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Pinto V.Z.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto V.Z.,University of Guelph | Moomand K.,University of Guelph | Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Pinhão seed is an unconventional source of starch and the pines grow up in native forests of southern Latin America. In this study, pinhão starch was adjusted at 15, 20 and 25% moisture content and heated to 100, 110 and 120 °C for 1 h. A decrease in λ max (starch/iodine complex) was observed as a result of increase in temperature and moisture content of HMT. The ratio of crystalline to amorphous phase in pinhão starch was determined via Fourier transform infra red by taking 1045/1022 band ratio. A decrease in crystallinity occurred as a result of HMT. Polarised light microscopy indicated a loss of birefringence of starch granules under 120 °C at 25% moisture content. Granule size distribution was further confirmed via scanning electron microscopy which showed the HMT effects. These results increased the understanding on molecular and structural properties of HMT pinhão starch and broadened its food and nonfood industrial applications. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Rasooly R.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | Hernlem B.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | He X.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | Friedman M.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Toxins | Year: 2015

Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Pinto V.Z.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto V.Z.,University of Guelph | Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Vanier N.L.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Pinhão starch was modified by annealing (ANN), heat-moisture (HMT) or sonication (SNT) treatments. The starch was also modified by a combination of these treatments (ANN-HMT, ANN-SNT, HMT-ANN, HMT-SNT, SNT-ANN, SNT-HMT). Whole starch and debranched starch fractions were analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography. Moreover, crystallinity, morphology, swelling power, solubility, pasting and gelatinization characteristics were evaluated. Native and single ANN and SNT-treated starches exhibited a CA-type crystalline structure while other modified starches showed an A-type structure. The relative crystallinity increased in ANN-treated starches and decreased in single HMT- and SNT-treated starches. The ANN, HMT and SNT did not provide visible cracks, notches or grooves to pinhão starch granule. SNT applied as second treatment was able to increase the peak viscosity of single ANN- and HMT-treated starches. HMT used alone or in dual modifications promoted the strongest effect on gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Vanier N.L.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | Paraginski R.T.,Federal University of Pelotas | Berrios J.D.J.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. The parboiling process is known to increase the nutritional value of milled rice, but the process darkens the grains, with a corresponding negative effect on consumer acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using different concentrations of sodium bisulfite (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0%) during the soaking step of rice parboiling process on the thiamine content and technological properties of parboiled rice. Moreover, the residual sulfite content in parboiled grains was also evaluated. The lowest concentration of 0.2% sodium bisulfite was able to significantly (p<. 0.05) promote a whiter colour, a decrease in the percentage of stained grains, and an increase in the percentage of completely gelatinized grains in the parboiled rice, compared to rice without sodium bisulfite treatment. However, the use of sodium bisulfite significantly (p<. 0.05) reduced the thiamine content, which is considered a risk associated with the treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Paiva F.F.,Federal University of Pelotas | Paiva F.F.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Vanier N.L.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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