Taghipour A.,Health science Research Center |
Roudsari R.L.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences |
Mohammadi E.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Omranipour R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014
Background: Delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer is a public health issue in Iran, making a major contribution to low survival. Despite the importance of this problem, current knowledge is insufficient to inform interventions to shorten patient delay. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing patient delay in Iranian women with self-discovered breast cancer symptom. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted during 2012-2013. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 20 Iranian women with self-discovered symptoms of breast cancer who attended the Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth audiotaped interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software version 10. Findings: Content analysis of the data revealed four main themes related to the delay in seeking medical help including: 1) attributing symptoms to the benign conditions; 2) conditional health behavior; 3) inhibiting emotional expression; and 4) barriers to access to health care systems. Conclusions: These results suggest that patient delay is influenced by complex and multiple factors. Effective intervention to reduce patient delay for breast cancer should be developed by focusing on improvement of women's medical knowledge, managing patients' emotional expression and reform of the referral system.
Morgado M.P.,University of Beira Interior |
Morgado S.R.,HCCB |
Mendes L.C.,Health science Research Center |
Pereira L.J.,UBI |
Castelo-Branco M.,Health science Research Center
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2011
Purpose. Pharmacist interventions to enhance blood pressure (BP) control and adherence to antihypertensive therapy in adults with essential hypertension were reviewed. Methods. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant articles describing pharmacist interventions intended to improve adherence to antihypertensive medications. Studies were included if they described a pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence and analyzed adherence to therapy and BP control as outcomes. A fixed-effects model was used to combine data from randomized controlled trials. Results. A total of 15 studies were identified, testing 16 different interventions and containing data on 3280 enrolled patients. Although 87.5% of the interventions resulted in significant improvements in treatment outcomes, only 43.8% of the interventions were associated with significant increases in medication adherence. All interventions that increased antihypertensive medication adherence also significantly reduced BP. Almost all the interventions that were effective in increasing adherence to medication were complex, including combinations of different strategies. Meta-analysis of 2619 patients in 8 studies found that pharmacist interventions significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p = 0.002) and that the meta-analytic differences in SBP and DBP changes from baseline to endpoint in intervention and control groups were -4.9 ± 0.9 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and -2.6 ± 0.9 mm Hg (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. A literature review and meta-analysis showed that pharmacist interventions can significantly improve medication adherence, SBP, DBP, and BP control in patients with essential hypertension. Interventions were complex and multifaceted and included medication management in all analyzed studies. Copyright © 2011, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lima A.,Health science Research Center |
Lima A.,University of Porto |
Azevedo R.,Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto IPO Porto |
Azevedo R.,University of Porto |
And 5 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2013
TS is critical for providing the requisite nucleotide precursors in order to maintain DNA synthesis and repair. Furthermore, it is an important target for several drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate. However, several mechanisms of resistance to TS inhibitors have been explained as linked to TYMS overexpression. Some authors have described the relationship between genetic polymorphismson TYMS, in particular rs34743033, rs2853542 and rs34489327, with the development of several diseases and with the clinical response to drug therapy and/or survival. Nevertheless, the obtained results described in the literature are controversial, which has lead to a search strategy to understand the impact of these polymorphisms on molecular epidemiology and pharmacogenetics. With the progress of these scientific areas, early identification of individuals at risk of disease along with improvement in the prediction of patients' outcome will offer a powerful tool for the translation of TYMS polymorphisms into clinical practice and individualization of treatments. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.
Pereira A.,Royal University |
Pereira A.,Research Center in Sports |
Costa A.M.,Research Center in Sports |
Costa A.M.,University of Beira Interior |
And 10 more authors.
