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Silva V.M.,Instituto Do Coracao INCOR Do Hospital Das Clinicas FMUSP | Silva V.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Vinagre C.G.C.,Instituto Do Coracao INCOR Do Hospital Das Clinicas FMUSP | Vinagre C.G.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 7 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2014

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [ 3H]-triolein ([3H]-TAG) and [14C]-cholesteryl esters ([14C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p < 0.05). Fractional clearance rate (FCR, in min1) of [ 3H]-TAG and [14C]-CE were equal in T2DM (0.008 ± 0.018; 0.005 ± 0.024) and MetS (0.010 ± 0.016; 0.006 ± 0.013), and both were reduced compared to controls. The transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, phospholipids and triacylglycerols to HDL was higher in MetS and T2DM than in controls (p < 0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer and HDL size were equal in all groups. Results imply that MetS is equal to poorly controlled T2DM concerning the disturbances of plasma lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 AOCS.


Mello S.B.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Tavares E.R.,Heart Institute INCOR of the Medical School Hospital | Bulgarelli A.,Heart Institute INCOR of the Medical School Hospital | Bonfa E.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Commercial methotrexate formulations (MTX) have poor anti-inflammatory action for intra-articular treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Our aim was to investigate whether an association between methotrexate and lipidic nanoemulsions (LDE) could improve MTX intra-articular action. Methods: For its association to LDE, MTX was previously esterified with dodecyl bromide. LDE-MTX was prepared by high pressure homogenization. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was achieved in rabbits sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin, and the rabbits were subsequently intra-articularly injected with the antigen. Twenty-four hours after AIA induction, groups of four to nine rabbits were intra-articularly injected with increasing doses (0.0625-0.5 μmol/kg) of LDE-MTX, and were compared to treatment with 0.5 μmol/kg commercial MTX, LDE alone, and saline (controls). Synovial fluid was collected 48 hours after AIA induction for analysis of protein leakage and cell content. Synovial membranes were collected for histopathology. Uptake of LDE labeled with 3H-cholesteryl ether by the synovial tissue was also determined. Results: Uptake of radioactive LDE by arthritic joints was 2.5-fold greater than by normal joints. Treatment with intra-articular LDE-MTX elicited a clear dose response pattern by reducing the synovial leukocyte infiltrate (P = 0.004) and protein leakage (P = 0.032) when compared with arthritic non-treated joints. In contrast, the intra-articular injection of commercial MTX and LDE did not reduce leukocyte infiltrate or protein leakage. Toxicity to treatment was not observed in any of the animals. Conclusion: The association between LDE and MTX presented a marked anti-inflammatory effect that was absent after intra-articular commercial MTX treatment. Therefore, the new formulation is a candidate for future clinical studies. © 2013 Mello et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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