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Kozor R.,University of Sydney | Callaghan F.,University of Sydney | Tchan M.,Westmead Hospital | Tchan M.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2015

Background: Sphingolipid deposition in Fabry disease causes left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, of which the accurate assessment is essential. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been proposed as the gold standard. However, there is debate in the literature as to whether papillary muscles and trabeculations (P&T) should be included in LV mass (LVM). Methods/results: We examined the accuracy of 2 CMR methods of assessing LVM and LV volumes, including (MincP&T) or excluding (MexP&T) P&T, in a cohort of Fabry disease subjects (n = 20) compared to a matched control group (n = 20). Significant differences between the two measurement methods were observed for LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LVM, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in both groups. These differences were significantly greater in the Fabry group compared to controls, except for LVEF. P&T contributed to a greater percentage of LVM in Fabry subjects than controls (20 ± 1% vs 13 ± 2%, p = 0.01). In the control group, both volume-derived methods (MincP&T or MexP&T) provided accurate SV measurements compared with the internal reference of velocity-encoded aortic flow. In the Fabry group, inclusion of P&T (MincP&T) resulted in good concordance with phase contrast flow imaging (difference between flow and volume techniques: 1 ± 3 ml, p = 0.7). Conclusion: The volumetric contribution of P&T in Fabry disease is markedly increased relative to healthy controls. Failure to account for this results in significant underestimation of LVM and results in misclassification of a proportion of subjects. ©2015 Kozor et al. Source


Serpa Neto A.,Medical Intensive Care Unit | Nassar A.P.,Sao Camilo Hospital | Cardoso S.O.,Medical Intensive Care Unit | Manetta J.A.,Medical Intensive Care Unit | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2012

Introduction: Catecholamines are the most used vasopressors in vasodilatory shock. However, the development of adrenergic hyposensitivity and the subsequent loss of catecholamine pressor activity necessitate the search for other options. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of vasopressin and its analog terlipressin compared with catecholamine infusion alone in vasodilatory shock.Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications between 1966 and 2011 was performed. The Medline and CENTRAL databases were searched for studies on vasopressin and terlipressin in critically ill patients. The meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of vasopressin and/or terlipressin compared with catecholamine in adult patients with vasodilatory shock. The assessed outcomes were: overall survival, changes in the hemodynamic and biochemical variables, a decrease of catecholamine requirements, and adverse events.Results: Nine trials covering 998 participants were included. A meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model showed a reduction in norepinephrine requirement among patients receiving terlipressin or vasopressin infusion compared with control (standardized mean difference, -1.58 (95% confidence interval, -1.73 to -1.44); P < 0.0001). Overall, vasopressin and terlipressin, as compared with norepinephrine, reduced mortality (relative risk (RR), 0.87 (0.77 to 0.99); P = 0.04). Vasopressin compared with norepinephrine decreased mortality in adult patients (RR, 0.87 (0.76 to 1.00); P = 0.05) and in patients with septic shock (42.5% vs. 49.2%, respectively; RR, 0.87 (0.75 to 1.00); P = 0.05; number needed to treat, 1 to 15). There was no difference in adverse events between the vasopressin and control groups (RR, 0.98 (0.65 to 1.47); P = 0.92).Conclusions: Vasopressin use in vasodilatory shock is safe, associated with reduced mortality, and facilitates weaning of catecholamines. In patients with septic shock, use of vasopressin compared with norepinephrine may also decrease mortality. © 2012 Serpa Neto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Nawijn M.C.,University of Groningen | Hackett T.L.,Heart and Lung Institute | Postma D.S.,University of Groningen | van Oosterhout A.J.M.,University of Groningen | Heijink I.H.,University of Groningen
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2011

The airway epithelium plays a role in immune regulation during environmental challenge, which is intertwined with its barrier function and capacity to limit submucosal access of environmental factors. In asthma, mucosal barrier function is often compromised, with disrupted expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Recent progress suggests that E-cadherin contributes to the structural and immunological function of airway epithelium, through the regulation of epithelial junctions, proliferation, differentiation, and production of growth factors and proinflammatory mediators that can modulate the immune response. Here, we discuss this novel role for E-cadherin in mediating the crucial immunological decision between maintenance of tolerance versus induction of innate and adaptive immunity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sharma K.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Holzner C.,Xradia Inc. | Vasilescu D.M.,Heart and Lung Institute | Vasilescu D.M.,University of British Columbia | And 6 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source


Fanning J.P.,University of Queensland | Platts D.G.,University of Queensland | Platts D.G.,Heart and Lung Institute | Walters D.L.,Prince Charles Hospital | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

The efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in high surgical risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) is rapidly gaining credibility with an ever-expanding body of supporting evidence. The potential of TAVI to be a treatment option for a significant cohort of patients with aortic stenosis has fuelled a drive for the optimum device and resulted in exponential advances in the technology with a focus on adverse event minimization and procedural simplification. Consequently, a plethora of new transcatheter valve choices are now available for clinical study or in the pipeline. The evaluation of past, current and emerging devices allows for an appreciation of the design considerations involved in this process and an insight to the future direction of the technology. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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