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Shahramian I.,Zabol University of Medical Sciences | Noori N.M.,Research Center for Children and Adolescents Health | Sharafi E.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Baghbanian A.,Health Promotion Research Center
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. Methods: The prospective cohort study, was conducted at imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2009-10 and comprised 64 subjects, including patients and controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorpent assay kits, serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were measured and compared among patients (both cyanotic and acyanotic) and the controls, SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 64 subjects, 24 (37.5%) were cyanotic, 21(32.8%) were acynotic and 19(29.68%) were healthy controls. The three groups were homogenous in terms of age and gender characteristics. There was no significant difference among the groups leptin, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels (p>0.05). There were also no significant differences in terms of weight, height and body mass index (P>0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha did not change in acyanotic and cyanotic patients with congenital heart disease, suggesting that other crucial factors may regulate individuals' nutrient intake, growth, weight and energy intake and output.


Bowen D.J.,Boston University | Hannon P.A.,Health Promotion Research Center | Harris J.R.,Health Promotion Research Center
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2011

The objective was to determine the extent of informed decision making for prostate cancer screening in a defined population. A state-wide population based survey of men aged 50 and above (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2004, Washington state) and a simple random sample of primary care physicians, were conducted in the same geographic area. We examined prostate cancer screening rates among the men (defined as either PSA or digital rectal examination within the past year) and prostate cancer screening practices among the physicians. Screening rates were 56% at ages 50-64, 68% at ages 65-79 and 64% among men age 80 and older. Adjusted analyses indicated that age, income, marital status, possessing health insurance and a personal health care provider, and talking with a provider about prostate cancer screening tests were all positively associated with screening status. In the physician survey, most physicians recommend screening to their average-risk male patients. Three-fourths (74%) of physicians discussed benefits and risks of PSA testing with their patients; but few used educational tools. Only 35% discussed the side effects of prostate cancer treatment with their patients. The rates of screening reported by men were relatively high, given that current recommendations promote informed decision making rather than universal screening. The majority of physicians recommend prostate cancer screening to their patients, with few decision-making tools used. All relevant information may not be provided in the discussion. These results point to the need for increasing informed decision making about prostate cancer screening. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Shabestari M.M.,Imam Reza Hospital | Shabestari M.M.,Health Promotion Research Center | Jabbari F.,Allergy Research Center | Jabbari F.,Qaem Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Cardiology | Year: 2011

Objectives: We aimed to identify coronary artery involvement in mustard gas-poisoned patients. Methods: We conducted a case-control study on 40 mustard gas-poisoned patients who underwent coronary artery angiography due to cardiac pain. The study was performed during a 3-year interval on patients who were referred to three main hospitals of Mashhad, Iran. The nonexposed control group consisted of 40 normal individuals who had undergone angiography for the same reasons. The primary outcome measurement was coronary artery involvement and its location. Data were collected through studying the angiography films. Results: Among the 40 poisoned patients studied, 15 (37.5%) had coronary artery ectasia, mainly in the left anterior descending artery, but 25 (62.5%) did not. The same values were 2 (5%) and 38 (95%) in the nonexposed group, respectively, which was significantly different compared to the exposed group (p = 0.001). The odds ratio was 11.40. Conclusions: The prevalence of coronary artery ectasia in mustard gas-poisoned patients was 7.5 times more than in nonexposed controls. Considering the proposed odds ratio, the occurrence of coronary artery ectasia is around 11.4 times greater in mustard gas-poisoned veterans. This is the first study to suggest a strong correlation between mustard gas poisoning and coronary artery ectasia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Momeni-Moghaddam H.,Health Promotion Research Center | Goss D.A.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Dehvari A.,Indiana University Bloomington
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To compare vergence facility with nonstereo and stereo targets in binocular symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: Sixty-six students were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Questionnaire score. Vergence facility was tested at 40 cm by flipper prism 3Δ BI/12Δ BO (BI, base-in; BO, base-out). The targets used were a nonstereo target (a vertical column of small letter "E" of ∼20/30 size), a stereo-local target (fifth set of circles of the Titmus test with stereoacuity of 100 arcsec), and a stereo-global target (page 6 of the TNO test with stereoacuity of 120 arcsec). RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed differences in the mean vergence facility with different targets in all subjects and separately in two symptom groups (p < 0.001). In all subjects and separately in the symptomatic subjects, this difference was statistically significant among the three different targets (p < 0.05). In the asymptomatic subjects, this difference was not significant between the measured values with nonstereo and stereo-local targets (p > 0.05) but significant for the comparison of stereo-global targets with the other two targets. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the cutoff points 10.5, 10.5, and 9.75 cycles per minute with nonstereo, stereo-local, and stereo-global targets, respectively. The sensitivity of the three targets used was the same (97%). Specificity was 0.93 or higher with all three targets, with the highest specificity obtained with the stereo-global target (100%). CONCLUSIONS: The highest vergence facility was obtained with a nonstereo target and the lowest was obtained with a stereo-global target. High sensitivity with all three targets means that there are few false-negative results with them, and the high specificity is indicative of low false-positive results. Hence, the vergence facility predictive value would be high in diagnosing binocular symptomatic patients using a 3Δ BI/12Δ BO prism flipper at near and a response cutoff of about 10 cycles per minute or less. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.


