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Evangelho J.A.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto V.Z.,Federal University of Pelotas | Berrios J.J.D.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120 min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30 days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Sedej I.,University of California at Davis | Milczarek R.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | Wang S.C.,University of California at Davis | Sheng R.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from 3- and 2-phase mills was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream. A pilot-scale spray dryer was used for the production of RO-R powder. The optimum temperature/feed pump conditions were obtained for 3-phase (150°C/4.4 Hz) and for 2-phase RO-R (175°C/3.8 Hz). The powders obtained by spray drying under these conditions were analysed for physicochemical properties, including identification and quantification of phenolic compounds. Protocatechuic acid, 3-hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid were quantified in both RO-R powders, which show the possibility to obtain a phenolic-rich powder from an OMWW filtration fraction. This will lead towards better usage of by-products from olive oil production. © 2016 Institute of Food Science and Technology


PubMed | Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit and University of California at Davis
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production.


Rasooly R.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | Hernlem B.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | He X.,Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit | Friedman M.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Toxins | Year: 2015

Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit and Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2015

Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Federal University of Pelotas and Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of starch source and amylose content on the expansion ratio, density, and texture of expanded extrudates, as well as to investigate the structural and molecular changes that occur in starch granules as a function of extrusion. The starches employed were rice starches (8%, 20%, and 32% amylose), carioca bean starch (35% amylose), and Hylon V


Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Vanier N.L.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | Paraginski R.T.,Federal University of Pelotas | Berrios J.D.J.,Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. The parboiling process is known to increase the nutritional value of milled rice, but the process darkens the grains, with a corresponding negative effect on consumer acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using different concentrations of sodium bisulfite (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0%) during the soaking step of rice parboiling process on the thiamine content and technological properties of parboiled rice. Moreover, the residual sulfite content in parboiled grains was also evaluated. The lowest concentration of 0.2% sodium bisulfite was able to significantly (p<. 0.05) promote a whiter colour, a decrease in the percentage of stained grains, and an increase in the percentage of completely gelatinized grains in the parboiled rice, compared to rice without sodium bisulfite treatment. However, the use of sodium bisulfite significantly (p<. 0.05) reduced the thiamine content, which is considered a risk associated with the treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Pinto V.Z.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto V.Z.,University of Guelph | Moomand K.,University of Guelph | Vanier N.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Pinhão seed is an unconventional source of starch and the pines grow up in native forests of southern Latin America. In this study, pinhão starch was adjusted at 15, 20 and 25% moisture content and heated to 100, 110 and 120 °C for 1 h. A decrease in λ max (starch/iodine complex) was observed as a result of increase in temperature and moisture content of HMT. The ratio of crystalline to amorphous phase in pinhão starch was determined via Fourier transform infra red by taking 1045/1022 band ratio. A decrease in crystallinity occurred as a result of HMT. Polarised light microscopy indicated a loss of birefringence of starch granules under 120 °C at 25% moisture content. Granule size distribution was further confirmed via scanning electron microscopy which showed the HMT effects. These results increased the understanding on molecular and structural properties of HMT pinhão starch and broadened its food and nonfood industrial applications. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


PubMed | Federal University of Pelotas and Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods.


PubMed | Federal University of Pelotas and Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice.

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