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Wilczek G.,University of Silesia | Babczynska A.,University of Silesia | Wilczek P.,Heart Prosthesis Institute FRK
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of enzymatic antioxidative parameters [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the glutathione peroxidases each selene dependent, GPOX or selene independent, including GSTPx, glutathione S-transferase, and GST] and non-enzymatic antioxidative parameters [i.e., glutathione total (GSH-t), the heat shock proteins of Hsp70, and metallothioneins (Mt)] in the midgut glands of female and male wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to natural stressors (i.e., heat shock and starvation) and anthropogenic stressors (i.e., the organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate) under laboratory conditions. The spiders were collected from two differentially polluted sites both localized in southern Poland: Olkusz, which is heavily polluted with metals, and Pilica, the reference site. In response to the stressing factors, increases in Hsp70 levels, in the concentrations of total glutathione and in the activity levels of glutathione-dependent enzymes (GPOX, GSTPx, and GST) were found in the midgut glands of males. In the females, high levels of activity of CAT and SOD were revealed, as well as an increased percentage of Mt-positive cells. Preexposed females, in comparison to the individuals from the reference site, responded with increased SOD activity, irrespective of the stressing factor. In contrast, the changes in the antioxidative parameters in the midgut glands of male X. nemoralis seem to reflect a short-term reaction to the applied stressors and do not confirm the effects of long-term selection in a polluted environment. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Stalmach M.,University of Silesia | Wilczek G.,University of Silesia | Wilczek P.,Heart Prosthesis Institute FRK | Skowronek M.,University of Silesia | Medrzak M.,University of Silesia
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of Cd on haemocytes and midgut gland cells of web-building spiders, Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae), exposed to the metal under laboratory conditions. Analyzes were conducted on adult females and males, fed for four weeks with cadmium-contaminated Drosophila hydei flies, grown on a medium suplemented with 0.25mM CdCl2. The comet assay, providing a quantitative measure of DNA strand breaks, was used to evaluate the DNA damage caused by the metal. Cadmium content was measured in whole spider bodies by the AAS method. Metal body burden was significantly lower in females (0.25μgg-1 dry weight) than in males (3.03μgg-1 dry weight), suggesting that females may have more effective mechanisms controlling the uptake of metal, via the digestive tract, or its elimination from the body. Irrespectively of sex, spiders fed prey contaminated with cadmium showed significantly higher values of comet parameters: tail DNA (TDNA), tail length (TL) and olive tail moment (OTM), in comparison with the control. In midgut gland cells, the level of DNA damage was higher for males than females, while in haemocytes the genotoxic effect of cadmium was greater in females. The obtained results indicate that in spiders cadmium displays strong genotoxic effects and may cause DNA damage even at low concentrations, however the severity of damage seems to be sex- and internal organ-dependent.The comet assay can be considered a sensitive tool for measuring the deleterious effect of cadmium on DNA integrity in spiders. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Wilczek G.,University of Silesia | Medrzak M.,University of Silesia | Augustyniak M.,University of Silesia | Wilczek P.,Heart Prosthesis Institute FRK | Stalmach M.,University of Silesia
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of starvation and dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide) in female and male wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to the stressors under laboratory conditions. DNA damage was measured in haemocytes and midgut gland cells using the comet assay. In response to the two stressing factors, both cell types showed %TDNA, tail length (TL) and OTM values higher in males than in females. Level of DNA damage in haemocytes was greater than in midgut gland cells. In both sexes, the strongest genotoxicity was recorded at single application of dimethoate. After five-time exposure to the pesticide, genotoxic effects of a single dose were sustained in males and reduced to the control level in females. Starvation stress was well tolerated by the females, in which neither cell type was affected by DNA damage. However, in male haemocytes food deprivation induced severe DNA damage, what suggests suppression of the defence potential at prolonged starvation periods. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Babczynska A.,University of Silesia | Wilczek G.,University of Silesia | Wilczek P.,Heart Prosthesis Institute FRK | Szulinska E.,University of Silesia | Witas I.,University of Silesia
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The aim of our studies was to explain the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in the neutralization of excessive amounts of metals (essential: copper (Cu) and toxic: cadmium (Cd)) and to describe the energy status in metal-exposed spiders Agelena labyrinthica in relation to its developmental stage, gender and origin. Juvenile, female and male spiders were collected from three variously polluted habitats, transferred to the laboratory and exposed to the metals in their diet. Cu and Cd accumulation in the body and exuviae, bioaccumulation factor, percentage of metallothionein positive cells, MT concentration, percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria, ATP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio were measured and calculated. Cu appeared to be regulated and its excess is eliminated via, among others, the molting process, while Cd was rather accumulated by the spiders. The level of MTs increased significantly mainly in females exposed to both metals, irrespectively of the pollution degree of their site of origin, indicating a defensive role of the proteins. In general, even if both the MT level and the energy status indices were positively correlated with Cd and Cu concentrations in the spider body, the energy status of A. labyrinthica did not seem disturbed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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