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Nishizawa Y.,Osaka City University | Ohta H.,International University of Health and Welfare | Miura M.,Hokuriku University | Inaba M.,Osaka City University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2013

Recently the clinical application of bone metabolic markers has achieved significant progress and the measurements of these indices give us a better understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Bone metabolic markers were adapted to select drug treatment for osteoporosis and to evaluate drug efficacy. Therefore, the proper application and assessment of bone metabolic markers in clinical practice is very important. To achieve these aims, the committee on the guidelines for the use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis authorized by the Japan Osteoporosis Society has summarized recent progress in bone markers and proposed the proper utilization of bone markers. Although the use of bone metabolic markers now has an important role in the daily management of osteoporosis, their use in Japan is still insufficient because of insurance coverage limitations. Since the Japan Osteoporosis Society first created the 2001 guidelines, new bone metabolic markers have been introduced into clinical practice. The availability of new osteoporosis treatments that promote bone formation has changed the clinical application of bone metabolic markers in current practice. Therefore, revisions to the current clinical practice are needed which led to the proposal to create these new 2012 guidelines. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan.


Soen S.,Kinki University | Fukunaga M.,Kawasaki Medical School | Sugimoto T.,The University of Shimane | Sone T.,Kawasaki Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2013

In 1995, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Metabolism (now the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research) established the Osteoporosis Diagnostic Criteria Review Committee. Following discussion held at the 13th scientific meeting of the Society in 1996, the Committee, with the consensus of its members, proposed diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis. The Committee revised those criteria in 1998 and again in 2000. The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Japan Osteoporosis Society Joint Review Committee for the Revision of the Diagnostic Criteria for Primary Osteoporosis aimed at obtaining international consistency and made a revised edition based on the new findings in 2012. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan.


Tamura T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Usui S.,Hiroshima International University | Murakami S.,Hiroshima University | Arihiro K.,Hiroshima University | And 3 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Purpose: In vivo, the attenuation of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal at high bvalues is sometimes nonlinear when plotted with semilogarithmic function and is fit well by a biexponential function. Previous reports have indicated that the fast and slow component fractions of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be derived by biexponential fitting and that these fractions correspond to the actual diffusion components in the extra- and intracellular space. In this study, we investigated the clinical utility of DWI for the breast by performing DWI using multiple b-factors on healthy volunteers and clinical subjects, analyzing the signal by fitting it with a biexponential equation, and comparing the fitting parameters of breast lesions. Patients and Methods: We investigated 8 healthy women as normal cases and 80 female patients with a total of 100 breast tumors (42 benign, 58 malignant tumors) as clinical cases. We performed DWI using 12 b-values for the healthy cases and 6 b-values for the clinical cases, up to a maximum b-value of 3500 s/mm2. Results: Decay of DWI signal of normal mammary glands, most cysts, and some fibroadenomas showed a monoexponential relationship, and conversely, that of intraductal papilloma (IDP) and malignant tumors was well fitted by a biexponential function. Comparison of parameters derived from biexponential fitting demonstrated no significant difference between benign and malignant lesions. For malignant tumor subtype, the fast component fraction of noninvasive ductal carcinoma was statistically greater than that of invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusions: Although the parameters from biexponential fitting may re‰ect the character of tumor cellularity, because pathological diagnosis was performed with an emphasis on cell configuration or shape rather than cellularity, it was difficult to distinguish malignant from benign tumors, including many IDPs, or to distinguish tissue types using DWI signal attenuation alone.


