Health Research Institute La Fe

Valencia, Spain

Health Research Institute La Fe

Valencia, Spain
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Lehtonen L.,University of Turku | Gimeno A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Parra-Llorca A.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Vento M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Vento M.,Health Research Institute La Fe
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2017

Early neonatal death (ENND), defined as the death of a newborn between zero and seven days after birth, represents 73% of all postnatal deaths worldwide. Despite a 50% reduction in childhood mortality, reduction of ENND has significantly lagged behind other Millennium Developmental Goal achievements and is a growing contributor to overall mortality in children aged <5 years. The etiology of ENND is closely related to the level of a country's industrialization. Hence, prematurity and congenital anomalies are the leading causes in high-income countries. Furthermore, sudden unexpected early neonatal deaths (SUEND) and collapse have only recently been identified as relevant and often preventable causes of death. Concomitantly, perinatal-related events such as asphyxia and infections are extremely relevant in Africa, South East Asia, and Latin America and, together with prematurity, are the principal contributors to ENND. In high-income countries, according to current research evidence, survival may be improved by applying antenatal and perinatal therapies and immediate newborn resuscitation, as well as by centralizing at-risk deliveries to centers with appropriate expertise available around the clock. In addition, resources should be allocated to the close surveillance of newborn infants, especially during the first hours of life. Many of the conditions leading to ENND in low-income countries are preventable with relatively easy and cost-effective interventions such as contraception, vaccination of pregnant women, hygienic delivery at a hospital, training health care workers in resuscitation practices, simplified algorithms that allow for early detection of perinatal infections, and early initiation of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care. The future is promising. As initiatives undertaken in previous decades have led to substantial reduction in childhood mortality, it is expected that new initiatives targeting the perinatal/neonatal periods are bound to reduce ENND and provide these babies with a better future. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Garcia-Blanco A.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Garcia-Blanco A.,University of Valencia | Diago V.,Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe | Serrano De La Cruz V.,Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe | And 3 more authors.
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2017

Background Preterm birth is a major paediatric challenge difficult to prevent and with major adverse outcomes. Prenatal stress plays an important role on preterm birth; however, there are few stress-related models to predict preterm birth in women with Threatened Preterm Labor (TPL). Objective The aim of this work is to study the influence of stress biomarkers on time until birth in TPL women. Methods Eligible participants were pregnant women between 24 and 31 gestational weeks admitted to the hospital with TPL diagnosis (n = 166). Stress-related biomarkers (α-amylase and cortisol) were determined in saliva samples after TPL diagnosis. Participants were followed-up until labor. A parametric survival model was constructed based on α-amylase, cortisol), TPL gestational week, age, parity, and multiple pregnancy. The model was adjusted using a logistic distribution and it was implemented as a nomogram to predict the labor probability at 7- and 14-day term. Results The time until labor was associated with cortisol (p = 0.001), gestational week at TPL diagnosis (p = 0.004), and age (p = 0.02). Importantly, high cortisol levels at TPL diagnosis were predictive of latency to labor. Validation of the model yielded an optimum corrected AUC value of 0.63. Conclusions High cortisol levels at TPL diagnosis may have an important role in the preterm birth prediction. Our statistical model implemented as a nomogram provided accurate predictions of individual prognosis of pregnant women. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Garcia-Blanco A.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Garcia-Blanco A.,University of Valencia | Salmeron L.,University of Valencia | Perea M.,University of Valencia | Perea M.,Basque Center on Cognition
Biological Psychology | Year: 2017

This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed. Manic patients showed a higher percentage of initial fixations on happy scenes than on the other scenes, regardless of the instructions. However, in the attend-to-neutral block, their gaze durations were longest for threatening scenes. Inhibitory control was not modulated by the scene's emotional salience in the other groups. Thus, manic patients had difficulties voluntarily ignoring emotional information – this was characterized by a happy-related bias during initial orienting, but a threat-related bias during attentional engagement. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia-Blanco A.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Garcia-Blanco A.,University of Valencia | Salmeron L.,University of Valencia | Perea M.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Perea M.,Bcbl Basque Center On Cognition
Biological Psychology | Year: 2015

We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e. by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e. by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode-this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Cernada M.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Cernada M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Brugada M.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Brugada M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Neonatology | Year: 2014

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication related to mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period. However, lack of a specific definition and difficulties obtaining noncontaminated samples of the lower respiratory airway render microbiological diagnosis and etiological treatment extremely difficult. Thus far, only few studies have approached VAP using accepted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and reliable sampling techniques. In recent years, however, the blind-protected bronchoalveolar lavage technique with protected specimen brush and the development of validated biomarkers have attempted to overcome the diagnostic difficulties and assess the response to therapy. This updated review on neonatal VAP aims to stimulate neonatologists' interest in this subtle but serious complication of mechanical ventilation. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Perez-Guaita D.,University of Valencia | Wilk A.,University of Ulm | Kuligowski J.,University of Valencia | Quintas G.,Health Research Institute la Fe | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The use of chemometrics in order to improve the molecular selectivity of infrared (IR) spectra has been evaluated using classic least squares (CLS), partial least squares (PLS), science-based calibration (SBC), and multivariate curve resolution-alternate least squares (MCR-ALS) techniques for improving the discriminatory and quantitative performance of infrared hollow waveguide gas sensors. Spectra of mixtures of isobutylene, methane, carbon dioxide, butane, and cyclopropane were recorded, analyzed, and validated for optimizing the prediction of associated concentrations. PLS, CLS, and SBC provided equivalent results in the absence of interferences. After addition of the spectral characteristics of water by humidifying the sample mixtures, CLS and SBC results were similar to those obtained by PLS only if the water spectrum was included in the calibration model. In the presence of an unknown interferant, CLS revealed errors up to six times higher than those obtained by PLS. However, SBC provided similar results compared to PLS by adding a measured noise matrix to the model. Using MCR-ALS provided an excellent estimation of the spectra of the unknown interference. Furthermore, this method also provided a qualitative and quantitative estimation of the components of an unknown set of samples. In summary, using the most suitable chemometrics approach could improve the selectivity and quality of the calibration model derived for a sensor system, and may avoid the need to analyze expensive calibration data sets. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that (1) if all sample components of the system are known, CLS provides a sufficiently accurate solution; (2) the selection between PLS and SBC methods depends on whether it is easier to measure a calibration data set or a noise matrix; and (3) MCR-ALS appears to be the most suitable method for detecting interferences within a sample. However, the latter approach requires the most extensive calculations and may thus result in limited temporal resolution, if the concentration of a component should be continuously monitored. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Vento M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Vento M.,Health Research Institute La Fe | Teramo K.,University of Helsinki
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2013

