ensley S.,Iowa State University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

The Blank Park Zoo began suffering mortalities in the spring of 2012 within a flock of 229 captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) housed in an interactive public-feeding aviary. Clinical signs in affected birds included weakness, posterior paresis, inability to fly, or acute death. Gross and microscopic lesions were not initially apparent in acutely affected deceased birds. Many birds had evidence of trauma, which is now hypothesized to have been related to the birds' weakness. Investigation into the cause(s) of morbidity and mortality were complicated by the opening of a new interactive enclosure. For this reason, environmental conditions and husbandry protocols were heavily scrutinized. Microscopic examination of dead budgies later in the course of the investigation revealed mineralization of soft tissues consistent with hypervitaminosis D. Pooled serum analysis of deceased birds identified elevated vitamin D3 levels. Vitamin D3 analysis was performed on the feed sticks offered by the public and the formulated maintenance diet fed to the flock. This analysis detected elevated levels of vitamin D3 that were 22.5-times the manufacturer's labeled content in the formulated diet. These findings contributed to a manufacturer recall of more than 100 formulated diets fed to a wide variety of domestic and captive wild animal species throughout the United States and internationally. This case report discusses the complexities of determining the etiology of a toxic event in a zoologic institution. Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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