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Columbus, OH, United States

Polonsky T.S.,Northwestern University | McClelland R.L.,University of Washington | Jorgensen N.W.,University of Washington | Bild D.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Context: The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has been shown to predict future coronary heart disease (CHD) events. However, the extent to which adding CACS to traditional CHD risk factors improves classification of risk is unclear. Objective: To determine whether adding CACS to a prediction model based on traditional risk factors improves classification of risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: CACS was measured by computed tomography in 6814 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based cohort without known cardiovascular disease. Recruitment spanned July 2000 to September 2002; follow-up extended through May 2008. Participants with diabetes were excluded from the primary analysis. Five-year risk estimates for incident CHD were categorized as 0% to less than 3%, 3% to less than 10%, and 10% or more using Cox proportional hazards models. Model 1 used age, sex, tobacco use, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and race/ethnicity. Model 2 used these risk factors plus CACS. We calculated the net reclassification improvement and compared the distribution of risk using model 2 vs model 1. Main Outcome Measures: Incident CHD events. Results: During a median of 5.8 years of follow-up among a final cohort of 5878, 209 CHD events occurred, of which 122 were myocardial infarction, death from CHD, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Model 2 resulted in significant improvements in risk prediction compared with model 1 (net reclassification improvement=0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.34; P<.001). In model 1, 69% of the cohort was classified in the highest or lowest risk categories compared with 77% in model 2. An additional 23% of those who experienced events were reclassified as high risk, and an additional 13% without events were reclassified as low risk using model 2. Conclusion: In this multi-ethnic cohort, addition of CACS to a prediction model based on traditional risk factors significantly improved the classification of risk and placed more individuals in the most extreme risk categories. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Leong K.T.G.,Changi General Hospital | Walton A.,Heart Center | Krum H.,Monash University
Annual Review of Medicine

Resistant hypertension poses significant health concerns. There are strong demands for new and safe therapies to control resistant hypertension while addressing its common causes, specifically poor compliance to lifelong polypharmacy, lifestyle modifications, and physician inertia. The sympathetic nervous system plays a significant pathophysiological role in hypertension. Surgical sympathectomy for blood pressure reduction is an old but extremely efficacious therapeutic concept, now abandoned with the dawn of a safer contemporary pharmacology era. Recently, clinical studies have revealed promising results for safe and sustained blood pressure reduction with percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation. This is a novel, minimally invasive, device-based therapy, specifically targeting and ablating the renal artery nerves with radiofrequency waves without permanent implantation. There are also reported additional benefits in related comorbidities, such as impaired glucose metabolism, renal impairment, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and others. This review focuses on how selective renal sympathetic denervation works, its present and potential therapeutic indications, and its future directions. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Cripe L.H.,Heart Center | Tobias J.D.,Nationwide Childrens Hospital
Paediatric Anaesthesia

Duchenne muscular dystrophy/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) is a progressive multisystem neuromuscular disorder. In addition to the skeletal muscle, the myocardium in the DMD/BMD patient is dystrophin deficient which results in a progressive cardiomyopathy. The myopathic myocardium poses significant risk of increased morbidity and mortality at the time of major surgical procedures. Careful attention must be given to the DMD/BMD patient during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Anesthesia selection is critical and anesthetics should be avoided which have been shown to be harmful in this patient population. Preanesthesia assessment should include cardiac consultation and detailed preoperative evaluation. Intraoperative management needs to insure that the weakened myocardium is not compromised by physiologic changes such as hypotension or major fluid shifts. Finally, attention to the cardiac status of the patient must continue into the postoperative period. The surgical care of the DMD/BMD patient requires a multispecialty approach to insure operative success. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Right ventricular (RV) function is increasingly recognized as having prognostic significance in various disease processes. The current gold standard for noninvasive measurement of RV function is cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; however, because of practical considerations, echocardiography remains the most often used modality for evaluating the RV. In the past, because of its complex morphology, echocardiographic assessment of the RV was usually qualitative in nature. Current advances in echocardiographic techniques have been able to overcome some of the previous limitations and thus quantification of RV function is increasingly being performed. In addition, recent echocardiographic guidelines for evaluating the RV have been published to aid in standardizing practice. The evaluation of RV function almost certainly has no greater importance than in the congenital heart population, especially in those patients that have a single RV acting as the systemic ventricle. As this complex population continues to increase in number, accurate and precise evaluation of RV function will be a major issue in determining clinical care. Source

Postema P.G.,Heart Center | Wilde A.A.,Heart Center
Current Cardiology Reviews

The evaluation of every electrocardiogram should also include an effort to interpret the QT interval to assess the risk of malignant arrhythmias and sudden death associated with an aberrant QT interval. The QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T-wave, and should be corrected for heart rate to enable comparison with reference values. However, the correct determination of the QT interval, and its value, appears to be a daunting task. Although computerized analysis and interpretation of the QT interval are widely available, these might well over- or underestimate the QT interval and may thus either result in unnecessary treatment or preclude appropriate measures to be taken. This is particularly evident with difficult T-wave morphologies and technically suboptimal ECGs. Similarly, also accurate manual assessment of the QT interval appears to be difficult for many physicians worldwide. In this review we delineate the history of the measurement of the QT interval, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the current standards of the measurement of the QT interval, we provide a glimpse into the future and we discuss several issues troubling accurate measurement of the QT interval. These issues include the lead choice, U-waves, determination of the end of the T-wave, different heart rate correction formulas, arrhythmias and the definition of normal and aberrant QT intervals. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities and which support accurate assessment of the QT interval and its interpretation. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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