BMC Geriatrics | Year: 2013
Background: We studied the influence of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms (single or combined) on lower-extremity function in older women in response to high-speed power training. Methods. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy older Caucasian women participated in this study (age: 65.5 ± 8.2 years, body mass: 67.0 ± 10.0 kg and height: 1.57 ± 0.06 m). Walking speed (S10) performance and functional capacity assessed by the "get-up and go" (GUG) mobility test were measured at baseline (T1) and after a consecutive 12-week period of high-speed power training (40-75% of one repetition maximum in arm and leg extensor exercises; 3 sets 4-12 reps, and two power exercises for upper and lower extremity). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Genotype distributions between groups were compared by Chi-Square test and the gains in physical performance were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes (P > 0.05). ACE I/D and ACTN3 polymorphisms showed a significant interaction genotype-training only in S10 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.044, respectively) and not in the GUG test (P = 0.311 and P = 0.477, respectively). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed no other significant differences in all phenotypes (P < 0.05) at baseline. However, in response to high-speed power training, a significant interaction on walking speed (P = 0.048) was observed between the "power" (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus "non-power" muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Conclusions: Thus, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are likely candidates in the modulation of exercise-related gait speed phenotype in older women but not a significant influence in mobility traits. © 2013 Pereira et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Relvas M.,Northern Higher Institute of Health Sciencies |
Relvas M.,Health science Research Center |
Tomas I.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Salaza F.,Northern Higher Institute of Health Sciencies |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Periodontology | Year: 2014
Background: The efficacy of various partial-mouth recording (PMR) systems is analyzed in the evaluation of periodontal status, using index teeth and different combinations of quadrants. Methods: The study group was formed of 108 adults aged25 to 65 years old. A full-mouth examination (FME) was performed in all participants to determine the periodontal probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) at six sites per tooth. The results of PMR using the Ramfjord teeth, the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs teeth, and the four quadrants individually and combined in pairs were compared to the results obtained with FME. Results: Concordance with FME in terms of the prevalence of patients with PD ‡4 mm, CAL ‡2 mm, and CAL ‡4mmwas lowest with examination of single quadrants and highest with combinations that included one superior and one inferior quadrant. Conclusions: PMR systems, particularly with combinations of a superior plus an inferior quadrant, could be useful to evaluate periodontal status based on PD and CAL. This tool could be useful for epidemiologic surveys on periodontal status.
Fakheri H.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences |
Bari Z.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences |
Aarabi M.,Health science Research Center |
Malekzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
The efficacy of first-and second-line Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) eradication regimens varies considerably in West Asian countries, mainly due to the variable prevalence of resistant organisms. However, no review article has yet evaluated and compared the efficacy of different regimens among different countries of this region. Therefore, we conducted a review to select the best options and provide recommendations for H. Pylori treatment in this geographic region. A search through PubMed was carried out to obtain relevant randomized clinical trials published in English language up to June 2013. According to the results, among different therapeutic regimens used as the first-line protocols, 10-d Bismuth-Furazolidone/Metronidazole quadruple therapy, 14-d Clarithromycin-containing hybrid therapy and 14-d quadruple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor + Bismuth + Tetracycline (500 mg QID) + Metronidazole (500 mg TDS) seemed to be appropriate options. Among second-line therapeutic regimens, Bismuthbased quadruple therapies containing Tetracycline and Furazolidone/Metronidazole, triple therapy containing Amoxicillin and Gatifloxacin and Quadruple therapy including Bismuth + Azithromycin and Ofloxacin seemed to be effective options. Third-line therapies were not evaluated in West Asia; most guidelines, however, recommend choosing optimal eradication regimen according to the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of H. Pylori . Although we limited our investigation to H. Pylori eradication regimens in West Asia, the clinical significance of the results goes beyond the countries situated in this geographic region. In fact, the results are transferrable to any region as long as the patterns of resistance are the same. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Faustino H.,University of Beira Interior |
Gil N.,University of Beira Interior |
Baptista C.,University of Beira Interior |
Baptista C.,Polytechnic Institute of Tomar |
And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2010
