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Arora M.,Sirifort Institutional Area | Mathur M.R.,Sirifort Institutional Area | Singh N.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY
Indian Journal of Pediatrics

The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children. © 2012 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation. Source

Mahapatro M.,National Institute of Health and Family Welfare | Gupta R.N.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Gupta V.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY
Indian Journal of Community Medicine

Background: It is over the last decade that research in this field of domestic violence has led to greater recognition of the issue as public health problem. The paper aims to study the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and potential risk factors of the women confronting violence within the home in India. Materials and Methods: A multicentric study with analytical cross-sectional design was applied. It covers 18 states in India with 14,507 women respondents. Multistage sampling and probability proportion to size were done. Results: The result shows that overall 39 per cent of women were abused. Women who have a lower household income, illiterate, belonging to lower caste, and have a partner who drinks/bets, etc. found to be important risk factors and place women in India at a greater risk of experiencing domestic violence. Conclusion: As India has already passed a bill against domestic violence, the present results on robustness of the problem will be useful to sensitize the concerned agencies to strictly implement the law. This may lead to more constructive and sustainable response to domestic violence in India for improvement of women health and wellbeing. Source

Srinath Reddy K.,Public Health Foundation of India PHFI | Yadav A.,Public Health Foundation of India PHFI | Arora M.,Public Health Foundation of India PHFI | Nazar G.P.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY
Tobacco Control

Tobacco use is one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with a profound impact on resource-poor low-income and middle-income countries such as India, where tobacco use is high and where socioeconomic as well as health inequalities are rampant. Effective implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires multisectoral efforts that can fructify through integration of tobacco control into broader health and development agendas such as food and water security, environment, the right to education and human rights. The global tobacco control community will need to explore innovative partnerships beyond its traditional confines and build a global coalition that supports tobacco control by partnering with others having convergent concerns on common determinants. A firm political commitment and intersectoral coordination between government and non-government agencies is paramount in order to implement effective tobacco control programmes. Integration of tobacco control into other health and development agendas as described in this paper has the potential to contribute to the achievement of all the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This paper explores why the whole of government should accord a high priority to tobacco control, and how this integration could be achieved. Source

Arora M.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | Mathur N.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | Gupta V.K.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | Nazar G.P.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control

Background: Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12-16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results: Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion: Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. Source

Arora M.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | Tewari A.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | Dhavan P.,International Organization for Migration | Nazar G.P.,Health Related Information Dissemination Amongst Youth HRIDAY | And 4 more authors.
Health Education Research

Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10-19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted to inform the development and test the appropriateness of Project ACTIVITY's intervention model. The findings of the FGDs facilitated the understanding of factors contributing to increased tobacco uptake and cessation (both smoking and smokeless tobacco) among youth in this setting. Twenty-two FGDs were conducted with youth (10-19 years) and adults in two urban slums in Delhi. Key findings revealed: (i) youth and adults had limited knowledge about long-term health consequences of tobacco use; (ii) socio-environmental determinants and peer pressure were important variables influencing initiation of tobacco use; (iii) lack of motivation, support and sufficient skills hinder tobacco cessation and (iv) active involvement of community, family, religious leaders, local policy makers and health professionals is important in creating and reinforcing tobaccofree norms. The results of these FGDs aided in finalizing the intervention model for Project ACTIVITY and guided its intervention development. © The Author 2012. Source

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