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George S.,University of Sussex | Cockburn J.,University of Sussex | Clayton T.C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ludman P.,University of Birmingham | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Background Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is common, being reported in 18% to 30% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is usually performed to relieve anginal symptoms, but data are emerging to suggest that there may also be a mortality benefit. Objectives This study aimed to compare outcomes of patients with successful versus unsuccessful PCI to a CTO. Methods We analyzed the U.K. Central Cardiac Audit Database for all CTO PCI cases carried out in England and Wales between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009. Vital status in September 2010 was obtained from the Medical Research Information Service. Results A total of 13,443 patients (78.8% male) had a mean age of 63.5 years and underwent 14,439 CTO procedures. CTO PCI was successful in 10,199 cases (70.6%). During follow-up of 2.65 years (interquartile range: 1.59 to 3.83 years), successful PCI of at least 1 CTO was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83; p < 0.001). Complete revascularization was associated with improved survival compared with partial revascularization (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.87; p = 0.002) or failed revascularization (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; p < 0.001). Conclusions Successful CTO PCI was associated with improved long-term survival. The improvement was greatest in patients when complete revascularization was achieved. The identity of the successfully treated occluded vessel was not associated with differences in outcome. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Pallasaho P.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | Kainu A.,Heart and Lung Center | Sovijarvi A.,University of Helsinki | Lindqvist A.,University of Helsinki | Piirila P.L.,University of Helsinki
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | Year: 2014

To assess risk factors related to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including smoking and occupational exposure (OE) to dusts, gases or fumes, we performed a longitudinal 11-year follow-up postal survey. The original study population was a random population sample of 8000 inhabitants of Helsinki aged 20 to 69 years in 1996. Participants of the first postal questionnaire were invited to this follow-up survey in 2007 with 4302 (78%) answers obtained. Cumulative incidence of COPD in 11 years was 3.43% corresponding to an incidence rate of 3.17/1000/year after exclusion of those with self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD and ever COPD in 1996. Smoking and age, but not gender, were associated with incident COPD. Reported family history of COPD increased the cumulative incidence to 8.55% vs 3.04% among those without a family history (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant independent risk factors for incident COPD were: current smoking in 1996 (OR 4.40 [95% CI 2.89-6.71]), age over 50 (OR 3.42 [95% CI 2.22-5.26]), family history of COPD (OR 2.08 [1.27-3.43]), ever asthma (OR 2.28 [1.35-3.86]), and self-reported OE (OR 2.14 [1.50-3.05]). Occupational exposure to dusts, gases or fumes, assessed both based on self-reported exposure and a job exposure matrix using reported professions, was an independent risk factor for incident COPD. Smoking and OE together yielded an additive effect on incidence of COPD. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Waldman B.,University of Sydney | Jenkins A.J.,University of Sydney | Davis T.M.E.,University of Western Australia | Taskinen M.-R.,Heart and Lung Center | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and small HDL particle size may directly promote hyperglycemia. We evaluated associations of HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and HDL-C/apoA-I with insulin secretion, insulin resistance, HbA1c, and long-term glycemic deterioration, reflected by initiation of pharmacologic glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The 5-year Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study followed 9,795 type 2 diabetic subjects. We calculated baseline associations of fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, and HDL-C/apoA-I with HbA1c and, in those not taking exogenous insulin (n = 8,271), with estimated β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Among the 2,608 subjects prescribed lifestyle only, Cox proportional hazards analysis evaluated associations of HDL-C, apoA-I, and HDL-C/apoA-I with subsequent initiation of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) or insulin. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and sex, baseline HDL-C, apoA-I, and HDL-C/apoA-I were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (r = 20.233, 20.134, and 20.230; all P < 0.001; n = 8,271) but not related to HbA1c (all P > 0.05; n = 9,795). ApoA-I was also inversely associated with HOMA-B (r = 20.063; P = 0.002; n = 8,271) adjusted for age, sex, and HOMA-IR. Prospectively, lower baseline HDL-C and HDL-C/apoA-I levels predicted greater uptake (per 1-SD lower: hazard ratio [HR] 1.13 [CI 1.07-1.19], P < 0.001; and HR 1.16 [CI 1.10-1.23], P < 0.001, respectively) and earlier uptake (median 12.9 and 24.0 months, respectively, for quartile 1 vs. quartile 4; both P < 0.01) of OHAs and insulin, with no difference in HbA1c thresholds for initiation (P = 0.87 and P = 0.81). Controlling for HOMA-IR and triglycerides lessened both associations, but HDL-C/apoA-I remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C, apoA-I, and HDL-C/apoA-I were associated with concurrent insulin resistance but not HbA1c. However, lower HDL-C and HDL-C/apoA-I predicted greater and earlier need for pharmacologic glucose control. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Boren J.,Gothenburg University | Matikainen N.,Heart and Lung Center | Matikainen N.,University of Helsinki | Adiels M.,Gothenburg University | Taskinen M.-R.,Heart and Lung Center
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is now established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This metabolic abnormality is principally initiated by overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of predisposing genetic variations and medical conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRLs in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall. Because of their size, most remnant particles cannot cross the endothelium as efficiently as smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, since each remnant particle contains approximately 40 times more cholesterol compared with LDL, elevated levels of remnants may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and CVD. The recognition of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in the clinical setting has been severely hampered by technical difficulties and the lack of established clinical protocols for investigating postprandial lipemia. In addition, there are currently no internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia. Here we review the mechanism for and consequences of excessive postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, epidemiological evidence in support of high triglycerides and remnant particles as risk factors for CVD, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia, methods to measure postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and apolipoproteins and, finally, current and future treatment opportunities. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kainu A.,Heart and Lung Center | Rouhos A.,Heart and Lung Center | Sovijarvi A.,University of Helsinki | Lindqvist A.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is globally a major, but often undiagnosed, cause of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of COPD in Helsinki, Finland, with international diagnostic criteria and to analyse risk factors including socioeconomic status, and disease severity. Methods: A general population sample of 628 adults (368 women) completed flow-volume spirometry with bronchodilation test and a structured interview. Post-bronchodilation spirometry was assessed both using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria and relative to the fifth percentile of the reference value (lower limit of normal, LLN). Results: According to GOLD criteria, 37 (5.9%), and by using the LLN criteria, 43 subjects (6.8%) had airway obstruction consistent with COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, four subjects or 0.6% of the population had severe, 3.0% moderate, and 2.2% mild COPD. Of those with post-bronchodilator obstruction, 49% had no previous diagnosis of obstructive airways disease and did not use medication for any respiratory disease. The prevalence of undiagnosed COPD defined by GOLD was 2.9% (LLN 3.3%). In addition to age, smoking history, and prior history of asthma, socioeconomic status based on occupation was significantly related to COPD in the population. Manual workers in industry (GOLD 10.0%, LLN 11.7%) and non-manual assistant employees (10.2%, 10.2%) had a significantly higher prevalence of COPD than professionals (2.8%, 2.3%). Conclusions: Although smoking is the main modifiable risk factor for COPD, the disease was significantly related to manual workers and non-manual assistant employees, i.e. socioeconomic groups reflecting occupation. © 2013 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source

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