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Isabelle M.,National University of Singapore | Isabelle M.,International Life science Institute Southeast Asia Region | Lee B.L.,National University of Singapore | Lim M.T.,Health Promotion Board | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Thirty-eight types of fruits commonly consumed in Singapore were systematically analysed for their hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) and various lipophilic antioxidants. Antioxidant composition and concentration varied widely across different fruits. Many of the tropical fruits tested were high in antioxidants. Amongst all fruits tested, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) had the highest H-ORAC and TPC whilst guava had the highest AA per gram fresh weight. Papaya, red watermelon and cantaloupe had the highest β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene per gram fresh weight, respectively. On the other hand, durian and mangosteen were high in tocopherols and tocotrienols, respectively. Based on consumption data, Chinese Singaporeans appear to have a higher intake of carotenoids and tocopherols rich fruits compared to the US population. As fruits are a rich source of diverse antioxidants, efforts to promote consumption of a variety of fruits should be continued for public health benefits. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lee B.L.,Health Promotion Board
Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2011

The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. Source


Lee B.L.C.,Health Promotion Board
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. Source


Huang L.,University of South Australia | Mehta K.,University of South Australia | Wong M.L.,Health Promotion Board
Health Promotion International | Year: 2012

Television advertising is an effective medium for reaching young children and influencing their food choice. Studies have shown that messages conveyed by food advertisements are rarely consistent with healthy eating messages. With the increasing purchasing power of children, food companies are focusing on children as lucrative target audiences. Extensive marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods to children potentially contributes to the 'obesogenic' environment. This study aims to determine the degree and nature of food advertisements that Singaporean children are exposed to on television. Ninety-eight hours of childrens television programmes broadcast by free-to-air stations were recorded and analysed. Advertisements with the intent of selling and sponsorships for programmes were included. Foods advertised were considered healthy if they met the criteria of the Healthier Choice Symbol in Singapore. Of the 1344 advertisements and sponsorships identified, 33% were for food. Of the food advertisements, 38% were considered healthy, while 57% were not. Candy, confectionery and fast food advertisements accounted for 46% of total food advertisements. Significantly more unhealthy food advertisements were screened on weekends compared with weekdays (p < 0.001). This is the first content analysis of television advertisements in Singapore and the results of this study provide background data on the extent of food advertising that children in Singapore are exposed to. Consistent with other countries, unhealthy food advertisements continue to dominate childrens television programmes. This study suggests that Singaporean children are exposed to high levels of advertising for unhealthy foods. The study provides a baseline against which measures aimed at reducing childrens exposure to television food advertising can be evaluated. © 2011 The Author Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Wong M.L.,National University of Singapore | Koh T.T.,National University of Singapore | Tjahjadi S.,National University of Singapore | Govender M.,Health Promotion Board
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2014

Objective: To compare the prevalence of condom use and its associated factors within commercial and casual sex relationships between heterosexual men who seek sex online and those who frequent brothels in Singapore. Methods: A survey was conducted between 2011 and 2012 among Singaporean heterosexual men aged 21-70 years who reported engaging in sexual intercourse with commercial or casual partners in the past year. Men seeking sex online (n=304) were recruited from the two most frequented local internet sex forums. Men frequenting brothels (n=297, 97% response rate) were recruited from a stratified cluster random sample of licensed brothels. Results: Compared with men frequenting brothels, men seeking sex online reported significantly higher rates of oral and anal sex and sexually transmitted diseases but lower condom use for oral sex with commercial (16.5% vs 56.6%) and casual partners (21.2% vs 35.3%). In multivariate analyses, the online group showed that partner request for condom use was strongly associated with condom use for vaginal sex (adjusted ORs >3.0) but not with condom use for oral sex with both casual and commercial sex partners. The perceived risk of getting HIV from a partner was also associated with condom use for vaginal sex with commercial and casual partners; and for oral sex with casual partners. In contrast, condom use for oral and vaginal sex with both partners in the brothel group was only associated with partner request for condom use. Conclusions: Men seeking sex online should receive sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention interventions that deal with the factors associated with condom use. Source

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