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Gasteiz / Vitoria, Spain

Bacigalupe A.,Health Studies and Research Unit | Esnaola S.,Health Studies and Research Unit | Caldernn C.,Alza Primary Health Care Center | Zuazagoitia J.,Health Promotion | Aldasoro E.,Health Studies and Research Unit
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2010

Background Social values and the political context have an influence on the use and spread of health impact assessment (HIA). In Spain, there is little experience in HIA but some regional governments are already introducing it. The aim of this article is to describe the health impacts of a local regeneration project to improve accessibility in a neighbourhood of Bilbao (Spain), and discuss the main difficulties, opportunities and challenges of the process, considering the specificities of the social and political context. Methods A concurrent and prospective assessment, based on a broad model of health, was carried out following the Merseyside guidelines. A literature review, community profiling and qualitative data collection were undertaken. Profound involvement of members of the community and key informants was judged as essential in the HIA process. Results The overall expected effect of the new lifts, roads, park and the rainwater collection system was positive. Uncertain or negative impacts were identified in some of those areas, and also concerning the burying of four high-voltage power lines. Historical and current characteristics of the community were highly influential on the way local people perceived the project and its impacts. Likewise, the way in which processes of planning and implementation were developing also played an important role. Conclusion The spread of HIA in southern European countries will depend on the progressive introduction of values underlying HIA, as well as on the promotion of intersectoral work, a better knowledge of the social model of health and community's participation in policy making.

Smit W.,University of Cape Town | Hancock T.,University of Victoria | Kumaresen J.,World Health Organization | Santos-Burgoa C.,Pan American Health Organisation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2011

The importance of reestablishing the link between urban planning and public health has been recognized in recent decades; this paper focuses on the relationship between urban planning/design and health equity, especially in cities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The physical urban environment can be shaped through various planning and design processes including urban planning, urban design, landscape architecture, infrastructure design, architecture, and transport planning. The resultant urban environment has important impacts on the health of the people who live and work there. Urban planning and design processes can also affect health equity through shaping the extent to which the physical urban environments of different parts of cities facilitate the availability of adequate housing and basic infrastructure, equitable access to the other benefits of urban life, a safe living environment, a healthy natural environment, food security and healthy nutrition, and an urban environment conducive to outdoor physical activity. A new research and action agenda for the urban environment and health equity in LMICs should consist of four main components. We need to better understand intra-urban health inequities in LMICs; we need to better understand how changes in the built environment in LMICs affect health equity; we need to explore ways of successfully planning, designing, and implementing improved health/health equity; and we need to develop evidence-based recommendations for healthy urban planning/design in LMICs. © 2011 The New York Academy of Medicine.

Ahmad F.,University of Toronto | Mahmood S.,University of Toronto | Pietkiewicz I.,University of Social Sciences and Humanities of Warsaw | McDonald L.,Health Promotion | Ginsburg O.,Womens College Research Institute
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2012

Despite benefits of screening mammography, many South Asian (SA) immigrant women in Canada remain under screened. We aimed to elicit their experiences and beliefs about barriers to mammography and possible solutions. SA immigrant women aged 50 years or over were eligible if they never had a mammogram or had one more than 3 years ago. We employed the participatory mixed-method approach of Concept Mapping. Sixty women participated with a mean age of 58 years. Participants brainstormed 150 items which were consolidated into 67 items. After sorting and rating, cluster analysis revealed eight clusters of barriers on knowledge, fear, language and transportation, access to mammogram center, access to doctor, beliefs and practices, self-care, and family dependence. Participants discussed possible solutions, and emphasized out-reach models to address knowledge gaps and issues of language and transportation. One example was a community-based shuttle bus to screening centres, hosted by trained co-ethnic workers. The results are discussed to enhance the socio-cultural sensitivity of breast screening programs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

van Beurden E.K.,Health Promotion
Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals | Year: 2011

This paper provides a model for how health promotion teams might establish and support regional collaborations of organisations in a broad response to climate change that enables emergence of multiple strategies tailored to regional needs. Complex Adaptive Systems Theory (CAS) and Organisational Learning informed action to foster a Climate Change Collaboration that engaged in strategies to improve transport options, food security and energy sustainability. Social Network Analysis was used to evaluate the degree to which member organisations became networked, the evolution of key network qualities and the way the organisations were affiliated via their participation in emergent strategies. Between 2005 and 2009 a highly connected network of organisations emerged and rapidly evolved to collaborate for action on climate change. There were significant improvements in network density, centralisation, clustering and reciprocity. Member organisations collaborated on a broad range of strategies. Reducing regional impact of climate change is complex. It requires long-term collaboration between organisations that may not usually work together. Sustain Northern Rivers provides a successful model for achieving such collaboration.

Coles E.,University of Dundee | Watt C.,Health Promotion | Freeman R.,University of Dundee
Health Education Journal | Year: 2013

Objective: To use a qualitative exploration to evaluate whether 'Something to Smile About' (STSA), an oral health intervention, had increased the oral health capacity of staff working with homeless people. Setting: A National Health Service board area in Scotland. Method: A purposive sample of 14 staff members from STSA-participating organizations took part in the evaluation. Three focus groups were held and the participants were encouraged to speak freely about their views on the intervention. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Results: The majority of participants stated they were able to use their newly-acquired oral health knowledge and pass it to their homeless clients. STSA appeared to be less successful with regard to assisting clients to change their oral health behaviours. Staff felt that oral health considerations were a low priority compared to the need for shelter, food, clothing and money. In addition, they stated that the level of success with clients was influenced by the homeless person's specific and complex needs. Conclusion: STSA was successful in building staff oral health capacity; however, for STSA to be successful with clients, and for clients to achieve adherence with oral health messages, the complex needs and current life circumstances of homeless client groups must be incorporated into STSA. © The Author(s) 2011.

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