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Beersheba, Israel

Hinton R.B.,Heart Institute
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Purpose of review Aortic valve disease (AVD) is a growing public health problem, and the pathogenesis underlying AVD is complex. The lack of durable bioprostheses and pharmacologic therapies remain central needs in care. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent clinical studies that impact the care of children with AVD and is to explore ongoing translational research efforts. Recent findings Clinical studies have evaluated the durability of bioprosthetics and surgical strategies, tested statins during early disease, and identified new predictive biomarkers. Large animal models have demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel bioprosthetic scaffold. Mouse models of latent AVD have advanced our ability to elucidate natural history and perform preclinical studies that test new treatments in the context of early disease. Summary Current priorities for AVD patients include identifying new pharmacologic treatments and developing durable bioprostheses. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed that bridge pediatric and adult programs, and bring together different types of expertise and leverage network and consortium resources. As our understanding of the underlying complex genetics is better defined, companion diagnostics may transform future clinical trials and ultimately improve the care of patients with AVD by promoting personalized medicine and early intervention. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health-Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Marcus F.I.,University of Arizona | Edson S.,ARVD Heart for Hope | Towbin J.A.,Heart Institute
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically transmitted disease. However, the genetics are more complex than in other inherited conditions wherein a single gene abnormal mutation may be causative. In ARVC, 5 causative desmosomal genes have been identified, but because only 30% to 50% of patients with ARVC have 1 of these gene abnormalities, it is assumed that there are other genes not yet identified. Frequently, patients with ARVC have >1 genetic defect in the same gene (compound heterozygosity) or in a second complementary gene (digenic heterozygosity). In addition, a family member may have an ARVC gene defect and have development of the disease or have no or minimal manifestations of the disease. Clinical genetic testing is commercially available. It is beneficial for first-degree family members of a person with ARVC to have genetic testing but only if there is a known genetic abnormality in the affected person. If the affected family member (proband) with ARVC does not have a genetic defect identified, then it will not be identified in the family member. Genetic counseling is strongly advised for family members of the proband. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Serrano Jr. C.V.,Heart Institute
Vascular health and risk management | Year: 2011

The role of calcification in coronary artery disease is gaining importance, both in research studies and in clinical application. Calcified plaque has long been considered to be the most important atherosclerotic plaque within the arterial tree and frequently presents a challenge for percutaneous intervention. Current investigations have shown that plaque calcification has a dynamic course that is closely related to the magnitude of vascular inflammation. Numerous inflammatory factors synthesized during the early stages of atherosclerosis induce the expression and activation of osteoblast-like cells localized in the arterial wall that produce calcium. There is no doubt that the role of these factors in calcification associated with coronary artery disease could be a crucial strategic point in prevention and treatment. A number of diagnostic imaging methods have been developed in recent years, but their performance needs to be improved. In this context, we undertook an update on coronary calcification, focusing on physiopathology, clinical implications, and imaging techniques. Source

Kloner R.A.,Heart Institute | Kloner R.A.,University of Southern California
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

There is continued interest in the concept of limiting myocardial infarct size with adjunctive agents administered along with reperfusion injury; however, there remains considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this article is to review the medical literature on clinical trials performed during the past 3 years that have attempted to reduce myocardial infarct size by administration of adjunctive therapies along with reperfusion therapy. A PubMed-driven literature search revealed a host of clinical trials focusing on the following prominent types of therapies: endogenous conditioning (postconditioning and remote ischemic conditioning); rapid cooling; pharmacological therapy (cyclosporine, abciximab, clopidogrel, tirofiban, erythropoietin, thrombus aspiration, adenosine, glucose-insulin-potassium, statins, antidiabetic agents, FX06, iron chelation, and ranolazine). Although there remains some controversy, quite a few of these studies showed that adjunctive therapy further reduced myocardial infarct size when coupled with reperfusion. Antiplatelet agents are emerging as some of the newest agents that seem to have cardioprotective capabilities. Postconditioning has become a bit more controversial in the clinical literature; remote conditioning, early and rapid cooling, adenosine, and ranolazine are intriguing therapies deserving of larger studies. Certain agents and maneuvers, such as erythropoietin, protein kinase C δ inhibitors, iron chelation, and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, perhaps should be retired. The correct adjunctive therapy administered along with reperfusion has the capability of further reducing myocardial injury during ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Jefferies J.L.,Heart Institute
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked recessive disorder that is typically characterized by cardiomyopathy (CMP), skeletal myopathy, growth retardation, neutropenia, and increased urinary levels of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGCA). There may be a wide variability of phenotypes amongst BTHS patients with some exhibiting some or all of these findings. BTHS was first described as a disease of the mitochondria resulting in neutropenia as well as skeletal and cardiac myopathies. Over the past few years, a greater understanding of BTHS has developed related to the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for the disease. Mutations in the TAZ gene on chromosome Xq28, also known as G4.5, are responsible for the BTHS phenotype resulting in a loss-of-function in the protein product tafazzin. Clinical management of BTHS has also seen improvement. Patients with neutropenia are susceptible to life-threatening bacterial infections with sepsis being a significant concern for possible morbidity and mortality. Increasingly, BTHS patients are suffering from heart failure secondary to their CMP. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and dilated CMP are the most common cardiac phenotypes reported and can lead to symptoms of heart failure as well as ventricular arrhythmias. Expanded treatment options for end-stage myocardial dysfunction now offer an opportunity to change the natural history for these patients. Herein, we will provide a current review of the genetic and molecular basis of BTHS, the clinical features and management of BTHS, and potential future directions for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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