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Sado D.,Heart Hospital | Greaves K.,Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
European Journal of Echocardiography

Impaired left ventricular systolic function secondary to sepsis can occur in up to 20 of patients with septic shock. The electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic changes it produces can be very similar to those occurring during acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) allows assessment of myocardial perfusion. This technique can be performed at the bedside of the critically unwell patient. We describe a patient presenting with septic shock secondary to pneumonia. While sedated and ventilated in the intensive care unit, the patient developed marked ECG changes, a troponin rise and widespread left ventricular wall motion abnormality. The clinical picture suggested ACS or stress cardiomyopathy was unlikely and was more in keeping with a diagnosis of sepsis-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction. To support this, resting and flash impulse MCE was performed which revealed normal perfusion in areas of both normal and abnormal wall motion. This suggested that the cardiac presentation was more likely to be due to left ventricular impairment secondary to sepsis and ACS therapy was discontinued. Pre-discharge ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram were normal. Percutaneous coronary angiography 6 weeks later was also normal. This is the first described case of MCE being used to aid in the decision-making process in distinguishing between ACS, stress cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular systolic impairment secondary to sepsis. © The Author 2010. Source

This study sought to assess the impact of coronary bifurcation stenting on health-related functional status, using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), for participants in the BBC ONE (British Bifurcation Coronary; Old, New, and Evolving Strategies) trial and to compare simple versus complex bifurcation stenting strategies in this regard. Large randomized studies have examined outcomes from bifurcation stenting with drug-eluting stents. They have reported on major adverse cardiovascular events and angiographic follow-up. However, a principal goal of percutaneous coronary intervention is symptom control and improvement in quality of life, yet there are no published data from these trials on this aspect. Furthermore, it is unknown whether simple versus complex stenting strategies have different effects on angina control and quality of life. The BBC ONE study randomized 500 subjects to bifurcation stenting using either a simple (provisional T) or complex (crush or culotte) approach. Subjects completed the SAQ at baseline and at 9 months after percutaneous coronary intervention. Canadian Cardiovascular Society class and antianginal drug use were also evaluated. Bifurcation stenting was associated with significant improvements on SAQ scales and in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class (baseline: 5.3% subjects were class 0; follow-up: 64.0% were class 0; p < 0.001) and a significant reduction in the number of antianginal drugs used (median decrease: 1; p < 0.001). Simple and complex strategies did not differ significantly for changes in the SAQ, actual SAQ scores, or use of antianginal drugs. Regardless of chosen strategy, bifurcation stenting produced significant functional improvements in angina-related health. No significant difference between simple and complex strategies was found in this regard. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

As we approach the end of 2011 it is clear that the next few years are going to be dominated by the application of new high throughput genetic screening techniques, capable of screening the entire exome or indeed genome. Understanding the data generated by these techniques will require new and equally sophisticated analysis of large and complex datasets, using a systems biology approach with deeper phenotyping and advanced modelling techniques that have the flexibility for continuous update, refinement with discovery of new knowledge. Exciting new developments that may also transform cardiomyopathy research include those of infrastructure and organisation (multi-centre collaborations) and spin-offs from the field of regenerative medicine research. For clinical researchers that translate this information to the clinic the focus will however remain the same; namely improvement of quality and quantity of life. Source

Kenny D.,Rush University Medical Center | Hijazi Z.M.,Rush University Medical Center | Kar S.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Rhodes J.,Duke Family Medicine Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter heart valve (Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, California) in the pulmonary position in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation with or without stenosis. Background: Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement is evolving, but to date, experience has been limited to the Melody valve (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota). Methods: Eligible patients with dysfunctional right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits were screened if body weight was <35 kg and the in situ conduit diameter was <16 mm and ≤24 mm. Standardized implantation and follow-up protocols were used. Results: Thirty-six patients from 4 centers were recruited between April 2008 and May 2010. Mean body weight was 73.4 ± 22.9 kg. Successful valve deployment was achieved in 33 of 34 attempts (97.1%). Valve migration occurred in 3 patients, with 2 requiring surgical retrieval; however, 1 patient underwent successful perventricular valve implantation. Further intraprocedure complications included pulmonary hemorrhage (n = 2), ventricular fibrillation (n = 1), and stent migration (n = 1). Pullback gradient across the conduit decreased from 26.8 ± 18.4 mm Hg to 11.7 ± 8.0 mm Hg (p < 0.001). The right ventricular/aortic pressure ratio decreased from 0.6 ± 0.2 to 0.4 ± 0.1 (p < 0.001). Peak Doppler gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract decreased from 41.9 ± 27.9 mm Hg to 19.1 ± 13.3 mm Hg (p < 0.001). At 6-month follow-up, all patients were alive. The number of patients with New York Heart Association functional class I increased from 5 at baseline to 27 at follow-up. Pulmonary regurgitation was ≤2+ in 97% of patients. Freedom from reintervention was 97% with 1 patient undergoing elective placement of a second valve due to conduit-induced distortion of the initial implant. Conclusions: Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement using the Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter heart valve is safe and effective in patients with dysfunctional right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Mack M.J.,Baylor Scott and White Health | Leon M.B.,Columbia University | Smith C.R.,Columbia University | Miller D.C.,Stanford University | And 21 more authors.
The Lancet

Summary Background The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that mortality at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years is much the same with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. We report here the 5-year outcomes. Methods We did this randomised controlled trial at 25 hospitals, in Canada (two), Germany (one), and the USA (23). We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence to randomly assign high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to either SAVR or TAVR with a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial tissue valve by either a transfemoral or transapical approach. Patients and their treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the trial was all-cause mortality in the intention-to-treat population at 1 year, we present here predefined outcomes at 5 years. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00530894. Findings We screened 3105 patients, of whom 699 were enrolled (348 assigned to TAVR, 351 assigned to SAVR). Overall mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score was 11·7%. At 5 years, risk of death was 67·8% in the TAVR group compared with 62·4% in the SAVR group (hazard ratio 1·04, 95% CI 0·86-1·24; p=0·76). We recorded no structural valve deterioration requiring surgical valve replacement in either group. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation occurred in 40 (14%) of 280 patients in the TAVR group and two (1%) of 228 in the SAVR group (p<0·0001), and was associated with increased 5-year risk of mortality in the TAVR group (72·4% for moderate or severe aortic regurgitation vs 56·6% for those with mild aortic regurgitation or less; p=0·003). Interpretation Our findings show that TAVR as an alternative to surgery for patients with high surgical risk results in similar clinical outcomes. Funding Edwards Lifesciences. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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