Akbari H.,Health Promotion Research Center | Khorshid A.R.,Health Promotion Research Center | Hozhabri K.,Health Promotion Research Center | Yousefi M.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Mahvi A.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2014

According to increasing applications of adsorption processes for removal of environmental contaminants, the selection of an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent has been a major challenge for researchers. The main objective of this study was to determine the date pit ash efficiency as an adsorbent for phenol removal. The adsorption efficiency was studied under varying conditions (pH: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10; reaction times: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 min; adsorbent dosages: 2, 5, 8, 11 g/L). The experimental method was based on the factor time, and finally, various phenol concentrations were investigated. The best results were observed for pH 6, contact time of 120 min and adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Increasing adsorbent dosages, from 2 to 11 g/L, led to the enhancement of phenol removal from 87.46 to 94.88%. The best fit of the obtained data was obtained with the Freundlich isotherm (correlation coefficient 0.99). According to data obtained in the current study, it can be concluded that date pit ash is an efficient and viable alternative for phenol removal from aqueous solutions.


Ansari-Moghaddam A.,Health Promotion Research Center | Sadeghi-Bojd S.,Research Center for Children and Adolescents Health | Imani M.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Movahedinia S.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine the causes and risk factors of infant mortality.Methods: The population-based case-control study in 2011 comprised infants under one-year-old who had died at Ali-ebn-Abitaleb Hospital in Zahedan, Iran, during 2011 who were taken as the case group, while infants selected randomly through multistage sampling from various health centres formed the control group. Data were analysed using logistic regression model.Results: There were 186 cases including 103(55.7%) boys, and 29(15.6%) incidents of multiple births. The other group had 300 healthy infants including 139(46.5%) boys, and 4(1.3%) incidents of multiple births. According to the multivariate model, chance of death in neonates with birth weight under 2500 gram, less than 4 antenatal visits, lack of exclusive breast feeding, delivering at home and abortion history among mothers was 46.3%, 27.4%, 13.2%, 9.4% and 7.0% respectively compared to 42.1%, 15.3%, 4.5%, 5.8% and 3.0% respectively in the post-neonatal period. For post-neonatal period, lack of complete vaccination also increased the chance of death by 14.9%.Conclusion: Most of the factors related to infant mortality can be controlled by providing sufficient information and healthcare to pregnant mothers which will result in reduced infant mortality rate. ©2014, Pakistan Medical Association, All rights reserved.


Bazrafshan E.,Health Promotion Research Center | Biglari H.,Health Promotion Research Center | Mahvi A.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2012

At present study, the performance of electrocoagulation process using iron and aluminum as sacrificial anode for removal of phenol from aqueous solutions has been investigated. Several working parameters, such as initial phenol concentration, pH, applied voltage, conductivity and reaction time were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Experiments were performed in a bipolar batch reactor, with iron and aluminum electrodes, separately. The maximum efficiency of phenol removal which was obtained in voltage of 60 V, reaction time of 80 min, initial concentration 5 mg L -1, conductivity 3000 [μS cm -1 and pH 5 and 7 with aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively are equal to 94.72% and 98.0%. In addition, it is found that an increase in the applied voltage the speed of the treatment significantly. However, simultaneous increase of electrode and energy consumption was observed. The method was found to be highly efficient and relatively fast compared to conventional existing techniques and also, it can be concluded that the electrocoagulation process has the potential to be utilized for the cost-effective removal of phenol from water and wastewater. by psp.


Sanavi F.S.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Ansari-Moghaddam A.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Shovey M.F.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Rakhshani F.,Health Promotion Research Center
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective: To examine the effect of education on deciding about natural delivery in women opting for elective caesarean section. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was carried out between January and March 2012 and comprised a sample of 200 women in their third trimester of pregnancy attending women's clinics of Imam Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran, with the intention of having elective caesarean section. The subjects were voluntarily classified into three groups: one group received an educational package; the other had educational package along with group discussion, and the last one without any intervention was considered the control group. Post-test was conducted a month after intervention. Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis, and logistic regression tests. Results: Group A represented the controls and had 100 (50%) women; Group B with the educational package had 40 (20%), while there were 60 (30%) women in Group C who had exposure to the educational package as well as group discussion. There were significant changes in behaviour in Group B and C (p <0.01) but no change among the controls in Group A. In Group C, 25 (42%) women decided to go for natural delivery, while 1 (2.5%) woman had a change of opinion in Group B. Four (4%) women in the control Group A had ultimately natural delivery, but they were all emergency cases. Conclusion: The two educational methods increased model construct scores, including awareness, attitude, perceived behaviour control, subjective norms and behavioural intention. Nevertheless, educational package in conjunction with group discussion was more effective in influencing the choice towards natural delivery.


Sanavi F.S.,Pacific Research Fisheries Center | Baghbanian A.,Health Promotion Research Center | Shovey M.F.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Ansari-Moghaddam A.,Health Promotion Research Center
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011. The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Results: Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n=380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n=170; 38.7%) and consensual (n=152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p<0.05). There was also a significant relationship between family communication patterns and parent relation and home life (p<0.001) as well as autonomy (p<0.006). Conclusion: Families play a critical role in increasing adolescents' health-related quality-of-life. Effort should be made to address problems facing parents while raising their children.


Harris J.R.,Health Promotion Research Center | Parrish A.T.,University of Washington | Kohn M.,University of Washington | Hammerback K.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2015

Introduction: Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Methods: Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. Results: At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. Conclusion: The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

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