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Maceió, Brazil

Juca M.J.,Federal University of Alagoas | Bandeira B.C.,Federal University of Alagoas | Carvalho D.S.,Federal University of Alagoas | Leal A.T.,Health science
Journal of Coloproctology | Year: 2014

The induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rodents has a long history and currently uses the substances 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and azoxymethane. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the inductive effect of the substances azoxymethane and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in colorectal carcinogenesis. Method: 30 randomly chosen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. G1 group was treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and C1 was its control group; G2 group was treated azoxymethane and C2 was its control group. The animals were weekly weighed until euthanasia, when their intestines were removed, processed and analyzed by an experienced pathologist. Results: Among the control groups (C1 and C2) no histologic changes were observed; moderate dysplasia was detected in G2 group; hyperplasia, mild dysplasia, severe dysplasia and carcinoma were observed in G1 group. When this study compared the cost of the substances, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was more than 50 times less expensive than azoxymethane. Conclusion: Azoxymethane is able to promote histological changes consistent with colorectal carcinogenesis. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine produced neoplasia and dysplasia, and, compared to the azoxymethane, was more efficient in the induction of colorectal cancer. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Coloproctologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

Oldenburg J.,Health science
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2015

Background: The majority of testicular cancer (TC) patients are cured and expected to live for decades after treatment, such that knowledge about hypogonadism and fertility issues is particularly important for the group of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). Hypogonadism and fertility issues are related to treatment intensity. Methods: In order to give an overview about hypogonadism in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) the literature was reviewed. Testicular dysfunction was defined as inadequate spermatogenesis, as reflected by increased levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and reduced fertility and/with or without insufficient testosterone (T) production with or without compensatory increased Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels. Findings: Hypogonadism may lead to reduced sexual functioning and well-being, fertility problems, muscle weakness, loss of energy, and depression. Furthermore, hypogonadism also increases the risk of osteoporosis and is associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesized "Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome" comprising low sperm counts, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and finally TC, probably contributes to hypogonadism independent of applied TC treatment. Recently, an increased risk of accelerated hormonal ageing has been reported in TCSs in the very long term, i.e. 20 years after TC treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Collier A.,The Ayr Hospital | Ghosh S.,AMRI Institute of Diabetes and Hormonal Disorders | Hair M.,NHS Ayrshire and Arran | Waugh N.,Health science
Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Aims: In this cross-sectional study, the aims were to investigate the association of the socioeconomic status and gender on the prevalence of type 1 and 2 diabetes, glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors plus the complications of diabetes in a population-based analysis in the county of Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland. Methods: Quality Outcome Framework data was obtained from General Practices in Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland (n= 15,351 patients). Results: In type 1 diabetes, there was an increasing linear trend in HbA1c across deprivation levels (P< 0.01). In type 1 diabetes, obesity in women (P<0.01) and increased non-fasting triglyceride levels in both men and women were associated with deprivation (P< 0.05). In type 2 diabetes, there was a significant prevalence trend with deprivation for women (P< 0.01) but not with glycaemic control (P=0.12). Smoking, ischaemic heart disease and neuropathy (P< 0.01) were all associated with increasing deprivation with gender differences. In type 2 diabetes, reduced HDL cholesterol (P< 0.01 both genders), and percentage of people on lipid lowering therapy (men P< 0.05; women P< 0.01) were associated with deprivation. Smoking, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy plus foot ulcers (P< 0.05) were all associated with increasing deprivation with gender differences. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status and gender are associated with changes in glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors plus complication development in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The mechanisms are unclear but follow-up of these patients should allow greater understanding. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Henning M.J.,Health science | Betancourt T.S.,Research Program on Children and Global Adversity | Khanna S.K.,Oregon State University
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education | Year: 2016

Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV and AIDS epidemic. At present, UNAIDS estimates that nearly 17 million children have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS (Joint United Nations Programmed on HIV/AIDS, 2010). In Zambia, where estimated HIV prevalence is 13.5% as of 2009, mortality and protracted illness from AIDS have created a generation of children that are HIV/AIDS affected often cared for by chronically ill caregivers. A direct association exists between the increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS affected children and increases in child labor, child prostitution, sexual exploitation, and juvenile delinquency. Methods: This research sought to identify positive protective factors for HIV/AIDS affected children that contribute to improved school attendance. Quantitative and qualitative results were used to triangulate findings on protective factors that would support children and their school attendance. The 2009 National Zambia Sexual Behavior Survey was analyzed using data collected from a nationally representative sample of interviews of households with 475 HIV/AIDS affected children compared to 1176 households without children made vulnerable due to HIV/AIDS. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups from 6 different schools with a high proportion of HIV/AIDS affected children (N = 34 total participants; 16 males, 18 females). Results: Our data analysis indicates that number of school-age children in a home is related to school attendance. For HIV/AIDS affected households there is a significant association between schooling support and school attendance (r = 0.12, p < .01). Finally, a negative association between children that are HIV/AIDS affected and step-parents appear to negatively influence school attendance (going to school). Our findings suggest that future culturally and contextually specific interventions to further bolster school attendance. Finally, we discuss the importance of a focus on education settings as a sustainable community-based approach to support vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS. © 2016 Institute of Health Promotion and Education

Brunner R.L.,University of Nevada, Reno | Wactawski-Wende J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Caan B.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Cochrane B.B.,University of Washington | And 10 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2011

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of calcium plus vitamin D (CaD), we examined the treatment effect on incidence and mortality for all invasive cancers. Postmenopausal women (N = 36,282) were randomized to 1,000 mg of elemental calcium with 400 IU vitamin D3 or placebo. Cox models estimated risk of cancer incidence and mortality. After 7.0 yr, 1,306 invasive cancers were diagnosed in the supplement and 1,333 in the placebo group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.98; CI = 0.90, 1.05, unweighted P = 0.54]. Mortality did not differ between supplement (315, annualized% =.26) and placebo [(347, 0.28%; P = 0.17; HR = 0.90 (0.77, 1.05)]. Significant treatment interactions on incident cancer were found for family history of cancer, personal total intake of vitamin D, smoking, and WHI dietary trial randomized group. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation did not reduce invasive cancer incidence or mortality. Supplementation lowered cancer risk in the WHI healthy diet trial arm and in women without a first-degree relative with cancer. The interactions are only suggestive given multiple testing considerations. The low vitamin D dose provided, limited adherence, and lack of serum 25(OH)D values should be considered when interpreting these findings. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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