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Ohishi W.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Cologne J.B.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Fujiwara S.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Fujiwara S.,Health Management and Promotion Center | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Inflammatory markers have been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colon, lung, breast and liver, but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a nested case-control study in the longitudinal cohort of atomic-bomb survivors. The study included 224 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases and 644 controls individually matched to cases on gender, age, city and time and method of serum storage, and countermatched on radiation dose. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 using stored sera obtained within 6 years before HCC diagnosis from 188 HCC cases and 605 controls with adequate volumes of donated blood. Analyses with adjustment for hepatitis virus infection, alcohol consumption, smoking habit, body mass index (BMI) and radiation dose showed that relative risk (RR) of HCC [95% confidence interval (CI)] in the highest tertile of CRP levels was 1.94 (0.72-5.51) compared to the lowest tertile (p = 0.20). RR of HCC (95% CI) in the highest tertile of IL-6 levels was 5.12 (1.54-20.1) compared to the lowest tertile (p = 0.007). Among subjects with BMI > 25.0 kg/m2, a stronger association was found between a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in log IL-6 and HCC risk compared to subjects in the middle quintile of BMI (21.3-22.9 kg/m2), resulting in adjusted RR (95% CI) of 3.09 (1.78-5.81; p = 0.015). The results indicate that higher serum levels of IL-6 are associated with increased HCC risk, independently of hepatitis virus infection, lifestyle-related factors and radiation exposure. The association is especially pronounced among subjects with obesity. © 2013 UICC. Source


Yamada M.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Shimizu M.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Kasagi F.,Institute of Radiation Epidemiology | Sasaki H.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Sasaki H.,Health Management and Promotion Center
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between reaction time (RT) and mortality in middle-aged and older atomic bomb survivors and their unexposed controls over a period of 30 years. METHODS: During 1970-72, 4912 participants of the Adult Health Study cohort in Hiroshima, Japan, underwent biologic tests including RT. Mortality was followed to the end of 2003. RESULTS: In a multivariate-adjusted model, the hazard ratio (HR) for 1-standard deviation increments of RT was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.13) for men, 1.22 (95% CI = 1.16-1.28) for women, and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.09-1.16) for all. When the analysis was performed by sex, age, and follow-up period, a consistent increase of mortality with increments of RT was observed. The HR for mortality for the highest RT quintile was higher than that of the lowest quintile in all sex-age groups. A significant positive association between mortality risk and RT was observed even after 20 years of follow-up (p = .03 in men, p < .001 in women). RT and radiation dose were risk factors for mortality independent of conventional risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus. Interaction between RT and radiation dose had no significant effect on mortality in men. Although increased radiation dose reduced the HR for mortality per RT increment in women, RT and radiation dose were still significant predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: RT is a consistently strong predictor of mortality. Although mortality risk increased with radiation dose, radiation did not accelerate the relationship between RT and mortality. Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychosomatic Society. Source


Johansson H.,University of Sheffield | Johansson H.,Gothenburg University | Kanis J.A.,University of Sheffield | Oden A.,University of Sheffield | And 29 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Several recent studies suggest that obesity may be a risk factor for fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and future fracture risk at different skeletal sites. In prospective cohorts from more than 25 countries, baseline data on BMI were available in 398,610 women with an average age of 63 (range, 20-105) years and follow up of 2.2 million person-years during which 30,280 osteoporotic fractures (6457 hip fractures) occurred. Femoral neck BMD was measured in 108,267 of these women. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was present in 22%. A majority of osteoporotic fractures (81%) and hip fractures (87%) arose in non-obese women. Compared to a BMI of 25 kg/m2, the hazard ratio (HR) for osteoporotic fracture at a BMI of 35 kg/m2 was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.90). When adjusted for bone mineral density (BMD), however, the same comparison showed that the HR for osteoporotic fracture was increased (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23). Low BMI is a risk factor for hip and all osteoporotic fracture, but is a protective factor for lower leg fracture, whereas high BMI is a risk factor for upper arm (humerus and elbow) fracture. When adjusted for BMD, low BMI remained a risk factor for hip fracture but was protective for osteoporotic fracture, tibia and fibula fracture, distal forearm fracture, and upper arm fracture. When adjusted for BMD, high BMI remained a risk factor for upper arm fracture but was also a risk factor for all osteoporotic fractures. The association between BMI and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites, and is modified by the interaction between BMI and BMD. At a population level, high BMI remains a protective factor for most sites of fragility fracture. The contribution of increasing population rates of obesity to apparent decreases in fracture rates should be explored. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Source


Soen S.,Kinki University | Fukunaga M.,Kawasaki Medical School | Sugimoto T.,The University of Shimane | Sone T.,Kawasaki Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2013

In 1995, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Metabolism (now the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research) established the Osteoporosis Diagnostic Criteria Review Committee. Following discussion held at the 13th scientific meeting of the Society in 1996, the Committee, with the consensus of its members, proposed diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis. The Committee revised those criteria in 1998 and again in 2000. The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Japan Osteoporosis Society Joint Review Committee for the Revision of the Diagnostic Criteria for Primary Osteoporosis aimed at obtaining international consistency and made a revised edition based on the new findings in 2012. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan. Source


Tamura T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Murakami S.,Hiroshima Asa City Hospital | Naito K.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Yamada T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Imaging | Year: 2014

Background: Previous studies have reported that the signal attenuation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for normal breast tissue and tumor were well fitted by a monoexponential and a biexponential function, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal b-value to detect breast tumors from DWI signal attenuations. Methods: Sixty-four subjects with breast cancer underwent DWI using six b-values up to 3500 s/mm2. The signal attenuations of normal breast and tumor were fitted by mono- and biexponential functions, respectively. The maximum contrast b-values were estimated and compared in terms of frequency. Results: In almost all cases, the contrast increased with a b-value from 0 to approximately 1500 s/mm2. For b > 1500 s/mm2, the contrast decreased. The highest contrast b-value in the range of 0 to 2500 s/mm2 most frequently was b = 1500 and the next most frequent was 1400 s/mm2. Comparing sensitivity and specificity between b = 700 and b = 1400 s/mm2, b =1400 s/mm2 was slightly superior. Conclusion: Based on these results, DWI with a b-value of approximately 1400-1500 s/mm2 is recommended for optimizing breast tumor detectability. © 2014 Tamura et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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