Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center

Dublin, Ireland

Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center

Dublin, Ireland
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Oza A.,Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center
Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2016

As antibiotic consumption rates between hospitals can vary depending on the characteristics of the patients treated, risk-adjustment that compensates for the patient-based variation is required to assess the impact of any stewardship measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of patient-based administrative data variables for adjusting aggregate hospital antibiotic consumption rates. Data on total inpatient antibiotics and six broad subclasses were sourced from 34 acute hospitals from 2006 to 2014. Aggregate annual patient administration data were divided into explanatory variables, including major diagnostic categories, for each hospital. Multivariable regression models were used to identify factors affecting antibiotic consumption. Coefficient of variation of the root mean squared errors (CV-RMSE) for the total antibiotic usage model was very good (11%), however, the value for two of the models was poor (> 30%). The overall inpatient antibiotic consumption increased from 82.5 defined daily doses (DDD)/100 bed-days used in 2006 to 89.2 DDD/100 bed-days used in 2014; the increase was not significant after risk-adjustment. During the same period, consumption of carbapenems increased significantly, while usage of fluoroquinolones decreased. In conclusion, patient-based administrative data variables are useful for adjusting hospital antibiotic consumption rates, although additional variables should also be employed. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

Garvey P.,Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center | Garvey P.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | O'Grady B.,University College Dublin | Franzoni G.,University College Dublin | And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2017

Robust data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) population prevalence are essential to inform national HCV services. In 2016, we undertook a survey to estimate HCV prevalence among the adult population in Ireland. We used anonymised residual sera available at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. We selected a random sample comprising persons ≥ 18 years with probability proportional to the general population age-sex distribution. Anti-HCV and HCV Ag were determined using the Architect anti-HCV and HCV Ag assays. Fifty-three of 3,795 specimens were seropositive (age-sex-area weighted seroprevalence 0.98% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73–1.3%)). Thirty-three specimens were HCV-antigen and antibody-positive (age-sex-area weighted prevalence of chronic infection 0.57% (95% CI: 0.40–0.81%)). The prevalence of chronic infection was higher in men (0.91%; 95% CI: 0.61–1.4%), in specimens from the east of the country (1.4%; 95%CI: 0.99–2.0%), and among persons aged 30–39 years and 40–49 years (1.1% (95% CI: 0.59–2.0%) and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.64–1.9%) respectively). Ireland ranks at the lower end of the spectrum of prevalence of chronic HCV infection internationally. Men born between 1965 and 1984 from the east of the country have the highest rate of chronic HCV infection. © 2017, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Vestergaard L.S.,Statens Serum Institute | Nielsen J.,Statens Serum Institute | Krause T.G.,Statens Serum Institute | Espenhain L.,Statens Serum Institute | And 32 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2017

Since December 2016, excess all-cause mortality was observed in many European countries, especially among people aged ≥ 65 years. We estimated all-cause and influenza-attributable mortality in 19 European countries/regions. Excess mortality was primarily explained by circulation of influenza virus A(H3N2). Cold weather snaps contributed in some countries. The pattern was similar to the last major influenza A(H3N2) season in 2014/15 in Europe, although starting earlier in line with the early influenza season start. © 2017, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Valenciano M.,EpiConcept | Kissling E.,EpiConcept | Reuss A.,Robert Koch Institute | Rizzo C.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 13 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2016

Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses cocirculated in Europe in 2014/15. We undertook a multicentre case–control study in eight European countries to measure 2014/15 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. General practitioners swabbed all or a systematic sample of ILI patients. We compared the odds of vaccination of ILI influenza positive patients to negative patients. We calculated adjusted VE by influenza type/subtype, and age group. Among 6,579 ILI patients included, 1,828 were A(H3N2), 539 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1,038 B. VE against A(H3N2) was 14.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.3 to 31.0) overall, 20.7% (95%CI: -22.3 to 48.5), 10.9% (95%CI -30.8 to 39.3) and 15.8% (95% CI: -20.2 to 41.0) among those aged 0–14, 15–59 and ≥60 years, respectively. VE against A(H1N1) pdm09 was 54.2% (95%CI: 31.2 to 69.6) overall, 73.1% (95%CI: 39.6 to 88.1), 59.7% (95%CI: 10.9 to 81.8), and 22.4% (95%CI: -44.4 to 58.4) among those aged 0–14, 15–59 and ≥60 years respectively. VE against B was 48.0% (95%CI: 28.9 to 61.9) overall, 62.1% (95%CI: 14.9 to 83.1), 41.4% (95%CI: 6.2 to 63.4) and 50.4% (95%CI: 14.6 to 71.2) among those aged 0–14, 15–59 and ≥60 years respectively. VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B was moderate. The low VE against A(H3N2) is consistent with the reported mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains. © 2016, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Fitzgerald M.,Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center | Fitzgerald M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Thornton L.,Health Service Executive Health Protection Surveillance Center | O'Gorman J.,University College Dublin | And 24 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

In May 2013, a European alert was issued regarding a hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in Italy. In June 2013, HAV subgenotype IA with an identical sequence was identified in Ireland in three cases who had not travelled to Italy. The investigation consisted of descriptive epidemiology, a case-control study, microbiological testing of human and food specimens, molecular typing of positive specimens and food traceback. We identified 21 outbreak cases (14 confirmed primary cases) with symptom onset between 31 January and 11 October 2013. For the case-control study, we recruited 11 confirmed primary cases and 42 matched controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten berry cheesecake (matched odds ratio (mOR): 12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-114), whole frozen berries (mOR: 9.5; 95% CI: 1.0-89), yoghurt containing fro- zen berries (mOR: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.2-37) or raw celery (mOR: 4; 95% CI: 1.2-16). Among cases, 91% had consumed at least one of four products containing frozen berries (mOR: 12; 95% CI: 1.5-94). Sixteen food samples tested were all negative for HAV. As products containing frozen berries were implicated in the outbreak, the public were advised to heat-treat frozen berries before consumption. © 2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Adlhoch C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Avellon A.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Baylis S.A.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Ciccaglione A.R.,National Institute Of Health Instituto Superiore Of Sanita Iss | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2016

Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in EU/EEA countries, but the understanding of the burden of the infection in humans is inconsistent as the disease is not under EU surveillance but subject to national policies. Study Countries were asked to nominate experts and to complete a standardised questionnaire about the epidemiological situation and surveillance of HEV in their respective EU/EEA country. This study reviewed surveillance systems for human cases of HEV in EU/EEA countries and nominated experts assessed the epidemiology in particular examining the recent increase in the number of autochthonous cases. Results Surveillance systems and case definitions across EU/EEA countries were shown to be highly variable and testing algorithms were unreliable. Large increases of autochthonous cases were reported from Western EU/EEA countries with lower case numbers seen in Northern and Southern European countries. Lack of clinical awareness and variability in testing strategies might account for the observed differences in hepatitis E incidence across EU/EEA countries. Infections were predominantly caused by HEV genotype 3, the most prevalent virus type in the animal reservoirs. Conclusion Discussions from the expert group supported joint working across countries to better monitor the epidemiology and possible changes in risk of virus acquisition at a European level. There was agreement to share surveillance strategies and algorithms but also importantly the collation of HEV data from human and animal populations. These data collected at a European level would serve the ‘One Health’ approach to better informing on human exposure to HEV. © 2016

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