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Fowles J.,Acadia University | Roy J.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada | Clarke J.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada | Dogra S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Health Reports | Year: 2014

Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2) were analyzed to determine if higher fitness categories are associated with better health. Respondents' fitness was assessed in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength, sit-and-reach and partial curl-ups, and also according to two composite measures (back fitness and musculoskeletal fitness). Fitness scores could range from "Needs improvement" to "Excellent." Pairwise t-tests were used to compare health outcomes across fitness categories. The health outcomes were waist circumference, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein, lung function, self-rated health, life satisfaction, and number of chronic conditions. All health outcomes except systolic blood pressure were significantly better among respondents whose cardiorespiratory fitness was "Excellent," compared with "Needs improvement." For grip strength and partial curl-ups, only glycated hemoglobin and self-rated health were better among respondents in the "Excellent" category, compared with "Needs improvement." Lung function was worse in those with better grip strength. No significant associations with health outcomes emerged for sit-and-reach. © Minister of Industry, 2014.

Cooper M.,Nutrition Research Division | Greene-Finestone L.,Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion Health at Canada | Lowell H.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Levesque J.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada | Robinson S.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada
Health Reports | Year: 2012

Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. Data and methods: The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period-97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. Interpretation: The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors. © Minister of Industry, 2012.

Ellison L.F.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada | Bryant H.,Canadian Partnership Against Cancer | Lockwood G.,Canadian Partnership Against Cancer | Shack L.,University of Calgary
Health Reports | Year: 2011

Survival estimates measured from the time of a cancer diagnosis become less informative after one or two years' survival. Using records from the Canadian Cancer Registry linked to the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database, five-year conditional relative survival ratio (RSR) estimates were derived for a large number of cancers. For each cancer with an initial five-year RSR of at least 80% (except breast cancer), a conditional five-year RSR of 95% or more was achieved after five years' survival. Among cancers with initial five-year RSRs of 50% to 79%, a five-year conditional RSR of 95% or more was observed for cancers of the cervix uteri and colon after five years. There was no apparent improvement in survival prospects during the first five years after diagnosis for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Despite initial prognoses of less than 50%, a conditional five-year RSR of at least 90% five years after diagnosis was achieved for stomach cancer and leukemia (excluding CLL).

Findlay L.C.,Health Analysis Division | Sunderland A.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada
Health Reports | Year: 2014

Background: The prevalence of mental health problems in Canada is highest among youth and young adults. Relatively little is known about where they seek support and the factors related to help-seeking. Data and methods: Based on the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health, this study describes professional and informal mental health support reported by Canadians aged 15 to 24. Results: In 2012, 12% of 15-to 24-year-olds reported that, in the previous 12 months, they had consulted health professionals about emotional, mental or substance use problems; 27% reported consulting informal sources such as family and friends. Young Canadians with mood, anxiety or substance disorders, one or more chronic physical conditions, higher levels of distress, or who had a traumatic childhood experience were more likely than their contemporaries who did not have these risk factors to report contact with professional and informal sources of support. Those with multiple needs-related factors had significantly higher odds of reporting contact with professional and informal sources. Interpretation: More than one in ten young Canadians consulted professionals and about a quarter sought informal support for mental health problems problems in the past year. The percentages were higher among those with multiple risk factors. © Minister of Industry, 2014.

Ellison L.F.,Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada
Health Reports | Year: 2014

Background: Relative survival analyses of cancer data often incorporate outdated information about expected survival when current information is not readily available. The assumption is that any bias introduced into the estimation of expected survival, and hence, into the estimate of relative survival, will be negligible. However, empirical studies of potential bias have yet to be published. Data and methods: Data are from the Canadian Cancer Registry with mortality follow-up through record linkage to the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. Period method relative survival ratios (RSRs) for 2005- 2007 were derived using life tables centred on the 2006 Census of Population to estimate expected survival. The analysis was repeated using life tables from 5 and 10 years earlier. Results: Deriving expected survival from life tables 5 years out of date resulted in increases in RSRs for all cancers. These increases became greater with lengthening survival duration. For example, increases in 1-, 5- and 10-year RSRs were 0.2, 0.8 and 1.7 percentage units, respectively, for all cancers combined. Increases in 5-year survival were highest for prostate (2.0) and bladder cancer (1.6); among males (1.2); and among people aged 75 to 99 at diagnosis (1.9). Differences were approximately double when life tables 10 years out of date were used. Interpretation: The use of historical rather than current expected survival data in calculating RSRs for cancer may lead to consequential overestimation of survival. © Minister of Industry, 2014.

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