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Shieh J.T.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Jefferies J.L.,Heart Genetics | Chin A.J.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2013

Cardiomyopathies are remarkably variable in form. Although hearts may be dilated or hypertrophic, the spectrum of cardiomyopathies includes left ventricular noncompaction/hypertrabeculation and right ventricular wall disorders. These conditions have been increasingly recognized in patients given advances in clinical diagnostics. Here we present information on cardiac pathophysiology, from ventricular wall formation and trabeculae in model organisms to pediatric and adult disease. Many genes to affect the ventricular phenotype, and this has implications for deciphering developmental and disease pathways and for applying testing for clinical care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Buchaklian A.H.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Helbling D.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Ware S.M.,Heart Genetics | Dimmock D.P.,Medical College of Wisconsin
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) (MIM#601465) deficiency was originally described as the cause of an infantile onset hepatocerebral mitochondrial disease [1]. The classic features of this disorder include significant hepatic failure with nystagmus and hypotonia. Mitochondrial DNA studies reveal significant mitochondrial DNA depletion in the affected tissues. Subsequently it has been shown that the same mutations in this gene may present with isolated acute liver failure without cerebral involvement. In this paper we studied the mitochondrial DNA depletion in cells from a patient presenting with mitochondrial myopathy caused by a novel mutation in DGUOK. Subsequently we developed the method to diagnose this condition using MyoD induced fibroblasts to study the muscle specific phenotype. In addition, supplementation of MyoD induced fibroblasts with dAMP and dGMP resulted in a restoration of mtDNA quantity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Pereira T.V.,University of Ioannina | Pereira T.V.,Heart Genetics | Ioannidis J.P.A.,University of Ioannina | Ioannidis J.P.A.,Stanford University | Ioannidis J.P.A.,Tufts University
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess whether nominally statistically significant effects in meta-analyses of clinical trials are true and whether their magnitude is inflated. Study Design and Setting: Data from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 (issue 4) and 2010 (issue 1) were used. We considered meta-analyses with binary outcomes and four or more trials in 2005 with P < 0.05 for the random-effects odds ratio (OR). We examined whether any of these meta-analyses had updated counterparts in 2010. We estimated the credibility (true-positive probability) under different prior assumptions and inflation in OR estimates in 2005. Results: Four hundred sixty-one meta-analyses in 2005 were eligible, and 80 had additional trials included by 2010. The effect sizes (ORs) were smaller in the updating data (2005-2010) than in the respective meta-analyses in 2005 (median 0.85-fold, interquartile range [IQR]: 0.66-1.06), even more prominently for meta-analyses with less than 300 events in 2005 (median 0.67-fold, IQR: 0.54-0.96). Mean credibility of the 461 meta-analyses in 2005 was 63-84% depending on the assumptions made. Credibility estimates changed >20% in 19-31 (24-39%) of the 80 updated meta-analyses. Conclusions: Most meta-analyses with nominally significant results pertain to truly nonnull effects, but exceptions are not uncommon. The magnitude of observed effects, especially in meta-analyses with limited evidence, is often inflated. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

VanDusen N.J.,Heart Genetics | Firulli A.B.,Heart Genetics
Differentiation | Year: 2012

The heart is a complex organ that is composed of numerous cell types, which must integrate their programs for proper specification, differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. During cardiogenesis members of the Twist-family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play distinct roles within cardiac lineages such as the endocardium and extra-cardiac lineages such as the cardiac neural crest (cNCC) and epicardium. While the study of these cell populations is often eclipsed by that of cardiomyocytes, the contributions of non-cardiomyocytes to development and disease are increasingly being appreciated as both dynamic and essential. This review summarizes what is known regarding Twist-family bHLH function in extra-cardiac cell populations and the endocardium, with a focus on regulatory mechanisms, downstream targets, and expression profiles. Improving our understanding of the molecular pathways that Twist-family bHLH factors mediate in these lineages will be necessary to ascertain how their dysfunction leads to congenital disease and adult pathologies such as myocardial infarctions and cardiac fibroblast induced fibrosis. Indeed, this knowledge will prove to be critical to clinicians seeking to improve current treatments. © 2012 International Society of Differentiation.

Park S.,Heart Genetics | Terzic A.,Heart Genetics
Journal of Structural Biology | Year: 2010

Heterodimeric nucleotide binding domains NBD1/NBD2 distinguish the ATP-binding cassette protein SUR2A, a recognized regulatory subunit of cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. The tandem function of these core domains ensures metabolism-dependent gating of the Kir6.2 channel pore, yet their structural arrangement has not been resolved. Here, purified monodisperse and interference-free recombinant particles were subjected to synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution. Intensity function analysis of SAXS profiles resolved NBD1 and NBD2 as octamers. Implemented by ab initio simulated annealing, shape determination prioritized an oblong envelope wrapping NBD1 and NBD2 with respective dimensions of 168 × 80 × 37 Å3 and 175 × 81 × 37 Å3 based on symmetry constraints, validated by atomic force microscopy. Docking crystal structure homology models against SAXS data reconstructed the NBD ensemble surrounding an inner cleft suitable for Kir6.2 insertion. Human heart disease-associated mutations introduced in silico verified the criticality of the mapped protein-protein interface. The resolved quaternary structure delineates thereby a macromolecular arrangement of KATP channel SUR2A regulatory domains. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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