Johansson H.,University of Sheffield | Johansson H.,Gothenburg University | Kanis J.A.,University of Sheffield | Oden A.,University of Sheffield | And 29 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Several recent studies suggest that obesity may be a risk factor for fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and future fracture risk at different skeletal sites. In prospective cohorts from more than 25 countries, baseline data on BMI were available in 398,610 women with an average age of 63 (range, 20-105) years and follow up of 2.2 million person-years during which 30,280 osteoporotic fractures (6457 hip fractures) occurred. Femoral neck BMD was measured in 108,267 of these women. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was present in 22%. A majority of osteoporotic fractures (81%) and hip fractures (87%) arose in non-obese women. Compared to a BMI of 25 kg/m2, the hazard ratio (HR) for osteoporotic fracture at a BMI of 35 kg/m2 was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.90). When adjusted for bone mineral density (BMD), however, the same comparison showed that the HR for osteoporotic fracture was increased (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23). Low BMI is a risk factor for hip and all osteoporotic fracture, but is a protective factor for lower leg fracture, whereas high BMI is a risk factor for upper arm (humerus and elbow) fracture. When adjusted for BMD, low BMI remained a risk factor for hip fracture but was protective for osteoporotic fracture, tibia and fibula fracture, distal forearm fracture, and upper arm fracture. When adjusted for BMD, high BMI remained a risk factor for upper arm fracture but was also a risk factor for all osteoporotic fractures. The association between BMI and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites, and is modified by the interaction between BMI and BMD. At a population level, high BMI remains a protective factor for most sites of fragility fracture. The contribution of increasing population rates of obesity to apparent decreases in fracture rates should be explored. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


PubMed | Health Management and Promotion Center, Hiroshima University and Mitsubishi Group
Type: | Journal: Sleep medicine | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of sleep on osteoporosis.The study used a baseline examination of the Hiroshima Sleep and Healthcare study, which was a cross-sectional and cohort study that addressed the association of sleep habits with lifestyle-related diseases. A total of 1032 participants (25-85 years of age) who underwent health examinations were included. Sleep habits, including its timing (bed time), quantity (time in bed [TIB]), and quality, were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The bone stiffness index (SI), a marker of osteoporosis, was measured using quantitative ultrasound systems.Bed time (r=0.065, p<0.05), TIB (r=-0.064, p<0.05), and global PSQI score (r=-0.126, p<0.0001) significantly correlated with SI. Multiple regression analyses revealed that after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake, the global PSQI score (=-0.053, p<0.05) was significantly associated with SI, whereas bed time or TIB was not. Among each component of PSQI, sleep disturbances (=-0.084, p<0.005) were significantly associated with SI.Poor sleep quality may be associated with osteoporosis. In particular, increased sleep disturbances may be a key factor in the association between poor sleep quality and osteoporosis.


Tamura T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Tamura T.,Hiroshima International University | Usui S.,Hiroshima International University | Murakami S.,Hiroshima Asa City Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine | Year: 2012

Previous studies have reported that the signal attenuation of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for tumor tissues displays a non-monoexponential biexponential decay, and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) can be divided into a fast and slow diffusion component by using a simple biexponential decay model. The purpose of this study is to examine the non-monoexponential character of the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging signal attenuations of breast cancers, estimate the fast and slow diffusion components, and compare them with the extra- and intracellular component information obtained from the pathological specimens. Twenty-two subjects having breast cancers underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging using six b-values up to 3500 s/mm2 and the signal attenuations were analyzed using the biexponential function. The derived slow component fraction correlated with the cellular fraction and the ADCs converged to 0.2-0.3 × 10-3 mm2/s for the higher cellular fractions. The ADCs of the fast component ranged from 1.3 to 3.9 × 10 -3 mm2/s and showed no correlation with the extracellular components. This result suggests that the main reason for the decreasing ADC of a breast tumor is the decreasing fraction of the fast component and the increasing fraction of the slow component having a low ADC rather than the decreasing ADC of the fast component by the restricted water diffusion in the reduced extracellular spaces. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Yamane T.,Kochi Medical School | Yamane T.,Hiroshima University | Hattori N.,Hiroshima University | Kitahara Y.,Hiroshima University | And 4 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2010

Background and objective: It has yet to be determined whether the presence of productive cough is a risk factor for the development of COPD. The aim of the present study was to obtain more information on this potential association in Japanese men. Methods: Seven hundred and eighty-three men with normal spirometry who did not have respiratory disease were recruited. The subjects were divided into three groups: group A, non-smokers; group B, those with a positive smoking history without productive cough; and group C, those with a positive smoking history and productive cough. The incidence rates of COPD were compared among the three groups and the relative risks for the development of COPD were assessed. Results: During the mean follow-up period of 33.6 ± 20.4 months, 19 (2.4%) subjects developed COPD. The incidence rate of COPD was significantly higher in group C than in group B (10.1 vs 2.2%, P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis of data for all subjects, current smokers and former smokers revealed that productive cough was an independent risk factor for the development of COPD in all subjects and former smokers but not in current smokers. Conclusions: Productive cough was an independent risk factor for the development of COPD in Japanese men. In particular, former smokers who complain of this symptom should be regarded as being at high risk for the development of COPD. The data suggested that stage 0 disease, as defined in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2001 guidelines, is relevant for the identification of subjects at risk of developing COPD. © 2009 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.


