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Farooq V.,Erasmus Medical Center | Van Klaveren D.,Erasmus Medical Center | Steyerberg E.W.,Erasmus Medical Center | Meliga E.,AO Ordine Mauriziano Umberto i | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Background The anatomical SYNTAX score is advocated in European and US guidelines as an instrument to help clinicians decide the optimum revascularisation method in patients with complex coronary artery disease. The absence of an individualised approach and of clinical variables to guide decision making between coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are limitations of the SYNTAX score. SYNTAX score II aimed to overcome these limitations. Methods SYNTAX score II was developed by applying a Cox proportional hazards model to results of the randomised all comers SYNTAX trial (n=1800). Baseline features with strong associations to 4-year mortality in either the CABG or the PCI settings (interactions), or in both (predictive accuracy), were added to the anatomical SYNTAX score. Comparisons of 4-year mortality predictions between CABG and PCI were made for each patient. Discriminatory performance was quantified by concordance statistics and internally validated with bootstrap resampling. External validation was done in the multinational all comers DELTA registry (n=2891), a heterogeneous population that included patients with three-vessel disease (26%) or complex coronary artery disease (anatomical SYNTAX score.33, 30%) who underwent CABG or PCI. The SYNTAX trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00114972. Findings SYNTAX score II contained eight predictors: anatomical SYNTAX score, age, creatinine clearance, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), presence of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease, peripheral vascular disease, female sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SYNTAX score II significantly predicted a difference in 4-year mortality between patients undergoing CABG and those undergoing PCI (pinteraction 0.0037). To achieve similar 4-year mortality after CABG or PCI, younger patients, women, and patients with reduced LVEF required lower anatomical SYNTAX scores, whereas older patients, patients with ULMCA disease, and those with COPD, required higher anatomical SYNTAX scores. Presence of diabetes was not important for decision making between CABG and PCI (pinteraction 0.67). SYNTAX score II discriminated well in all patients who underwent CABG or PCI, with concordance indices for internal (SYNTAX trial) validation of 0.725 and for external (DELTA registry) validation of 0.716, which were substantially higher than for the anatomical SYNTAX score alone (concordance indices of 0.567 and 0.612, respectively). A nomogram was constructed that allowed for an accurate individualised prediction of 4-year mortality in patients proposing to undergo CABG or PCI. Interpretation Long-term (4-year) mortality in patients with complex coronary artery disease can be well predicted by a combination of anatomical and clinical factors in SYNTAX score II. SYNTAX score II can better guide decision making between CABG and PCI than the original anatomical SYNTAX score. Funding Boston Scientific Corporation. Source

Grayburn P.A.,Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute | Carabello B.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Hung J.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Gillam L.D.,Morristown Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with poor outcomes, but its correction does not reverse the underlying left ventricular (LV) pathology or improve the prognosis. The recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on valvular heart disease generated considerable controversy by revising the definition of severe secondary MR from an effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) of 0.4 to 0.2 cm2, and from a regurgitant volume (RVol) of 60 to 30 ml. This paper reviews hydrodynamic determinants of MR severity, showing that EROA and RVol values associated with severe MR depend on LV volume. This explains disparities in the evidence associating a lower EROA threshold with suboptimal survival. Redefining MR severity purely on EROA or RVol may cause significant clinical problems. As the guidelines emphasize, defining severe MR requires careful integration of all echocardiographic and clinical data, as measurement of EROA is imprecise and poorly reproducible. © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Morice M.-C.,Institute Hospitalier Jacques Cartier | Serruys P.W.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Kappetein A.P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Feldman T.E.,Evanston Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND-: The prospective, multinational, randomized Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was designed to assess the optimal revascularization strategy between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), for patients with left main (LM) and/or 3-vessel coronary disease. METHODS AND RESULTS-: This observational hypothesis-generating analysis reports the results of a prespecified powered subgroup of 705 randomized patients who had LM disease among the 1800 patients with de novo 3-vessel disease and/or LM disease randomized to PCI with paclitaxel-eluting stents or CABG in the SYNTAX trial. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rates at 1 year in LM patients were similar for CABG and PCI (13.7% versus 15.8%; Δ2.1% [95% confidence interval-3.2% to 7.4%]; P=0.44). At 1 year, stroke was significantly higher in the CABG arm (2.7% versus 0.3%; Δ-2.4% [95% confidence interval-4.2% to-0.1%]; P=0.009]), whereas repeat revascularization was significantly higher in the PCI arm (6.5% versus 11.8%; Δ5.3% [95% confidence interval 1.0% to 9.6%]; P=0.02); there was no observed difference between groups for other end points. When patients were scored for anatomic complexity, those with higher baseline SYNTAX scores had significantly worse outcomes with PCI than did patients with low or intermediate SYNTAX scores; outcomes for patients with CABG did not correlate with baseline SYNTAX score, but baseline EuroSCORE significantly predicted outcomes for both treatments. CONCLUSIONS-: Patients with LM disease who had revascularization with PCI had safety and efficacy outcomes comparable to CABG at 1 year; longer follow-up is required to determine whether these 2 revascularization strategies offer comparable medium-term outcomes in this group of complex patients. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Asgar A.W.,Montreal Heart Institute | Mack M.J.,Heart Hospital Baylor Plano | Stone G.W.,Columbia University
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