The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method), and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI) ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by 1H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Bahrami-Taghanaki H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences |
Liu Y.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine |
Aziz H.,MUMS |
Khorsand A.,MUMS |
And 3 more authors.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2014
Background • Chronic low-back pain (cLBP) is a common condition throughout the world, and acupuncture is widely sought for treatment. As clinical evidence for the benefits of acupuncture grows, acupuncture for cLBP is receiving increased recognition and acceptance by both patients and professionals. Time method acupuncture has been previously researched with respect to chronic gastritis. Objective • For individuals with cLBP in the current study, the research team examined the efficacy of adding confluent acupoints, related to the daytime period in time method acupuncture, to regular acupuncture and also evaluated the persistence of the benefits of such acupuncture in comparison with regular acupuncture. Design • The study was a randomized, controlled trial (RCT). Setting • The setting was an outpatient clinic of the Dongzhimen Hospital in Beijing, China. Participants • Participants were Chinese men and women with cLBP. Intervention • Sixty participants were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive acupuncture. The control group received a treatment that followed a routine acupuncture (RA) protocol, while the intervention group received a treatment that followed an RA protocol plus acupuncture in confluent points related to time (TA). Outcome Measures • The research team measured the change in participants’ scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS), the number of therapy sessions needed, the number of days that participants were absent from work during the treatment period and at 12 wk posttreatment, and the number of pain relapses between the end of treatment and the 4- and 12-wk follow-ups. Results • VAS scores decreased from 69.6 ± 7.9 to 11.8 ± 4.9 in the intervention group compared with a decrease from 69.2 ± 8.0 to 15.7 ± 10.0 in the control group (P =.001). The intervention group received fewer therapy sessions (8.1 ± 2.0) than did the control group (10.1 ± 2.0, P <.001). Compared with the controls, the intervention group showed fewer days absent from work (0.5 vs 1.4; P =.03) and fewer pain relapses (4.0 vs 7.0; P =.04) at the 12-wk follow-up. In the 2 groups combined, VAS decreased from 69.4 ± 7.9 before the first session of acupuncture to 13.8 ± 8.0 after the last session (P <.001), and the number of therapy sessions needed for pain relief was 9.1 ± 2.2. Conclusion Accompanying routine acupuncture with time method acupuncture can enhance the efficacy of treatment and the persistence of its benefits in individuals with cLBP. © 2014, InnoVision Communications. All rights reserved.
Kashfi S.M.,Health Science Research Center |
Khani Jeihooni A.,Fasa University of Medical Sciences |
Rezaianzadeh A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences |
Amini S.H.,Fasa University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2012
Background: Researchers believe that most of diabetic patients are not necessarily aware of the role of exercises, especially jogging in controlling their disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of educational program and jogging based on health belief model (HBM) on sugar control in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred diabetic (type 2) patients were involved in this prospective quasi- experimental interven-tional study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the HBM model, a check list for patient's practices and a check list for recording the patient's hemoglobin (HbA1C) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels. Results: Our findings indicated that after intervention, there was a significant difference between the mean score of the HBM model variables (susceptibility, severity, benefit and perceived obstacles,) in the experimental group compared to the control group. Additionally, behavioral jogging, level of HbA1C and FBS levels improved significantly among the experimental group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Applying the HBM model was found to be a very effective means for developing an educational program of jogging for diabetics, in order to control their blood sugar. © Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.
PubMed | Health Science Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current gene therapy | Year: 2015
Current influenza vaccines have long been used to fight flu infectious; however, recent advances highlight the importance of produce new alternatives. Even though traditional influenza vaccines are safe and usually effective, they need to be uploaded every year to anticipate circulating flu viruses. This limitation together with the use of embryonated chicken eggs as the substrate for vaccine production, is time-consuming and could involve potential biohazards in growth of new virus strains. Plasmid DNA produced by prokaryote microorganisms and encoding foreign proteins had emerged as a promising therapeutic tool. This technology allows the expression of a gene of interest by eukaryotic cells in order to induce protective immune responses against the pathogen of interest. In this review, we discuss the strategies to choose the best DNA vaccine to be applied in the treatment and prevention of influenza. Specifically, we give an update of influenza DNA vaccines developments, all involved techniques, their main characteristics, applicability and technical features to obtain the best option against influenza infections.