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Rauf A.,University of Punjab | Nadeem M.S.,University of Punjab | Ali A.,University of Punjab | Iqbal M.,University of Punjab | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Hepatitis B and C are the most common blood-borne liver infections worldwide. According to the recent estimates, 270-300 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and more than 2 billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmission of these viruses is carried out by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. Methods: Five-hundred and ninety (290 males and 300 females, 5-65 years) internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Swat area of northern Pakistan were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies using immune-chromatography kits. The subjects, positive for virus-related antibody, were further confirmed for viral RNA (for HCV) and DNA (for HBV) in the blood by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The virus of PCR-confirmed HCV-individuals was further genotyped and the prevalence of HCV infection was determined with respect to age, sex, history of exposure to blood or surgical operation and different types of liver diseases. Results: The HCV infection was found to be the predominant liver infection in the population which was 91 of the positive cases, as against 9 of HBV. Among the HCV-positive subjects (68 females, 32 males) 56 were asymptomatic. No co-incidence of HBV and HCV was found in any subject. Genotype 3a was the dominant strain of HCV followed by 2a>3b>1b>1a, 2b. Conclusion: The viral hepatitis among the apparently healthy population of a relatively natural and pollution free environment refers to an alarming condition about liver infections, particularly of HCV, in Pakistan. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

Rauf A.,University of Punjab | Rauf A.,Jammu University | Nadeem M.S.,University of Punjab | Nadeem M.S.,Hazara University | And 6 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

The hepatitis B, C and tuberculosis infections were not investigated in orphan children with low socioeconomic status living in the northern Pakistan. A total of 542 (292 male and 250 female), randomly selected orphan children with an age limit between 5 to 17 years were included in this study with informed consent. The subjects were screened for Anti HBsAg, Anti HCV and anti tuberculosis antibodies using immune-chromatography kits. Those found positive for initial screening were further confirmed by PCR amplification of RNA and DNA of related pathogens. HCV virus was also investigated for its genotypes. Among the total investigated subjects, 9.6% were found positive against HCV, 8.3% were found positive against TB and only one positive case against HBV was found. The genotype 3a was detected in majority PCR positive samples followed by genotype 2a> an unknown genotype >1a>1b and 2b. The higher frequency of viral hepatitis C and TB among the orphan children refers to an alarming situation about these infections and health care conditions of underprivileged orphan children in northern Pakistan. © Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Rauf A.,University of Punjab | Nadeem M.S.,University of Punjab | Arshad M.,Healthcare Diagnostics and Research Center | Riaz H.,University of Punjab | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) among the general population of a village population in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir area in Pakistan. Randomly selected male and female individuals of 5 to 70 years of age were screened for anti-body test for HCV and HBV. The samples found positive for virus related antigen and antibody were further investigated for the presence of viral RNA and DNA in the plasma using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HCV positive samples were further analyzed for the genotypes. Total 520 individuals (250 males and 270 females) from general population who willingly participated in the screening process were included in the study. Prevalence and the type of virus, the age, sex, history of exposure and the previous surgical of the participants was also investigated. 7.5% of participants were found positive against HCV antibody and only 0.96% were positive for HBV surface antigen. Among the individuals positive for HCV-PCR, the genotype 3a was the most prevalent, whereas genotypes 2a, 1b, 3b and an unidentified strain were also found. It is concluded that PCR based analysis along with concomitant HBsAg and anti-HCV testing permits diagnosis HBV and HCV infections. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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