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Oak Lawn, IL, United States

Alsheikh-Ali A.A.,Heart and Vascular Institute
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society | Year: 2013

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) studies in patients with coronary artery disease report higher risk of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) early post-implant, potentially related to local proarrhythmic effects of ICD leads. To characterize early and long-term risk of ICD discharge for VT/VF in a large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort. By using HCM multicenter registry data, we compared long-term risk of VT/VF subsequent to an early post-implant period (a priori defined as within 3 months of implant) between patients with or without VT/VF within 3 months after ICD implantation. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 109 of 506 (22%) patients with HCM who received ICDs received at least 1 ICD discharge for VT/VF. Risk of first ICD discharge for VT/VF was highest in the first year post-implant (10.8% per person-year; 95% confidence interval 7.9-13.8) and particularly in the first 3 months (17.0% per person-year; 95% confidence interval 9.8-24.3). Patients with early VT/VF (≤3 months post-implant) were older, and more commonly had secondary prevention ICDs following cardiac arrest or systolic dysfunction (end-stage HCM with ejection fraction<50%). Only 2 of 247 (0.7%) patients with primary prevention ICDs and preserved systolic function had early VT/VF. Patients with VT/VF early post-implant (≤3 months) had more than 5-fold higher risk for future VT/VF during long-term follow-up compared with patients without early VT/VF (adjusted hazard ratio 5.4; 95% confidence interval 2.3-12.6). High-risk patients with HCM and VT/VF early after ICD implantation are particularly prone to subsequent VT/VF throughout follow-up. Early ICD interventions for VT/VF are largely confined to patients with prior cardiac arrest or systolic dysfunction and therefore more likely driven by higher arrhythmic risk rather than lead-related proarrhythmia. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kitko L.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Hupcey J.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Gilchrist J.H.,Mt Holyoke College | Boehmer J.P.,Heart and Vascular Institute
Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care | Year: 2013

Objectives: This qualitative study describes the experiences of spousal caregivers of a patient with end-stage heart failure (HF) from pre-LVAD to post-LVAD-DT implantation. Background: LVAD-DTs are implanted as permanent devices for end-stage HF patients with the goal of improving the length and quality of life. LVADs create new demands for both patients and caregivers. Methods: In-depth, semi-structured interviews of 10 spousal caregivers were thematically analyzed. Results: Throughout the process of caregiving, pre-implant through post-implant, all caregivers discussed their ability to adapt within the role as a caregiver. Adaptation as a caregiver occurred through three distinct time frames following the progression of the patient's HF and subsequent LVAD implantation: caring for a spouse with HF, decision for LVAD implantation made, and caring for a spouse with the LVAD-DT. Conclusions: Caregivers were able to adapt and develop effective strategies to incorporate the demands of caring for a spouse with an LVAD-DT, but the role remained challenging. The findings underscore the need for continued research that may be translated into effective interventions to support patient and caregivers as they live through this end-of-life trajectory. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sale S.M.,Cleveland Clinic | Smedira N.G.,Heart and Vascular Institute
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology | Year: 2012

End-stage heart failure represents a highly morbid condition for the patient with limited treatment options. From a surgical perspective, the treatment options for effective long-term survival are usually limited to heart transplantation, heart-lung transplantation or implantation of a destination mechanical circulatory support device. Assuming an advanced heart-failure patient is indeed deemed a candidate for transplantation, the patient is subject to shortages in donor organ availability and thus possible further decompensation and potential death while awaiting transplantation. Various extracorporeal and implantable ventricular-assist devices (VADs) may be able to provide temporary or long-term circulatory support for many end-stage heart-failure patients but mechanical circulatory support options for patients requiring long-term biventricular support remain limited. Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) currently represents one, if not the best, long-term surgical treatment option for patients requiring biventricular mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplant. The clinical applicability of available versions of positive displacement pumps is limited by their size and complications. Application of continuous-flow technology can help in solving some of these issues and is currently being applied in the research towards a new generation of smaller and more effective TAHs. In this review, we discuss the history of the TAH, its development and clinical application, implications for anaesthetic management, published outcomes and the future outlook for TAHs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Stone G.W.,Columbia University Medical Center | Sudhir K.,Abbott Laboratories | Newman W.,Wake Medical Center | Applegate R.J.,North Carolina Baptist Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Objectives: We sought to determine whether the differences in outcomes present between everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in the SPIRIT (Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System) IV trial at 1 year were sustained with longer-term follow-up. Background: In the SPIRIT IV trial, patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention who were randomized to EES compared with PES experienced lower 1-year rates of target lesion failure (cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction [MI], or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization [TLR]), with significant reductions in the individual rates of MI, TLR, and stent thrombosis. Methods: We prospectively randomized 3,687 patients with up to 3 noncomplex previously untreated native coronary artery lesions to EES versus PES at 66 U.S. sites. Follow-up through 2 years is complete in 3,578 patents (97.0%). Results: Treatment with EES compared with PES reduced the 2-year rates of TLF (6.9% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003), all MI (2.5% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.02), Q-wave MI (0.1% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.002), stent thrombosis (0.4% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.008), and ischemia-driven TLR (4.5% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.004), with nonsignificantly different rates of all-cause and cardiac mortality. Between 1 year and 2 years, there were no significant differences in adverse event rates between the 2 stent types. Conclusions: In the large-scale, prospective, multicenter, randomized SPIRIT IV trial, the benefits of EES compared with those of PES present at 1 year were sustained at 2 years. (Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System; NCT01016041) © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Wiesen J.,Cleveland Clinic | Ornstein M.,Cleveland Clinic | Tonelli A.,Cleveland Clinic | Menon V.,Heart and Vascular Institute | Ashton R.,Cleveland Clinic
Heart | Year: 2013

The need to provide invasive mechanical ventilatory support to patients with myocardial infarction and acute left heart failure is common. Despite the large number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in this setting, there are remarkably few data addressing the ideal mode of respiratory support in such patients. Although there is near universal acceptance regarding the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary oedema, there is more concern with invasive positive pressure ventilation owing to its more significant haemodynamic impact. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is almost universally applied in mechanically ventilated patients due to benefits in gas exchange, recruitment of alveolar units, counterbalance of hydrostatic forces leading to pulmonary oedema and maintenance of airway patency. The limited available clinical data suggest that a moderate level of PEEP is safe to use in severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and cardiogenic shock, and may provide haemodynamic benefits as well in LV failure which exhibits afterloadsensitive physiology.

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