The development of secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) due to left ventricular dysfunction, also known as functional MR, is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms underlying secondary MR are multifactorial; accurate imaging assessment of secondary MR may be challenging and nuanced; and the appropriate roles of medical, surgical, and interventional therapies for management of secondary MR are controversial and evolving. In this review, the pathophysiology, evaluation, and prognosis of secondary MR in patients with heart failure are discussed, and we evaluate in detail the evidence for the various therapeutic approaches for secondary MR, including guideline-directed medication for left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac resynchronization therapy and revascularization when appropriate, and mitral valve surgery and transcatheter interventions. The role of a multidisciplinary heart team in determining the optimal management strategy for secondary MR is also discussed. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Mack M.J.,Heart Hospital Baylor Plano | Brennan J.M.,Duke Clinical Research Institute | Brindis R.,University of California at San Francisco | Carroll J.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 13 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis and inoperable status (in 2011) and high-risk but operable status (starting in 2012). A national registry (the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy [STS/ACC TVT] Registry) was initiated to meet a condition for Medicare coverage and also facilitates outcome assessment and comparison with other trials and international registries. OBJECTIVE: To report the initial US commercial experience with TAVR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained results from all eligible US TAVR cases (n=7710) from 224 participating registry hospitals following the Edwards Sapien XT device commercialization (November 2011-May 2013). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes included all-cause in-hospital mortality and stroke following TAVR. Secondary analyses included procedural complications and outcomes by clinical indication and access site. Device implantation success was defined as successful vascular access, deployment of a single device in the proper anatomic position, appropriate valve function without either moderate or severe AR, and successful retrieval of the delivery system. Thirty-day outcomes are presented for a representative 3133 cases (40.6%) at 114 centers with at least 80% complete follow-up reporting. RESULTS: The 7710 patients who underwent TAVR included 1559 (20%) cases that were inoperable and 6151 (80%) cases that were high-risk but operable. The median age was 84 years (interquartile range [IQR], 78-88 years); 3783 patients (49%) were women and the median STS predicted risk of mortality was 7% (IQR, 5%-11%). At baseline, 2176 patients (75%) were either not at all satisfied (1297 patients [45%]) or mostly dissatisfied (879 patients [30%]) with their symptom status; 2198 (72%) had a 5-mwalk time longer than 6 seconds (slow gait speed). The most common vascular access approach was transfemoral (4972 patients [64%]), followed by transapical (2197 patients [29%]) and other alternative approaches (536 patients [7%]); successful device implantation occurred in 7069 patients (92%; 95% CI, 91%-92%). The observed incidence of in-hospital mortality was 5.5% (95% CI, 5.0%-6.1%). Other major complications included stroke (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.7%-2.4%), dialysis-dependent renal failure (1.9%; 95% CI, 1.6%-2.2%), and major vascular injury (6.4%; 95% CI, 5.8%-6.9%). Median hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 4-10 days), with 4613 (63%) discharged home. Among patients with available follow-up at 30 days (n=3133), the incidence of mortality was 7.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-8.6%) (noncardiovascular cause, 52%); a stroke had occurred in 2.8% (95% CI, 2.3%-3.5%), new dialysis in 2.5% (95% CI, 2.0%-3.1%), and reintervention in 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients undergoing TAVR at US centers in the STS/ACC TVT Registry, device implantation success was achieved in 92% of cases, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.5%, and the stroke rate was 2.0%. Although these postmarket US approval findings are comparable with prior published trial data and international experience, long-term follow-up is essential to assess continued efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01737528. Copyright 2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

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