Muraki S.,Tokyo Medical University | Yoshimura N.,Tokyo Medical University | Akune T.,Tokyo Medical University | Tanaka S.,University of Tokyo | And 3 more authors.
Modern Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Objectives. To identify the prevalence, incidence and progression of radiographic lumbar spondylosis (LS). Methods. From the Adult Health Study conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1,204 participants aged 44-85 years who had lumbar spine radiographs in 1990-1992 were reexamined in 1998-2000 (mean 7.9-year interval). The radiographic severity of LS was determined by Kellgren/Lawrence (KL) grading. Results. In the overall population, the prevalence of radiographic KL ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 LS was 52.9% and 23.6%, respectively. KL ≥ 2 LS was more prevalent in men, whereas KL ≥ 3 LS was more prevalent in women. During the 8-year follow-up, the incidence of KL ≥ 2 LS in men and women was 65.5% and 46.6%, that of KL ≥ 3 LS was 27.3% and 29.5%, that of progressive LS was 31.3% and 34.0%, and multilevel LS was 44.9% and 33.4%, respectively. Body-mass index was a risk factor for both KL ≥ 2 and KL ≥ 3 LS, after adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions. The present longitudinal study revealed the prevalence, incidence and progression of radiographic LS. Prevalence and incidence of KL ≥ 2 LS was higher in men than women, while, those of KL ≥ 3 were similar between men and women. © 2014 Japan College of Rheumatology.


Tamura T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Murakami S.,Hiroshima Asa City Hospital | Naito K.,Health Management and Promotion Center | Yamada T.,Health Management and Promotion Center | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Imaging | Year: 2014

Background: Previous studies have reported that the signal attenuation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for normal breast tissue and tumor were well fitted by a monoexponential and a biexponential function, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal b-value to detect breast tumors from DWI signal attenuations. Methods: Sixty-four subjects with breast cancer underwent DWI using six b-values up to 3500 s/mm2. The signal attenuations of normal breast and tumor were fitted by mono- and biexponential functions, respectively. The maximum contrast b-values were estimated and compared in terms of frequency. Results: In almost all cases, the contrast increased with a b-value from 0 to approximately 1500 s/mm2. For b > 1500 s/mm2, the contrast decreased. The highest contrast b-value in the range of 0 to 2500 s/mm2 most frequently was b = 1500 and the next most frequent was 1400 s/mm2. Comparing sensitivity and specificity between b = 700 and b = 1400 s/mm2, b =1400 s/mm2 was slightly superior. Conclusion: Based on these results, DWI with a b-value of approximately 1400-1500 s/mm2 is recommended for optimizing breast tumor detectability. © 2014 Tamura et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Health Management and Promotion Center, Eli Lilly and Company, Chiyoda Corporation, University of Tokyo and Sumitomo Corporation
Type: | Journal: Journal of bone and mineral metabolism | Year: 2016

We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a de-identified hospital administrative claims database to assess the risk of non-vertebral fracture in Japanese women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene compared with alendronate. The study included Japanese women 50years of age with newly initiated alendronate or raloxifene treatment between July 2008 and March 2013 (index date was defined as the day of first prescription for alendronate or raloxifene), and had any claim with an osteoporosis definition during the study period. A total of 37,056 patients in the database initiated treatment, and there were 4802 and 1250 patients included in the alendronate and raloxifene analysis groups, respectively. The mean observation period in the alendronate group (529.2days) was significantly longer than that for the raloxifene group (473.5days, P<0.001). Non-vertebral fractures accumulated linearly, at a similar rate, for both study drugs: incidence at 1year was 2.83 and 2.64% for the alendronate and raloxifene groups, respectively. For the relative risk of non-vertebral fracture within 1year, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.933 for raloxifene versus alendronate, indicating that the relative risk of non-vertebral fracture was similar for the two drugs. The effectiveness of raloxifene in preventing non-vertebral fractures in Japanese women with osteoporosis was similar to that of alendronate. Therefore, raloxifene may be worthy of consideration as an alternative treatment.

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