The in-utero environment is relatively hypoxic, but fetal physiologic adaptation assures adequate tissue oxygen supply. Fetal reactions to acute or chronic hypoxia are different and are modified by the preceding fetal condition. Acute fetal hypoxia episodes are often not preventable. By contrast, good obstetric care during labor may prevent poor fetal outcome in many cases of acute fetal hypoxia. The pathophysiology of chronic fetal hypoxia caused by placental insufficiency differs from chronic fetal hypoxia seen during the last weeks of diabetic pregnancies. The efficacy of antenatal fetal surveillance methods in preventing perinatal complications is different in these two conditions. Electronic fetal heart rate testing and Doppler flow assessment methods have been successful in detecting chronic fetal hypoxia caused by placental insufficiency. However, these methods have been unable to prevent chronic fetal hypoxia complications in diabetic pregnancies. Therefore, research to find new strategies and early and reliable biomarkers is necessary to assess fetal well-being and to decide when to deliver the fetus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Silvestre D.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Fraga M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Gormaz M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Gormaz M.,Health Research Institute La Fe | And 3 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2014

The variability of human milk (HM) composition renders analysis of its components essential for optimal nutrition of preterm fed either with donor's or own mother's milk. To fulfil this requirement, various analytical instruments have been subjected to scientific and clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a rapid method for the analysis of macronutrients in HM as compared with the analytical methods applied by cow's milk industry. Mature milk from 39 donors was analysed using an infrared human milk analyser (HMA) and compared with biochemical reference laboratory methods. The statistical analysis was based on the use of paired data tests. The use of an infrared HMA for the analysis of lipids, proteins and lactose in HM proved satisfactory as regards the rapidity, simplicity and the required sample volume. The instrument afforded good linearity and precision in application to all three nutrients. However, accuracy was not acceptable when compared with the reference methods, with overestimation of the lipid content and underestimation of the amount of proteins and lactose contents. The use of mid-infrared HMA might become the standard for rapid analysis of HM once standardisation and rigorous and systematic calibration is provided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PubMed | Polytechnic University of Valencia and Health Research Institute La Fe
Type: | Journal: Journal of the neurological sciences | Year: 2017

The high and increasing incidence of Alzheimer Disease (AD) worldwide is a major global concern. Classical diagnosis is carried out in the dementia phase, often in the moderate stages when treatment efficacy is limited. Nowadays, early diagnosis, even in pre-dementia stages, is possible in selected cases within an appropriate clinical setting, employing cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample analysis and neuroimaging procedures. In spite of the accurate diagnosis achieved by novel CSF biomarkers or positron emission tomography beta-amyloid tracers, these tests are invasive and expensive. Therefore, important work is being carried out to discover reliable biomarkers in peripheral biofluids (blood, plasma, urine) to be incorporated in clinical routine for early AD diagnosis. Although the nature of AD pathogenesis is complex, it is known that oxidative stress plays a key role, for which biomarkers are easily determined in peripheral biofluids. This review summarizes recent research on oxidative stress biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment due to AD. Among them, a promising research line is the study of the relationship between lipid peroxidation biomarkers and early AD clinical features. Results show a pronounced imbalance between scientific production and clinical reality due to the lack of clinical validation. We conclude that an important field in oxidative stress biomarkers could be developed with the aim to help clinicians in early disease diagnosis, effective treatment initiation and reliable disease monitoring.

PubMed | Polytechnic University of Valencia and Health Research Institute La Fe
Type: | Journal: Revista iberoamericana de micologia | Year: 2017

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It is typically resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole and, some cases, also to echinocandins and amphotericin B. This species, phylogenetically related to Candida haemulonii, is frequently misidentified by commercial identification techniques in clinical laboratories; therefore, the real prevalence of C. auris infections may be underestimated.To describe the clinical and microbiological features of the first four cases of C. auris fungemia episodes observed in the European continent.The four patients were hospitalized in the adult surgical intensive care unit. A total of 8 isolates (two per patient) from blood and catheter tip were analyzed.All isolates were misidentified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by AuxaColor 2, and as Candida sake by API ID20C. VITEK MS technology misidentified one isolate as Candida lusitaniae, another as C. haemulonii and could not identify the other six. C. auris identification was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were fluconazole (MIC >256mg/l) and voriconazole (MIC 2mg/l) resistant and susceptible to posaconazole, itraconazole, echinocandins and amphotericin B.C. auris should be regarded as an emerging pathogen, which requires molecular methods for definitive identification. Our isolates were highly resistant to fluconazole and resistant to voriconazole, but susceptible to the other antifungals tested, which emphasizes the importance of accurately identifying this species to avoid therapeutic failures.

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